This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Germany, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Germany.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. Energy Information
1.1.1. Energy Policy
Energy policy is, within the Federal Government, the responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie - BMWi). The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit – BMUB) is responsible for environmental policy within the Federal Government.
The major aim of energy policy is an affordable, secure and environmentally friendly energy supply. This aim shall be reached through energy transition. It is planned to produce energy on a sustainable basis and to make Germany one of the most energy-efficient and environmentally compatible economies in the world. The energy transition includes the following steps:
The last German nuclear power plant (NPP) will be taken off-stream in 2022.
A greater share of renewable energy shall be used – according to the energy concept 60% of the energy supply and 80% of electricity should be generated by renewables by 2050.
Germany shall become less dependent on oil and gas imports.
The emissions of greenhouse gases, which are harmful to the environment, shall be reduced by 80 to 95 per cent by 2050.
Energy needs shall be reduced by more economical and efficient use.
The restructuring of the energy supply shall be a driver of innovation for Germany as an industrial base in order to generate growth and create sustainable and secure jobs.
In 2000, the Federal Government and the energy utilities agreed to phase out nuclear energy use for commercial power generation, and the Atomic Energy Act was amended accordingly in 2002. A legal ban on the construction of new nuclear power plants was fixed. Each nuclear power plant was assigned a residual electricity volume such that the total output of the respective plant corresponds to an average 32-year lifetime. As electricity volumes can, in principle, be legally transferred between plants, it was not possible to forecast precise shut-down dates. In 2011, in the light of the accident at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), final shutdown dates for all operating German NPPs have been fixed (for more details see chapter 2.1.1).
To meet the challenges of the energy transition the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy has launched a 10-Point Energy Agenda (see http://www.bmwi.de/EN/Topics/Energy/Energy-Transition/overall-strategy.html).
1.1.2. Estimated Available Energy
See Table 1
Table 1: ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN 2014
|Estimated available energy sources 2014|
|Total amount in specific units1)||159 790||1463)||1 949||0.007|
|Total amount in Exajoule (EJ)||3 192||6.1||73.9||3.5||0.44)||n.d.5)|
1) Solid, Liquid: Million tons, Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Million metric tons, Hydro, Renewables: TW
2) Remaining potential including reserves (proven volumes of energy resources economically exploitable at today’s prices and using today’s technology) and resources (proven amounts of energy resources which cannot currently be exploited for technical and/or economic reasons, as well as unproven but geologically possible energy resources which may be exploitable in future).
3) Including 95 Mt shale oil resources identified in 2012.
4) Gross theoretical capability per year; about 0.09 EJ/a corresponds to the technically exploitable capability.
5) n.d.: not determined
Source: Country Information  and World Energy Council.
1.1.3. Energy Statistics
See Table 2
Table 2: ENERGY STATISTICS
|19701) 6)||19801)||1991||2000||2005||2010||20147)||2000 to 2014|
|Energy consumption2) (EJ)|
|- Total||9.87 (3.06)||11.35 (3.54)||14.61||14.40||14.56||14.22||13.13||- 0.66|
|- Solids3)||3.73 (2.60)||3.41 (2.48)||4.84||3.57||3.40||3.23||3.30||- 0.56|
|- Liquids||5.24 (0.41)||5.44 (0.62)||5.53||5.50||5.17||4.68||4.52||- 1.39|
|- Gases||0.53 (0.02)||1.86 (0.30)||2.41||2.99||3.25||3.17||2.67||- 0.81|
|- Nuclear||0.06 (0.01)||0.48 (0.13)||1.61||1.85||1.78||1.53||1.06||- 3.90|
|- Hydro||0.25 (0.01)||0.06 (0.00)||0.05||0.09||0.07||0.08||0.07||- 1.78|
|- Wind||–||–||–||0.04||0.10||0.14||0.21||+ 12.57|
|- Others4)||0.06 (0.01)||0.10 (0.01)||0.18||0.36||0.79||1.39||1.31||+ 9.67|
|Energy production (EJ)|
|- Total||5.15 (2.43)||5.11 (2.55)||6.97||5.64||5.88||5.69||5.05||- 0.79|
|- Solids3)||4.13 (2.37)||3.70 (2.30)||4.44||2.54||2.37||1.92||1.85||- 2.24|
|- Liquids||0.32 (0.01)||0.20 (0.00)||0.15||0.13||0.15||0.11||0.10||- 1.86|
|- Gases||0.41 (0.02)||0.59 (0.11)||0.57||0.65||0.60||0.46||0.33||- 4.73|
|- Nuclear5)||0.06 (0.01)||0.48 (0.13)||1.61||1.85||1.78||1.53||1.06||- 3.90|
|- Hydro||0.17 (0.01)||0.06 (0.00)||0.05||0.08||0.07||0.08||0.07||- 0.95|
|- Wind||–||–||0.00||0.03||0.10||0.14||0.21||+ 14.91|
|- Others4)||0.06 (0.01)||0.10 (0.01)||0.15||0.35||0.81||1.45||1.43||+ 10.58|
|Net import (Import - Export) (EJ)|
|- Total||4.72 (0.63)||6.24 (0.99)||7.64||8.76||8.68||8.53||8.08||- 0.58|
1) Numbers refer to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) before reunification in 1990; numbers in parentheses refer to the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany).
2) Energy consumption = Primary energy production + Net import (Import-Export) of secondary energy3) Solid fuels include coal and lignite4) Others are e.g. firewood, bio solids, waste, geothermal, etc.
5) Nuclear considered as imported energy in national energy balance.6) Data from 1970 according to substitution method, later data according to efficiency method
7) Preliminary dataSource: Country Information .
1.2. The Electricity System
1.2.1. Electricity System and Decision Making Process
German electricity policy is based on three fundamental objectives: sustainability, security of supply, and economic efficiency. The main challenge will be the integration of an increasing number of plants generating electricity from renewable sources, including a large number of offshore wind farms in the Baltic and North Sea. Consequently, the German electricity grid and the electricity market are facing new challenges.
Since 1998, Germany has been continuing the process of liberalising its electricity market. Currently, all customers are free to choose their own suppliers.
The Energy Industry Act (Energiewirtschaftsgesetz), together with secondary legislation enacted under it, specifies the regulatory framework governing grid access and transmission fees for electricity and gas. The objective is to provide the public with a secure, affordable, consumer-friendly, efficient and environmentally sound supply of grid electricity and gas. Enforcement lies with the Federal Network Agency (Bundesnetzagentur), which regulates electricity, gas, telecommunications, postal and railway networks spanning two or more federal states and network operators with more than 100,000 customers. Network operators with fewer than 100,000 customers are regulated by regulatory agencies in the individual German federal states. The main features of the legal framework relate to network access and transit fees, and separating network operation from companies' other activities. The network regulator, a public agency under the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, has a clear legal mandate to keep down transit fees while assuring security of supply. Grid operators are required to operate a secure, reliable, high-capacity energy supply network, to maintain this network and to expand it in line with demand.
1.2.2. Structure of Electric Power Sector
As at 10 November 2015, there are electricity generating facilities with a net rating around 199.2 GW. Of this net rating, renewable energy sources account for about 94 percent, of which about 39 percent is from solar and about 42 percent from wind power. The installed capacity of photovoltaic and wind power units together already adds up to around 85 GW. However, this capacity is not the same as the output available on the electricity market to meet demand and to ensure a reliable supply at any given time, as the latter depends on the weather conditions. Almost only conventional power plant plants can be relied on to guarantee supply at all times. In the year 2015, conventional power plants produced about 74.2 percent of the electricity in Germany.
At the end of 2014, the electricity generating facilities in Germany accounted for a total net rating of 202.7 GW. About half of the total installed capacity utilizes renewable energy sources, mainly wind (39.2 GW) and photovoltaics (38.3 GW). As renewable power is volatile due to their dependence on weather conditions, the peak electricity demand of about 80 GW is matched mainly by conventional power plants to provide a reliable supply. In 2015, 30.1 % (preliminary data) of the electricity was provided by renewable energy sources with the main contribution from wind power (13.5 percentage points).
Though demand for electricity is forecast to remain relatively flat, construction projects for power plants using conventional fuels and for those using renewables are currently in the planning, preparation or building phase in order to replace existing plants, particularly nuclear plants, slated for closure.
Germany's transmission grid is well interconnected and consists of about 35,000 km of extra-high-voltage (220 or 380 kV), 77,000 km of high-voltage (> 60 to < 220 kV), 479,000 km of medium-voltage (6 to 60 kV) and 1,123,000 km of low-voltage (230 or 700 V) transmission lines. In the past, the four companies dominating electricity generation each owned their own transmission companies operating the extra-high-voltage transmission lines. Now, the transmission companies are legally unbundled companies (TenneT TSO GmbH, Amprion GmbH, TransnetBW GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH). They provide non-discriminatory third-party access to their networks for all generators. All decisions on grid access and access fees can be appealed to the Federal Network Agency (Bundesnetzagentur) or to the respective regional regulator (Länderregulierungsbehörde). Grid fees, which cover transmission operations and investments, are charged to distributor companies, which pass them on to the end-use customers via retail rates. Transmission system operators charge distribution companies via a "postage stamp" rate, at a single flat rate per kW of maximum demand.
Under the Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz – EEG), grid system operators are required to connect plants generating electricity from renewable sources to their system at standard rates and to guarantee priority feed-in and transmission of electricity to such plants.
The extension of renewables, intensified transboundary power trading and new conventional power plants are the main reasons for the plans to modernize the existing transmission grid and to build up new extra-high-voltage transmission lines.
Germany's grid is linked to its neighbours' power grids via cross-border connections. The interconnection capacity is equivalent to about 15% of total capacity. Electricity is physically exchanged with nine neighbouring countries, i.e. Denmark, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland and Sweden. In 2015, Germany exported around 85.2 TWh of electricity to its neighbours, while itself importing 33.5 TWh.
The transmission lines for lower voltages are used to distribute electricity to customers. In this part, various regional and municipal transmission companies are involved.
There are about 900 distribution system operators in Germany. There is significant cross-ownership of distribution and retail in Germany's electricity sector through the country's many regional and local utilities, or Stadtwerke. The electricity generating companies, E.ON, RWE, EnBW and Vattenfall, have stakes in a large percentage of Stadtwerke, but the National Competition Authority (Bundeskartellamt) has become more and more restrictive in its approval of such mergers.
1.2.3. Main Indicators
See Table 3 and Table 4
The capacity of electrical plants and the electricity production as shown in Table 3 are reported as gross values.
Hard coal, lignite and nuclear power plants typically run with a maximum number of operating hours. They provide about 60% of the total electricity consumption. Gas power and pump-storage facilities are used additionally.
Table 3: ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
|Compound annual growth rate (%)|
|19701)||19801)||1991||2000||2005||2010||20144)||2000 to 2014|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|- Thermal2)||42.0 (11.3)||67.5 (16.5)||92.2||83.8||77.5||82.6||87.6||+ 0.34|
|- Nuclear||0.9 (0.1)||8.7 (1.7)||23.7||23.6||21.4||21.5||12.7||- 4.33|
|- Hydro3)||4.7 (0.7)||6.5 (1.5)||8.7||9.0||10.2||10.4||10.3||+ 0.97|
|- Wind||0.0 (0.0)||0.0 (0.0)||0.1||6.1||18.4||27.2||39.2||+ 14.21|
|- Photovoltaics||–||–||0.002||0.076||2.1||17.9||38.2||+ 55.94|
|- Others||–||–||1.4||2.8||7.4||11.3||14.6||+ 12.52|
|- Total||47.6 (12.1)||82.7 (19.7)||126.1||125.5||136.9||170.8||202.5||+ 3.44|
|Electricity production (TWh)|
|- Thermal2)||218.8 (65.9)||306.4 (85.3)||359.2||346.5||372.9||360.9||341.2||- 0.11|
|- Nuclear||2.7 (0.5)||41.4 (11.9)||147.4||169.6||163.0||140.6||97.1||- 3.91|
|- Hydro||16.2 (1.3)||17.4 (1.7)||19.2||29.4||26.4||27.4||25.4||- 0.93|
|- Wind||0.0||0.0||0.1||9.5||27.2||37.8||57.4||+ 13.75|
|- Photovoltaics||–||–||–||0||1.3||11.7||36.1||+ 149.44|
|- Others||–||–||14.3||21.5||31.7||54.7||70.6||+ 8.86|
|- Total||237.7 (67.7)||365.2 (98.9)||540.2||576.6||622.6||633.1||627.8||+ 0.61|
|- Total||539.6||579.6||614.1||615.4||592.2||+ 0.15|
1) Numbers refer to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) before reunification in 1990; numbers in parentheses refer to the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany).
2) Thermal includes hard coal, lignite, gas and oil, pump-storage facilities and other.
3) Water mills and storage plants
4) Preliminary dataSource: Country Information .
Table 4: ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita
|162 (179)||184 (212)||183||175||177||174||162|
|Electricity consumption per capita
|Electricity production/Energy production
|17 (10)||26 (14)||28||37||38||40||55|
|1.1 (0.7)||11.3 (12.0)||27.3||29.4||26.2||22.2||15.5|
|Ratio of external dependency2)
|48 (21)||55 (28)||51||61||60||60||61.5|
1) Numbers refer to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) before reunification in 1990; numbers in parentheses refer to the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany).
2) Net import / Total energy consumption
3) Preliminary data
Source: Country Information.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical Development and Current Organizational Structure
In 1955, the Federal Republic of Germany, i.e. West Germany, officially renounced the production, possession or use of nuclear weapons. Research and development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes began. Based on extensive international co-operation, several prototype reactors were constructed, concepts for a closed nuclear fuel cycle and for the final storage of radioactive waste in deep geological formations were elaborated.
From 1956 to 1969, several nuclear research centres were founded in West Germany. Most of these research centres, as well as university institutes were equipped with research reactors.
With the assistance of US manufacturers, West Germany started to develop commercial nuclear power plants (Siemens/Westinghouse for pressurized water reactors - PWRs, General Electric/AEG for boiling water reactors - BWRs). In 1958, the first West German NPP - a 16 MWe experimental nuclear power plant (Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl, VAK) - was ordered from GE/AEG and reached criticality in 1960. Domestic West German nuclear development began in 1961, with the order of the 15 MWe pebble-bed high-temperature reactor (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor at Jülich, AVR) from the Arbeitsgemeinschaft BBC/ Krupp (BBC - Brown, Boverie & Cie., meanwhile ABB - Asea Brown Boveri Ltd.). Power reactors with 250-350 MWe and 600-700 MWe were ordered between 1965 and 1970.
After about 15 years, the gap between the West German and the international technological state of the art was closed. The West German nuclear industry received the first orders from abroad, from the Netherlands (Borssele) and from Argentina (Atucha). In 1972, the construction of the world’s then largest reactor, Biblis A with 1200 MWe, started in West Germany. Between 1970 and 1975, an average of three units was ordered annually.
In 1969, Siemens and AEG founded Kraftwerk Union (KWU) by merging their respective nuclear activities. The domestic development of KWU nuclear power plants with PWRs started. Based on several years of operational experience, a standardized 1300 MWe PWR (the so-called "Konvoi") was introduced, mainly to speed up the licensing process. Three "Konvoi" units started to operate in 1988 and were the last NPPs built in West Germany.
The German Democratic Republic, i.e. East Germany, started to develop a nuclear programme for the peaceful use of nuclear energy with the assistance of the Soviet Union, in 1955. In 1956, the Central Institute for Nuclear Physics was founded at Rossendorf. There, in 1957, a research reactor supplied by the Soviet Union started operation. The first East German 70 MWe NPP Rheinsberg, equipped with a Russian type PWR, was connected to the grid in 1966. Between 1974 and 1979, the Greifswald NPP units 1 to 4 started operation, all equipped with Russian WWER-440/W-230 reactors. In 1989, unit 5, a WWER-440/W-213 reactor, was in the process of being commissioned.
Following German reunification in October 1990, comprehensive safety assessments of the Soviet type NPPs were carried out. These analyses showed safety deficiencies in comparison with the current West German nuclear safety requirements. For technical and economic reasons, in particular uncertainties in the licensing process and also decreasing electricity consumption, it was decided to shut these plants down. Work on the nuclear plants under construction (units 6, 7 and 8 at Greifswald with WWER-440/W-213 reactors and two WWER-1000 reactors near Stendal) was also abandoned.
Following the euphoria of the fifties and sixties, scepticism about nuclear power began to grow in the early 1970s. An increasing number of citizens were opposed to the risks of atomic energy, and in particular opposed the further expansion of nuclear power plants. In West Germany, names such as Wyhl and Brokdorf (planned nuclear power plants), Gorleben (waste management centre), Wackersdorf (reprocessing unit) and Kalkar (fast breeder) are a synonym for the protests against nuclear power. After the incident in Harrisburg in 1979, and finally after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, it became clear that the risks of nuclear power are not merely theoretical.
In 2000, the Government concluded an agreement with the electricity companies to phase out the utilisation of nuclear energy in a structured manner. The Atomic Energy Act was amended accordingly in April 2002. The legal ban on the construction of new NPPs was fixed. Each nuclear power plant was assigned a residual electricity volume such that the total output of the respective plant corresponds to an average 32-year lifetime. As electricity volumes can, in principle, be legally transferred between plants, it was not possible to forecast precise shut-down dates.
Since 2010, the Federal Government has been focusing on an energy mix, gradually replacing the conventional sources of energy with renewable energies. For a transitional period, nuclear energy should remain an indispensable part of the energy mix. The Atomic Energy Act was amended accordingly in December 2010. The legal ban on the construction of new nuclear power plants remained unchanged. The operating lives of the 17 nuclear power plants, determined by the amount of electricity allowed for production, were extended by granting further electricity production rights grossly equalling an additional 12 years, on average. The extension was converted into volumes of electricity for each plant on the basis of exact calculation.
After the accident at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the German Federal Government, together with the Minister-Presidents of the Länder in which NPPs are operated, had the safety of all German NPPs reviewed by the Reactor Safety Commission (Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission - RSK) in close collaboration with the competent nuclear regulatory authorities of the Länder. Through an Ethics Commission on “Secure Energy Supply”, they also started a dialogue among German society on the risks involved in the use of nuclear power and on the possibility of an accelerated transition to the age of renewable energies.
Taking the results of the RSK and the Ethics Commission on “Secure Energy Supply” as well as the absolute priority of nuclear safety into account, the Federal Government decided to terminate the use of nuclear energy by the year 2022. The amendments to the Atomic Energy Act entered into force in August 2011. According to them, the authorization to operate an installation for the fission of nuclear fuel for the commercial generation of electricity shall expire when its electricity production rights have been exhausted, but not later than the end of
6 August 2011 for Biblis A, Neckarwestheim 1, Biblis B, Brunsbüttel, Isar 1, Unterweser, Philippsburg 1 and Krümmel NPPs,
31 December 2015 for Grafenrheinfeld NPP,
31 December 2017 for Gundremmingen B NPP,
31 December 2019 for Philippsburg 2 NPP,
31 December 2021 for Grohnde, Gundremmingen C and Brokdorf NPPs,
31 December 2022 for Isar 2, Emsland and Neckarwestheim 2 NPPs.
The additional electricity volumes, introduced in December 2010, were withdrawn, returning to the electricity volumes as stipulated in 2002. Production of unused electricity volumes transferred from one NPP to another remains possible until the shutdown date for the receiving NPP has been reached.
2.1.2. Current Organizational Structure
The organizations of the regulatory body are shown in Figure 1.
The regulatory body is composed of the nuclear licensing and supervisory authorities of the Federal Government authorities and Länder government authorities.
By organisational decree, the Federal Government specifies the Federal Ministry competent for nuclear safety and radiation protection. Currently, this competence is assigned to the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit – BMUB).
The licensing procedure and the continuous regulatory supervision of the facilities lie within the responsibility of the individual Länder (federal states), see Table 4A. To preserve legal uniformity for the entire territory of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety - BMUB oversees the licensing and supervisory activities of the Länder authorities regarding legality and expediency. .
The subordinate authority to the BMUB in the area of radiation protection and nuclear safety is the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz – BfS). The BfS supports the BMUB technically and scientifically, especially in the execution of oversight with regard to legality and expediency, the preparation of legal and administrative procedures, and in intergovernmental co-operation.
As subordinate authority to the BMUB the Federal Office for the Regulation of Nuclear Waste Management (Bundesamt für kerntechnische Entsorgung – BfE) nuclear regulates the site selection process for a final repository particularly for high-level radioactive waste and supports the BMUB in its activities pertaining to the final disposal of radioactive waste.
The BMUB receives regular advisory support from the Reactor Safety Commission (Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission - RSK), the Commission on Radiological Protection (Strahlenschutzkommission - SSK) and the Nuclear Waste Management Commission (Entsorgungskommission - ESK). The commissions are independent and their members reflect the whole spectrum of scientific and technical opinions. Besides advising the BMUB on issues of fundamental importance, they also initiate developments directed at furthering safety technology. The results of the deliberations of the commissions are formulated as general recommendations to the BMUB and as statements on individual cases, which are then published.
The main expert organisation advising the BMUB on technical issues is the Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS). This central expert organisation performs scientific research in the field of nuclear safety technology, predominately sponsored by federal funds. GRS also performs a limited amount of work by order of the licensing and supervisory authorities of the Länder.
Technical support organizations, e.g. Technical Inspection Agencies (Technischer Überwachungs-Verein - TÜV) act on behalf of the Länder authorities. The involvement of authorized experts is based on special technical knowledge and independence. The authorities are not bound by the authorised experts’ evaluation results in making their decision.
FIGURE 1: ORGANISATION OF THE REGULATORY BODY
Table 4A: THE LÄNDER LICENSING AND SUPERVISORY AUTHORITIES FOR NPPS
|Land ||Nuclear Installation||Licensing Authority ||Supervisory Authority |
|Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection and Energy Sector of Baden-Württemberg|
in agreement with the Ministry of the Interior of Baden Württemberg
|Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection and Energy Sector of Baden-Württemberg|
|Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection||Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection|
|Hesse Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection|
|Lower Saxony Ministry for the Environment, Energy and Climate Protection|
|Schleswig-Holstein Ministry of Energy, Agriculture, the Environment and Rural Areas|
2.2. Nuclear Power Plants: Overview
2.2.1. Status and Performance of Nuclear Power Plants
Before the accident in Fukushima, a total gross capacity of 21.5 GWe was installed in the 17 operating German nuclear power plants, comprising 11 PWRs and 6 BWRs. On 6 August 2011, for eight NPPs with a gross capacity of 8,821 MWe the licence for power operation expired (Biblis A, Neckarwestheim 1, Biblis B, Brunsbüttel, Isar 1, Unterweser, Philippsburg 1 and Krümmel). On 27 June 2015, the NPP Grafenrheinfeld ended its operation. Since then, eight NPPs (six PWRs and two BWRs) are in operation. Table 5 shows the status of nuclear power plants by the end of 2015, Figure 2 their geographical location.
According to the current legal situation, the licence for power operation will expire at fixed shutdown dates or even before if the electricity volume for that installation, as listed in the Atomic Energy Act or as derived from an allowable transfer of electricity volume, has been produced. Table 6 shows the residual electricity volumes of the German NPPs as of 31 December 2015.
In 2015, NPPs contributed approximately 14.1% to the gross electricity production, which corresponds to 91.8 TWh. The average availability of German nuclear power plants is shown in Table 7.
As of December 2015, 28 nuclear power plants including prototype and experimental reactors have been permanently shut down. Of these, 15 facilities are currently being dismantled with "green-field conditions" being the planned target, one is in safe enclosure and three have already been completely dismantled to green-field conditions. Further information (shut down date and reason etc.) is shown in Table 10. The eight NPPs that lost their authorization for power operation in August 2011 applied for decommissioning, but no licence for decommissioning has been granted as of yet. Six other nuclear power plants never commenced operation as the projects were abandoned during the construction phase.
In total, 46 research and training reactors were built and operated in Germany. At present, most research reactors are shut down or being decommissioned. Seven research facilities – three with a thermal power of more than 50 kWth and four small training reactors – are still in operation.
Table 5: STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS (INCLUDING PROTOTYPE AND EXPERIMENTAL REACTORS) AS OF 31 DECEMBER 2015
|AVR JUELICH||HTGR||13||Permanent Shutdown||AVR||BBK||1961-08-01||1966-08-16||1967-12-17||1969-05-19||1988-12-31|
|HDR GROSSWELZHEIM||BWR||25||Permanent Shutdown||HDR||AEG,KWU||1965-01-01||1969-10-14||1969-10-14||1970-08-02||1971-04-20|
|KNK II||FBR||17||Permanent Shutdown||KBG||IA||1974-09-01||1977-10-10||1978-04-09||1979-03-03||1991-08-23|
|VAK KAHL||BWR||15||Permanent Shutdown||VAK||GE,AEG||1958-07-01||1960-11-13||1961-06-17||1962-02-01||1985-11-25|
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table 7 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
Numbers indicate Gross Capacity [MWe], 12/2015
Source: Country Information 
FIGURE 2: NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN GERMANY (INCLUDING PROTOTYPE AND EXPERIMENTAL REACTORS) AS OF 31 DECEMBER 2015
Table 6: RESIDUAL ELECTRICITY VOLUMES OF GERMAN NPPS AS OF 31 DECEMBER 2015 [TWH]
|NPP||Residual Electricity Volume as of|
1 January 2000
(Annex 3 of the Atomic Energy Act)
|Net Electricity Volume Produced 1 January 2000 to|
31 December 2015
|Transfer of Electricity Volumes||Residual Electricity Volumes|
31 December 2015
|Biblis A (KWB A)1)||62.00||64.59||4.79||2.20|
|Biblis B (KWB B)1)||81.46||81.74||8.10||7.82|
|Gundremmingen B (KRB B)||160.92||160.38||11.20||11.74|
|Gundremmingen C (KRB C)||168.35||159.28||2.00||11.07|
|Isar 1 (KKI 1)1)||78.35||76.33||2.02|
|Isar 2 KKI 2)||231.21||182.18||49.03|
|Mülheim-Kärlich (KMK) 3)||107.25||-||-18.00||89.25|
|Neckarwestheim 1 (GKN 1)1)||57.35||57.35||0.00|
|Neckarwestheim 2 (GKN 2)||236.04||168.06||67.98|
|Philippsburg 1 (KKP 1)1)||87.14||73.19||-5.50||8.45|
|Philippsburg 2 (KKP 1)||198.61||168.03||30.58|
|Stade (KKS) 5)||23.18||18.39||-4.79||0.00|
1) On 6 August 2011, the authorization to operate the NPP for electricity production expired.
2) The NPP Grafenrheinfeld was shut down in June 2015.
3) The NPP Mülheim-Kärlich was shut down in September 1988. The electricity volume of the NPP Mülheim-Kärlich can be transferred to KKE, GKN2, KKI2, KBR, KRB-B, KRB-C.
4) The NPP Obrigheim was shut down in May 2005.
5) The NPP Stade was shut down in November 2003.
Source: Country Information .
Table 7: AVERAGE AVAILABILITY OF GERMAN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Year||Time availability [%]||Energy availability [%]||Capacity availability [%]|
1) Preliminary data
Time availability: available operating time/calendar time
Energy availability: available energy/nominal energy
Capacity availability: energy generated/nominal energy
Source: Country Information .
TABLE 10: REACTORS IN DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OR DECOMMISIONED AS OF 31 DECEMBER 2015
|AVR Jülich (AVR)||31-Dec-1988||experimental program ended||dismantling||09-Mar-1994||interim storage at Jülich||Jülicher Entsorgungsgesellschaft für Nuklearanlagen mbH (JEN GmbH - part of EWN), former AVR GmbH|
|Greifswald-1 (KGR 1)||18-Dec-1990||safety concerns||dismantling||30-Jun-1995||interim storage Zwischenlager Nord (ZLN)||Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN)|
|Greifswald-2 (KGR 2)||14-Feb-1990||safety concerns||dismantling||30-Jun-1995||interim storage Zwischenlager Nord (ZLN)||Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN)|
|Greifswald-3 (KGR 3)||28-Feb-1990||safety concerns||dismantling||30-Jun-1995||interim storage Zwischenlager Nord (ZLN)||Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN)|
|Greifswald-4 (KGR 4)||02-Jun-1990||safety concerns||dismantling||30-Jun-1995||interim storage Zwischenlager Nord (ZLN)||Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN)|
|Greifswald-5 (KGR 5)||30-Nov-1989||economic||dismantling||30-Jun-1995||interim storage Zwischenlager Nord (ZLN)||Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN)|
|Gundremmingen-A (KRB-A)||13-Jan-1977||economic||dismantling||26-May-1983||reprocessing||Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen GmbH|
|HDR Großwelzheim||20-Apr-1971||technical||dismantling||16-Feb-1983||15-Oct-1998||reprocessed in WAK||Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) former Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (FZK)|
|KNK II||23-Aug-1991||experimental program ended||dismantling||26-Aug-1993||interim storage Zwischenlager Nord (ZLN)||Wiederaufbereitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rückbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (part of EWN)|
|Lingen (KWL)||05-Jan-1977||economic||dismantling||21-Dec-2015||transport to Sellafield (GB)||Kernkraftwerk Lingen GmbH|
|Mülheim-Kärlich (KMK)||09-Sep-1988||phase out regulation||dismantling||16-Jul-2004||reprocessed in La Hague (F)||RWE Power AG|
|MZFR||03-May-1984||experimental program ended||dismantling||17-Nov-1987||reprocessed in WAK||Wiederaufbereitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rückbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (part of EWN)|
|Niederaichbach (KKN)||31-Jul-1974||technical||dismantling||21-Oct-1975||17-Aug-1995||transported to Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique||Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) former Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (FZK)|
|Obrigheim (KWO)||11-May-2005||phase out regulation||dismantling||28-Aug-2008||dry interim storage is planned||EnBW Kernkraft GmbH (EnKK)|
|Rheinsberg (KKR)||01-Jun-1990||safety concerns||dismantling||28-Apr-1995||interim storage Zwischenlager Nord (ZLN)||Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN)|
|Stade (KKS)||14-Nov-2003||phase out regulation||dismantling||07-Sep-2005||reprocessed in France||E.ON Kernkraft GmbH|
|THTR-300||29-Sep-1988||economic, technical||safe enclosure||22-Oct-1993||interim storage at Ahaus||Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH (HKG)|
|VAK Kahl||25-Nov-1985||experimental program ended||dismantling||05-May-1988||24-Sep-2010||reprocessed in WAK/ disposal in Sweden||Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl GmbH (VAK)|
|Würgassen (KWW)||26-Aug-1994||economic||dismantling||14-Apr-1997||reprocessed in La Hague (F)||E.ON Kernkraft GmbH|
Source: Country Information .
2.2.2. Plant Upgrading, Plant Life Management and License Renewals
According to the Atomic Energy Act, a licence for operating a NPP is only granted if the applicant proves that the necessary technical and organisational precautions for a safe operation have been taken. During operation, the plant operator has to fulfil his responsibility continuously. This is verified and ensured by the licensing and supervisory authority.
Planned modifications of a NPP are to be assessed systematically with regards to the impacts on the safety level of the NPP. Modifications obviously having only insignificant impacts on the safety level do not require a licensing procedure, but rather require accompanying inspections by the safety authorities within the framework of the supervisory procedure. Significant modifications of a NPP or its operations require a licence from the competent authority (see chapter 3.1.2).
All operators of German NPPs are obliged to perform comprehensive quality management, based on provisions for quality and safety assurance specified in the Safety Requirements published by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection, Building and Nuclear Safety and in the nuclear safety standards of the Nuclear Safety Standard Commission (Kerntechnischer Ausschuss - KTA). The supervisory authority controls the result of the audits performed by the plant operator, and the implementation of measures derived from it within the framework of on-site inspections. Ageing Management, i.e. measures for maintaining quality over a long period of time, is an integral part of the quality requirements.
According to the Atomic Energy Act, safety reviews (SR) have to be carried out every ten years according to standardized national criteria. They consist of a deterministic safety status analysis, a probabilistic safety analysis and a deterministic analysis on physical protection of the plant. The results have to be submitted to the supervisory authority and are usually assessed by independent experts who act by order of the supervisory authority. The obligation to present the SR results is lifted if the licensee makes the binding declaration to the licensing and supervisory authority that he is definitively going to terminate power operation at the plant no later than three years after the final date for submission of the SR mentioned in the Atomic Energy Act. In addition to the dates for the final shutdown pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act, this means that SRs will be performed in the future only for the two NPPs Gundremmingen C and Brokdorf. SRs supplement the continuous supervision and inspection of NPPs. Findings from the safety reviews and increasing knowledge and requirements imposed on the authorities lead to safety-related backfits and to improvement of the plant.
In the light of the events in Fukushima in 2011, the Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) performed safety reviews for German NPPs in operation . In a summarising assessment, the RSK concluded that compared with the Fukushima NPP, a higher level of precaution can be ascertained for German plants with regard to the electrical power supply and the consideration of flooding events. Further robustness assessments showed that there is no consistent result depending on type or age of the plant to be revealed. At older plants initially with lesser design requirements, emergency systems were upgraded in order to ensure the necessary safety functions.
As a result of the Fukushima accident, the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) published the requirement specifications according to which all NPPs in Europe assessed their robustness against extreme external hazards and in connection with a loss of safety functions as well as the measures provided to cope with severe accidents. Germany participated actively in this EU stress test and in its follow-up process. In country-specific action plans (National Action Plans) the actions taken, planned or implemented are described including a schedule to improve the safety of NPPs. The National Action Plans are publicly available and shall be updated regularly. In order to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements, these plans were peer reviewed at an ENSREG workshop in April 2013 and 2015, respectively. During both workshops, it was stated that Germany’s NPPs already completed significant enhancements to robustness ahead of the Fukushima events, e.g. filtered containment venting and mobile pumps. The German National Action Plan identified that further work was required in some technical areas which are relevant to the stress test. Some of these actions were completed in 2013, with some left to be completed in 2014/2015. After the 2013 workshop, on behalf of the BMUB, the RSK has issued two new recommendations dealing with extreme external events. Additionally two evaluating activities are currently on-going at RSK and one at SSK, with no identified schedule. By 31 December 2014, Germany last updated its original National Action Plan. The National Report and the National Action Plan of Germany can be found at http://www.ensreg.eu/EU-Stress-Tests/Country-Specific-Reports/EU-Member-States/Germany. The German National Action Plan will continue to be updated until all action have been completed.
For further information see  and http://www.ensreg.eu/EU-Stress-Tests.
As the licences for the operation of NPPs are not limited in time, no renewal is required. See also chapter 2.1.1 on the phase-out of nuclear energy by 2022.
2.3. Future Development of Nuclear Power Sector
As specified in the Atomic Energy Act, no new NPPs for commercial production of electricity will be built. For further details on nuclear energy policy see chapter 1.2.3.
2.4. Organizations Involved in Construction of NPPs
All nuclear power plants currently in operation in Germany were constructed by KWU in the 1970s and 1980s. KWU, a 100% subsidiary of Siemens AG for a long time, was transferred to a French-German joint venture in 2001, in which the French AREVA had a shareholding of approximately two thirds and Siemens AG of one third. Since April 2006, the joint venture has operated under the name of AREVA NP. In March 2011, AREVA NP became a 100% subsidiary of AREVA and was eventually renamed to AREVA GmbH in 2013.
The company Babcock-Brown Boveri Reaktor GmbH (BBR, a joint venture of Brown, Boveri & Cie. and Babcock&Wilcox from the USA, later ABB, respectively sold to BNFL/UK in December 1999, now renamed Westinghouse) supplied the PWR plant Mülheim-Kärlich, which was shut down in 1988.
German utilities, together with Siemens/KWU and in close co-operation with its French counterparts (EdF and Framatome), developed the European Pressurized Water Reactor EPR with enhanced safety features. The EPR is currently built in Finland, France and China. German utilities also supported the Siemens/KWU development of an advanced BWR (SWR 1000) with additional passive safety features.
No exclusively German supplier of NPPs remained upon the start of the 21st century. In 2001, the remaining domestic manufacturer, Siemens/KWU, merged its nuclear business with Framatome SA, which in the meantime became part of the French AREVA Group as AREVA GmbH. The main activities are projects and engineering, nuclear services, nuclear fuel and mechanical equipment. Under French management, the former KWU employees are also engaged in EPR activities in Finland, France and China. The second German supplier for NPPs, BBR, meanwhile part of Westinghouse, now concentrates on nuclear services.
2.5. Organizations Involved in Operation of NPPs
EnBW Kernkraft GmbH - EnKK, as part of the holding company EnBW - Energie-Baden-Württemberg AG, operates the NPPs Neckarwestheim 1 and 2 as well as Philippsburg 1 and 2. On August 2011, the NPPs Neckarwestheim 1 and Philippsburg 1 were permanently shut down and applications for decommissioning were filed on 24 April 2013. The NPPs Brokdorf, Grafenrheinfeld, Grohnde, Isar 1 and 2 and Unterweser are operated by E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, which is a subsidiary company of E.ON Energie AG. On 4 May 2012, E.ON Kernkraft made an application for decommissioning of the NPPs Isar 1 and Unterweser. The NPP Grafenrheinfeld was permanently shut down on 27 June 2015, E.ON Kernkraft filed an application for decommissioning for NPP Grafenrheinfeld on 28 March 2014. The company RWE Power AG operates the NPPs Biblis A and B, which were permanently shut down on 6 August 2011. Applications for decommissioning were submitted on 6 August 2012. The NPPs Gundremmingen B and C are operated by Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen GmbH - KGG; the shareholders of this company are RWE Power AG (75%) and E.ON Kernkraft GmbH (25%). On 11 December 2014, an application for dismantling was filed for the NPP Gundremmingen B by KGG. The NPP Emsland is operated by Kernkraftwerke Lippe-Ems GmbH - KLE, which is held by RWE Power AG (87.5%) and E.ON Kernkraft GmbH (12.5%). Kernkraftwerk Brunsbüttel GmbH & Co. oHG - KKB, held by Vattenfall GmbH – formerly Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH – (66.6%) and E.ON Kernkraft GmbH (33.3%), operates the NPP Brunsbüttel. The authorization for power operation of NPP Brunsbüttel expired on 6 August 2011 and an application for decommissioning was filed on 1 November 2012. Vattenfall GmbH and E.ON Kernkraft GmbH are also shareholders in equal parts of Kernkraftwerk Krümmel GmbH & Co. oHG - KKK, which operates the NPP Krümmel. NPP Krümmel was permanently shut down on 6 August 2011 and an application for decommissioning was submitted on 24 August 2015
2.6. Organizations Involved in Decommissioning of NPPs
The decommissioning licensee, as mentioned in Table 10 and in chapter 2.5 of this report, is responsible for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. For decommissioning, a licence is required from the competent licensing authority of the Land in which the nuclear installation is sited. The licensing and supervisory process is described in chapters 3.1.1 and 3.1.2 of this report.
2.7. Fuel Cycle Including Waste Management
With the commercial use of nuclear energy, various nuclear facilities dedicated to the fuel cycle and waste management have emerged in Germany. Today, only a few of them are in operation. Several facilities have been shut down and are being decommissioned.
Mining and milling
In Germany, search for mines containing uranium ore began very early. However, due to economic reasons only a few mines were of interest, and were operated as pilot mines. In 1961, West Germany erected a very small utility for yellow cake production at Ellweiler. The supervisory authority stopped work in 1989. The facility was decommissioned and restoration was finalized in 2000. In East Germany, the large uranium production facility Wismut was erected, initially supplying uranium also to the Soviet Union. Mining was stopped on 31 December 1990. This facility is being decommissioned and remediation is underway.
At the enrichment plant at Gronau (URENCO Germany), natural uranium in the form of uranium hexafluoride is enriched via centrifuge cascades to a maximum of 6% by weight of fissionable U-235. The facility started operation in 1985, with a capacity of 400 kSWU/year. The design capacity was stepwise expanded. The last licence to increase capacity to up to 4,500 kSWU/year was licensed in 2005. The additional systems have been constructed since 2008 and commissioned gradually. At the end of 2013, the installed capacity reached full capacity of 4,500 kSWU/year.
At Lingen, the Fuel Element Fabrication Plant ANF (Advanced nuclear fuels GmbH) is in operation since 1979, and produces uranium fuel elements for light water reactors - LWRs. In 2009, the conversion facility was licensed a capacity of 800 Mg of uranium per year.
At the Siemens Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Hanau (Siemens Brennelementewerk Hanau, Siemens AG), mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel elements and uranium fuel elements for LWRs were produced from 1968 until 1991 and from 1969 until 1995, respectively. The facility was finally decommissioned in 2006. The Siemens Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Karlstein (Siemens Brennelementewerk at Karlstein, Siemens AG) started in the year 1966 with the production of special fuel elements using low enriched uranium dioxide. Decommissioning of this plant was finalized in 1999. At the NUKEM Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Hanau (Brennelementefabrik at Hanau), the company NUKEM produced special fuel elements consisting of uranium and thorium for research reactors, from 1962 until 1988. The decommissioning process has been finalized for this plant (status: installation was removed, clearance of the site). The company Hochtemperatur-Brennelement-Gesellschaft - HOBEG operated a fuel fabrication for the production of spherical fuel elements, composed of highly enriched uranium and thorium for high temperature reactors, from 1972 until 1988, at Hanau. The utility was finally decommissioned in 1995.
Interim storage of spent fuel
Three central interim storage facilities for spent fuel are in operation: the Transport Cask Storage Facility Ahaus (TBL-A), for irradiated fuel and other radioactive substances, the Transport Cask Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G), for both irradiated fuel and vitrified reprocessing products, and the Transport Cask Storage Facility in the interim storage facility North Rubenow (Zwischenlager Nord -ZLN), for spent fuel elements, nuclear fuel, and other radioactive waste from decommissioning the NPPs Greifswald and Rheinsberg. In 2009, the Zwischenlager Nord was licensed to store vitrified waste from the shut-down pilot reprocessing plant at Karlsruhe (WAK).
Twelve on-site interim storage facilities at the sites of NPPs have been licensed and are all in operation (last one started operation in June 2007). 
In Germany, the development of reprocessing technologies started in the 1960s. In 1989, the plans for reprocessing were abandoned and it was intended to transport irradiated fuel elements into other member states of the European Union for interim storage and reprocessing. These transports were banned in 2002, with the last transport allowed in 2005. At that time, the direct final disposal of fuel elements became the aim of waste management.
The pilot reprocessing plant at Karlsruhe (Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe - WAK) operated from 1971 until 1990. The facility has been shut down and is in the process of being dismantled. The highly radioactive solutions of fission products (HAWC – High Active Waste Concentrate) present at this plant were vitrified at the on-site vitrification plant. In total, 56 tons of vitrified waste were produced and shipped to the interim storage facility Zwischenlager Nord in February 2011.
The project for a reprocessing plant at Wackersdorf (Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Wackersdorf - WAW) started 1982 and was abandoned in 1988. 
Waste management (radioactive waste from complete fuel cycle)
From the outset, it is intended to dispose of all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz - BfS) is responsible – inter alia - for the construction and operation of nuclear waste repositories. To fulfil its tasks the BfS may employ the services of a third party. The BfS exercises this option: the third party in question is the Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern für Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE).
Development work in the field of repositories started in West Germany with the Asse II mine - a salt dome in Lower Saxony - where low- and medium-active radioactive waste was stored from 1967 until 1978. After 1978, research and development on the safe disposal of radioactive waste was performed until 1992, in Asse without any further emplacement. In 2009, the BfS has taken over responsibility for the Asse II mine. A closure concept is in preparation. It was decided that retrieval of the radioactive waste stored in Asse will be the best option to protect the public and the environment. In the late 1960s, East Germany erected a repository at the former salt dome Morsleben, where low- and intermediate-level waste was stored from 1971 until 1998. The licensing procedure for closure is in progress. Between 1979 and 2000, the salt dome of Gorleben was investigated for its suitability as a repository for all types of radioactive waste, in particular for high level waste. Exploration work was discontinued between 1 October 2000 and 30 September 2010 (Gorleben moratorium). In October 2010, the BfS resumed the exploration activities. In November 2012, all exploratory work at the Gorleben mine discontinued again and was terminated on 27 July 2013 when the Repository Site Selection Act became effective. According to the Act on Site Selection the Gorleben salt dome will be included in the site selection process for disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste. The former iron ore Schacht Konrad was licensed as repository in May 2002, where radioactive waste with negligible heat generation should be disposed. Since the licence was confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court on 26 March 2007, the BfS is in charge of converting the former iron ore mine into a repository.
The controlled and safe disposal of radioactive waste requires its conditioning prior to entering the repository. In Gorleben, a pilot conditioning plant was erected for the conditioning of spent fuel assemblies for direct disposal, but at present only a limited operation licence, to repair defective transport and storage casks for spent fuel and high-active waste (HAW) glass canisters, has been granted (since 2000). 
Policy for ultimate high level waste disposal
Until 1994, the German Atomic Energy Act included the requirement of reusing the fissile material in the spent fuel. This requirement changed in 1994, and the operators of NPPs then had the option of either reuse by means of reprocessing, or else of direct disposal. Since 1 July 2005, delivery of spent fuel from commercial electricity production for the purposes of reprocessing has been prohibited. Now, only the direct disposal of the spent fuel existing and being generated in future in Germany is permissible.
As there is as yet no repository available for the spent fuel, it is and will be stored intermediately at the sites where it was generated. Corresponding storage facilities exist as needed (on-site interim storage facilities). Usually, the spent fuel from research reactors is returned to its country of origin for disposal. If this is not possible, it is intermediately stored until its final transportation to the repository.
So far, no decision in favour of a site for a repository for heat-generating radioactive waste in Germany has been taken. On 27 July 2013, the Repository Site Selection Act became effective. The decision shall be made under a national consensus between Federation and federal states, state and society as well as citizens. The law provides for a national, science-based, comparative site selection procedure for the best possible repository including comprehensive investigation and exploration of different potential host rocks and sites.
By June 2016, a committee shall prepare the site selection procedure by drawing up and presenting proposals concerning inter alia safety requirements and geological selection/ exclusion criteria. The committee consists of 33 members representing different parts of society, i.e. science, public groups, Bundestag and Bundesrat. On the basis of the results gained by the Committee, the law is to be evaluated and amended, if need be.
On 1 September 2014, the Federal Office for the Regulation of Nuclear Waste Management (Bundesamt für kerntechnische Entsorgung – BfE) became operational. According to the Repository Site Selection Act, the BfE shall regulate the site selection process after the committee’s work has finished and the decision-making criteria have been laid down in law. Currently, the BfE has the task to ensure the refinancing of the site selection process. For more information, see http://www.bfe.bund.de/en/.
2.8. Research and Development
2.8.1. R&D Organizations
See Appendix 2
Safe operation of nuclear power plants is a top priority for the Federal Government, and consequently research in this field is continued and extended.
In 2015, the Energy R&D Programme of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie – BMWi) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung - BMBF) supported research on nuclear safety and waste disposal with a total amount of € 73.9 million.
Within the government, the BMWi currently provides approximately € 22 million annually for reactor safety research, e.g. experimental or analytical studies of the plant behaviour of nuclear reactors under accident conditions, studies concerning the safety of pressure retaining components and the development of probabilistic safety analysis are funded. Approximately a further € 11 million is spent on final disposal and nuclear waste management research.
The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung - BMBF) promotes projects and institutions with funds of around € 40 million, focussing on basic science issues regarding waste disposal, reactor safety research and radiation research. As a long term energy option, the development of fusion reactors is currently supported by BMBF through research projects and institutional funding (around € 140 million in total).
2.8.2. Development of Advanced Nuclear Power Technologies
Two prototypes of advanced reactor design were developed in Germany: the pebble-bed high-temperature reactor (Thorium-Hochtemperaturreaktor, THTR 300) at HRB/BBC and a fast breeder reactor (Schneller Natriumgekühlter Reaktor, SNR 300) at Interatom/Siemens. After successful commissioning and operation for some years, the THTR 300 was shut down. The SNR 300 was completed but never commissioned.
2.8.3. International Co-operation and Initiatives
See Appendix 1
As member state of the EU, OECD/NEA, and IAEA, Germany supports various international programmes in nuclear safety and nuclear waste management. In direct international co-operation, Germany also supports projects and organizations, e.g. the licensing and supervisory authorities, technical support organizations and also research institutes.
Germany currently participates in the following NEA joint projects, among others:
NEA Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation facility (ATLAS) Project
NEA Behaviour of Iodine Project (BIP-2)
The Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF) Project
NEA Cable Ageing Data and Knowledge (CDAK) Project
NEA Cabri International Project (CIP)
NEA Component Operational Experience, Degradation and Ageing Programme (CODAP) Project
NEA Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD)
NEA Fire Incidents Records Exchange (FIRE) Project
NEA Fire Propagation in Elementary, Multi-room Scenarios (PRISME-2) Project
NEA Halden Reactor Project
NEA High Energy Arcing Fault Events (HEAF) Project
NEA Hydrogen Mitigation Experiments for Reactor Safety (HYMERES) Project
NEA Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE)
OECD/NEA International Common-cause Failure Data Exchange (ICDE) Project
NEA Loss of Forced Coolant (LOFC) Project
NEA Primary Coolant Loop Test Facility (PKL-3) Project
NEA Source Term Evaluation and Mitigation (STEM) Project
NEA Studsvik Cladding Integrity (SCIP-2) Project
NEA Thermal-hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols, Iodine (THAI-2) Project
NEA Thermochemical Database (TDB) Project
For project descriptions see http://www.oecd-nea.org/jointproj/
2.9. Human Resources Development
The need for provision of sufficient and qualified personnel is defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the Atomic Energy Act. Proof of the qualifications of responsible personnel as well as the necessary knowledge of personnel otherwise engaged during operation must already be considered in the licence application for construction, operation or essential modification. Detailed requirements for the technical qualification of personnel are specified in the guidelines. In addition, the guidelines stipulate the qualifications of responsible shift personnel and their maintenance, as well as the qualifications of personnel responsible for radiation protection. The measures taken by the operator to ensure adequate staffing are reviewed by the supervisory authority, on the basis of submitted reports.
German NPPs currently in operation are staffed by personnel with experience in the operation of NPPs. These employees undergo regular job-specific retraining on plant-specific, full-scope simulators at the Simulator Centre (Simulatorzentrum) in Essen.
Due to demographic personnel development, a forward-looking personnel management system is implemented for maintenance of competence and quantity of personnel. On the basis of expected retirements, as well as statistical forecasts, plant operators typically plan the need for replacement recruitment up to five years in advance. Systematic training programmes and a long-running “parallel recruitment” system are in place to ensure the transfer of know-how.
2.10. Stakeholder Involvement
Since 2000, a monitoring group of representatives of government and NPP operators meets on a regular basis to discuss current issues around the development of nuclear power in Germany.
2.11. Emergency Preparedness
Nuclear emergency preparedness in Germany comprises on-site and off-site planning. On-site emergency planning comprises technical and organisational measures taken at NPPs and lies within the responsibility of the operator. Off-site emergency planning comprises disaster control for averting imminent danger and precautionary radiation protection aiming to deal with the consequences of radiological releases. Off-site emergency planning lies in the responsibilities of the Länder and the Federation.
At all German NPPs on-site accident management measures are implemented as a precaution. If an accident occurs, which has not been taken into account and against which the plant is not designed, the accident management measures shall detect and control this event and prevent damage (preventive measure) or mitigate the effects within and outside of the plant (mitigative measures). Rulings that are specified to enable the operating personnel in performing situation-dependent tasks and the description of the measures that can be taken in case of event sequences that exceed design limit values, with the objective of either controlling the event sequence itself or of mitigating its effects are described in the plant-specific emergency manual. In the light of the accident of Fukushima, Germany also revised the on-site emergency preparedness of its NPP. The national action plan resulting from the EU stress test includes new measures regarding on-site emergency preparedness which were implemented or are planned to be implemented.
Off-site emergency planning, especially the disaster control comprises protective actions in the area affected in order to protect the public from the effects of radionuclide releases. Depending on the specific circumstances, these measures may include sheltering, taking iodine tablets, evacuation and if necessary resettlements. In order to reduce radiation exposure of the population even in those areas where disaster control measures are not justified protective measures are foreseen. As a result of the Fukushima accident the existing regulations and basic fundamentals regarding off-site emergency preparedness and response in Germany are reviewed by a working group of the Commission on Radiological Protection (Strahlenschutzkommission – SSK). This discussion was finalised in the year 2015 resulting in six new and 4 amended recommendations for further-reaching measures. Especially, the planning areas including associated measures and radii were revised. For NPPs under decommissioning specific characteristics were considered due to the changed risk potential.
For more information see  and http://www.ensreg.eu/EU-Stress-Tests.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory Framework
Germany is organized as a federal republic. The responsibilities for legislation and law enforcement are assigned to the organs of the Federation and the Länder according to their scope of function. Unless otherwise specified, the execution of federal laws lies within the responsibility of the federal states, the 16 Länder.
According to the Basic Law (Grundgesetz) the Federation has the exclusive legislative power with regard to the production and utilisation of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, the construction and operation of facilities serving such purposes, protection against hazards arising from the release of nuclear energy or from ionising radiation, and the disposal of radioactive substances. The Länder execute the Atomic Energy Act on federal commission, which is the strongest form of federal administration the Basic Law provides for. Federal oversight extends to the legality and appropriateness of execution. Inter alia, the Federal Ministry can subject a Land authority to an instruction.
In the hierarchy of legislation, international treaties concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany are on the same level as formal federal law.
In addition, in Germany legislation and administrative work must take into account any binding requirement from the law of the European Union. In accordance with the Euratom Treaty, any use of ores, source material and special fissile material is subject to the Safeguards of the European Atomic Energy Community. Examples for relevant secondary law instruments on the basis of the Euratom Treaty are Directive 2013/59/Euratom, laying down basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation, Directive 2009/71/Euratom (amended by Directive 2014/87/Euratom), establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations and Directive 2011/70/Euratom, establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste.
The IAEA Safety Standards are not implemented into national regulations, but national regulations are comparable and much more detailed.
3.1.1. Regulatory Authority(ies)
See also chapter 2.1.2.
Germany is organized as a federal state. Unless otherwise specified, the execution of federal laws lies in principle within the responsibility of the federal states, the Länder. Regarding nuclear energy the Länder execute the legislation on federal commission. Nonetheless, the establishment of the authorities remain the concern of the Länder, except insofar as federal laws enacted with the consent of the Bundesrat otherwise provide.
The "Regulatory body" is composed of Federal Government and Länder government authorities (see Figure 1 and Table 11).
By organisational decree, the Federal Government names the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit – BMUB) as the supreme regulatory authority in charge of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The BMUB is responsible for federal oversight of the legality and appropriateness of execution of the Länder, including the right to issue binding instructions. The subordinate authority to the BMUB in the area of radiation protection and nuclear safety is the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz – BfS). It supports the BMUB technically and scientifically, especially in the execution of federal oversight, the preparation of legal and administrative procedures, and in intergovernmental co-operation.
According to the Atomic Energy Act, the respective Länder governments determine the supreme Länder authorities in charge of the licensing and supervision of nuclear power plants (see Table 4A). For technical matters in the licensing procedure and the supervision of nuclear facilities, the regulatory authorities of the Länder are supported by independent technical support organizations, in general the nuclear departments of the technical support organizations (e.g. TÜV).
The Länder Committee for Nuclear Energy (LAA) is composed of representatives from the Länder nuclear licensing and supervisory authorities and from the BMUB. It serves for the preparatory co-ordination of Federal and Länder authorities in connection with the execution of the Atomic Energy Act as well as for the preparation of amendments and the further development of legal and administrative provisions as well as of the regulatory guidance instruments. In the interest of an execution of nuclear law that is as uniform throughout Germany as possible, the competent nuclear licensing and supervisory authorities of the Länder and the BMUB draft any regulations on the uniform handling of nuclear law in consensus. In the area of legislation, the LAA is an important instrument of early and comprehensive involvement of the Länder which supplements the formal right of participation of the Länder in the legislative procedure of the German Federal Council (Bundesrat). The Committee‘s decisions are usually by mutual consent.
TABLE 11: ASSIGNMENT OF THE REGULATORY FUNCTIONS TO THE NUCLEAR AUTHORITIES OF THE FEDERATION AND THE LÄNDER
|Establishment of national safety requirements and regulations||Further development of the legal requirements (decided by Parliament in the case of formal Acts, by Federal Government with approval of the Bundesrat in the case of ordinances) and the regulatory guidance instruments||Participation on the basis of consolidated findings and needs in connection with execution|
Supplementary administrative procedures of the respective Länder
|Licensing system with regard to nuclear installations||Oversight with regard to legality and expediency*|
Checking of consolidated findings with regard to their relevance to standard national requirements
|Checking of applications and notifications according to Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act, granting of licences and approvals |
|System of regulatory inspection and assessment of nuclear installations||Oversight with regard to legality and expediency*|
Checking of consolidated findings with regard to their relevance to standard national requirements
|Controls and inspections in the nuclear facilities, checking and assessment with regard to the relevance to the safety of the installation, as well as to protection and prevention measures|
|Enforcement of applicable regulations and of the terms of licences||Oversight with regard to legality and expediency*|
Checking of consolidated findings with regard to their relevance to standard national requirements
|Implementation of necessary measures to avert hazards and concerning necessary safety improvements and improvements of protection and prevention measures |
|Regulatory safety research||Investigation of safety issues for standard requirements ||Plant-specific studies |
|Monitoring of events, operating experience and implementation||Examination and assessment of events in Germany and abroad, with regard to generic relevance to the safety of installations as well as to protection and prevention measures; national organisation of experience feedback||Examination and assessment of events with regard to relevance to the safety of installations as well as to protection and prevention measures|
|Radiation protection, environmental monitoring||Monitoring of the radiation exposure of the population and the federal territory ||Plant-specific monitoring of emissions and immissions (radiation exposure of workers and in the environment)|
|Emergency preparedness||Preparation and planning of general requirements; cross-national emergency preparedness, international reporting systems ||Participation in the preparation and planning of general requirements, plant-specific emergency protection |
|International co-operation||Participation in international activities to determine the state of the art in science and technology and regarding nuclear regulations, and provision for national purposes;|
Fulfilment of international obligations; assertion of German safety interests
|Consideration of the internationally documented state of the art in science and technology |
Participation in co-operation with neighbouring countries in the case of installations close to the border, especially on the basis of bilateral agreements
Source: Country Information .
3.1.2. Licensing Process
Participants in the licensing and supervisory procedure for NPPs are shown in Figure 3.
A licence is required for construction, operation, and essential modification of nuclear facilities, or for the operation and decommissioning of a stationary installation for the production, treatment, processing or fission of nuclear fuel. Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act, licences for the construction of nuclear power plants for the commercial production of electricity are no longer issued. Licensing procedures for NPPs are therefore only performed for the essential modification of existing NPPs and for their decommissioning.
The operating licences for existing NPPs are not limited in time and thus do not require renewal. The authorisation for power operation of existing NPPs expires once the shutdown dates fixed in the Atomic Energy Act are reached or if the electricity volume for the respective plant, as stipulated in the Atomic Energy Act, including possible electricity volumes transferred from other plants, has been produced.
The actual details and procedure of licensing are specified in the Nuclear Licensing Procedure Ordinance. Here, the application procedure with the submission of supporting documents and the participation of the general public are described. Furthermore, the Nuclear Licensing Procedure Ordinance specifies the assessment of any environmental impact and the consideration of other licensing requirements (e.g. regarding the possible release or discharge of non-radioactive pollutants into air or water).
The written licence application is submitted to the competent licensing authority of the Land in which the nuclear installation is sited. On the basis of the submitted documents, the licensing authority examines whether or not the licensing prerequisites have been met. All federal, Länder, local and other regional authorities – according to circumstances also authorities of other states - whose jurisdiction is involved shall take part in the licensing procedure. These are e.g. authorities responsible under the building code, the water code, for regional planning and for emergency response. Participation of the public was obligatory for construction licences. In case of major modifications, the authority may waive a public participation if the modification does not give rise to the concern that there might be adverse effects on the public. However, the public has to be involved if this is required pursuant to the Act on the Assessment of Environmental Impacts. The competent authority performs a final evaluation of the environmental impacts on the basis of the requirements in nuclear and radiation protection regulations. The final decision of the licensing authority is based on the entirety of application documents, safety evaluation reports by the authorized experts and, if available, the statement by the BMUB and the authorities consulted as well as the findings from objections raised in the public hearing.
As in licensing, the prime objective of the regulatory supervision of nuclear installations is to protect the general public and workers in these installations against the hazards connected with the operation of the installation. Nuclear installations are subject to continuous regulatory supervision over their entire lifetime - from the start of construction to the end of decommissioning. Supervision is performed by the Länder authorities, on behalf of the Federation. Authorized experts called in by the supervisory authority have access to the nuclear installation at any time and are authorized to perform the necessary examinations and to demand pertinent information. In addition, the operators of NPPs have to supply operating reports to the supervisory authorities at regular intervals. Any events that are relevant to safety and to physical protection must be reported to the authorities. In addition to the continuous regulatory supervision, comprehensive periodic safety reviews are to be performed every ten years.
Under the Atomic Energy Act the NPP operator’s liability for third party damage is unlimited. Furthermore, the Atomic Energy Act compels the operators of NPPs to secure their liability for damages which may arise from a nuclear incident (compulsory financial security). Pursuant to the regulations of the Nuclear Financial Security Ordinance the financial security to be provided for each operating NPP shall be € 2.5 billion. The financial security may be ensured by third party liability insurance or other financial means, e.g. private warranty. The Atomic Energy Act also stipulates that the Federation shall indemnify an NPP operator from any liability to pay compensation for nuclear damage to the extent such liability cannot be satisfied out of the financial security provided by the operator. The maximum amount of indemnification by the Federation shall be € 2.5 billion.
The individual power utilities or their subsidiaries are the licensees of the NPPs. They are obliged by law to build up financial reserves to be prepared for the follow-up costs connected with the operation of a nuclear power plant, such as the decommissioning and dismantling of the installations, and the treatment and disposal of radioactive material including spent fuel. The financial reserves are adjusted on an annual basis. The valuation of these reserves is regularly reviewed by independent accountants and the financial authorities.
For further information see  and .
FIGURE 3: PARTICIPANTS IN THE LICENSING AND SUPERVISION PROCEDURE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
3.2. National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power
The Atomic Energy Act is the core of national regulations with respect to nuclear safety and waste management in Germany. It was promulgated on 23 December 1959. Since then, it has been amended several times. Since the amendment of 2002, one of the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act is to end the use of nuclear energy for the commercial production of electricity in a structured manner, and to ensure on-going operation up until the date of discontinuation. It also aims to protect life, health and property against the hazards of nuclear energy and the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation and, furthermore, to provide for the compensation for any damage and injuries incurred. Most of the regulations laid down in the Atomic Energy Act are not exhaustive and are further specified, both regarding the procedures and the substantive legal requirements, by ordinances, general administrative provisions and regulatory guidance instruments. The concrete rules concerning the safety of NPPs are in particular comprised of the safety standards of the Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (Kerntechnischer Ausschuss - KTA), recommendations from the Reactor Safety Commission (Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission - RSK), the Nuclear Waste Management Commission (Entsorgungskommission – ESK) and the Commission on Radiological Protection (Strahlenschutzkommission - SSK), but also conventional technical standards (DIN, ISO and IEC).
Main national laws and regulations on nuclear power and waste management
See chapter 1A of the Handbook on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz)
Precautionary Radiation Protection Act (Strahlenschutzvorsorgegesetz)
Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlenschutzverordnung)
Nuclear Licensing Procedure Ordinance (Atomrechtliche Verfahrensverordnung)
Nuclear Financial Security Ordinance (Atomrechtliche Deckungsvorsorge-Verordnung)
Repository Prepayment Ordinance (Endlagervorausleistungsverordnung)
Nuclear Reliability Assessment Ordinance (Atomrechtliche Zuverlässigkeitsüberprüfungs-Verordnung)
Nuclear Safety Officer and Reporting Ordinance (Atomrechtliche Sicherheitsbeauftragten- und Meldeverordnung)
Nuclear Waste Shipment Ordinance (Atomrechtliche Abfallverbringungsverordnung)
 Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland, http://www.destatis.de
 Energiestudie 2015 – Reserven, Ressourcen und Verfügbarkeit von Energierohstoffen;, Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover, http://www.bgr.bund.de/DE/Themen/Energie/Downloads/Energiestudie_2015.pdf;jsessionid=7FB4BDC96C4DD72771AEF4B3ACE8B3F4.1_cid331?__blob=publicationFile&v=2
 Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie, http://www.bmwi.de
 Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2015 (BfS-SK-27/16), http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0221-2016051914042; English version under preparation
 Bekanntmachung der erzeugten, übertragenen und verbleibenden Elektrizitätsmengen nach § 7 Absatz 1c des Atomgesetzes – Jahresmeldung 2015 – vom 1. März 2016 (BAnz AT 10.03.2016 B7)
 Report under the Convention on Nuclear Safety by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Sixth Review Meeting in March/April 2014, http://www.bmub.bund.de/N50198-1/
 RSK Statement, “Plant-specific safety review (RSK-SÜ) of German nuclear power plants in the light of the events in Fukushima-1 (Japan)”, adopted at the 437th meeting of the RSK on 11 to 14 May 2011, http://www.rskonline.de/English/downloads/memrskstnsuezusammenfassungreve.pdf
 Report of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Fifth Review Meeting in May 2015 under the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, http://www.bmub.bund.de/N51273-1/
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA
MULTILATERAL SAFEGUARDS AGREEMENTS
OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL TREATIES
BILATERAL AGREEMENTS CONCERNING THE SAFETY OF NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS AND RADIATION PROTECTION
With the following 59 countries, Germany concluded in total 184 bilateral agreements on the safety of nuclear installation or radiation protection:
Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA, Uzbekistan
For further information see Bilateral Agreements in chapter 1D of the Handbook on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection.
APPENDIX 2: DIRECTORY OF THE MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
NATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITIES, FEDERATION AND LÄNDER
|Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi)||Berlin||http://www.bmwi.de|
|Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Natur-schutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit (BMUB)||Berlin||http://www.bmub.bund.de|
|Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)||Berlin||http://www.bmbf.de|
|Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (BfS)||Salzgitter||http://www.bfs.de/DE/home/home_node.html |
|Ministerium für Umwelt, Klima und Energiewirtschaft Baden-Württemberg||Stuttgart||http://www.um.baden-wuerttemberg.de|
|Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz||München||http://www.stmuv.bayern.de|
|Hessisches Ministerium für Umwelt, Klimaschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz||Wiesbaden||https://umweltministerium.hessen.de//|
|Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie und Klimaschutz||Hannover||http://www.umwelt.niedersachsen.de|
|Ministerium für Energiewende, Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume Schleswig-Holstein||Kiel||http://www.schleswig-holstein.de/DE/Themen/R/reaktorsicherheit.html|
MAIN POWER UTILITIES
|EnBW Energie Baden-Württemberg AG||Karlsruhe|
|E.ON Kernkraft GmbH||Hannover||http://www.eon.com/de/ueber-uns/struktur/unternehmenssuche/eon-kernkraft-gmbh.html|
|RWE Energie AG ||Essen||http://www.rwe.com/web/cms/de/10122/rwe/ueber-rwe/|
|Vattenfall Europe AG||Berlin||http://www.vattenfall.de/|
MANUFACTURER, SERVICES AND OTHER NUCLEAR ORGANIZATIONS
|ANF - Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH||Lingen||http://www.areva.com/EN/operations-924/anf-lingen-production-of-components-for-fuel-assemblies.html|
|AREVA NP (Germany) GmbH||Erlangen||http://de.areva.com/|
|Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR)||Hannover||http://www.bgr.bund.de|
|Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V. (BDEW)||Berlin||http://www.bdew.de/internet.nsf/id/DE_Home|
|Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern für Abfallstoffe (DBE) ||Peine||http://www.dbe.de|
|Deutsche Kernreaktor-Versicherungsgemeinschaft (DVKG)||50950 Köln||Postfach 52 01 29|
|Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V.|
Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V.
INFORUM Verlag- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH
|Deutsch-Schweizerischer Fachverband für Strahlenschutz e.V.||Garching||http://www.fs-ev.org/startseite/ |
|Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN)||Greifswald||http://www.ewn-gmbh.de/|
|Entsorgungskommission (ESK)||Bonn||http://www.entsorgungskommission.de/ |
|Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH||Köln||http://www.grs.de|
|Gesellschaft für Nuklear-Service (GNS)||Essen||http://www.gns.de|
|Jülicher Entsorgungsgesellschaft für Nuklearanlagen (JEN) mbH||Jülich||http://www.ewn-gmbh.de/en/jen/das-unternehmen/firmenportraet.html |
|Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (KTA)||Salzgitter||http://www.kta-gs.de|
|Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG)||Eggenstein-|
|Kraftanlagen Heidelberg GmbH ||Heidelberg||http://www.ka-heidelberg.de/index.php|
|Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) ||Braunschweig||http://www.ptb.de|
|Siemens AG, Power Generation||Erlangen||http://www.energy.siemens.com/hq/en/?tab=energy-1213565-Power%20Generation|
|Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH||Krefeld||http://www.siempelkamp.com|
KSG - Kraftwerksimulator-Gesellschaft mbH
GfS - Gesellschaft für Simulatorforschung mbH
|Studsvik GmbH & Co. KG||Pforzheim||http://www.studsvik.com/|
|TÜV Nord Gruppe||Hannover||http://www.tuev-nord.de|
|TÜV Süd Gruppe||München||http://www.tuev-sued.de|
|Urenco Deutschland GmbH||Gronau||http://www.urenco.com|
|VGB PowerTech e.V. (Vereinigung der Großkraftwerksbetreiber)||Essen||http://www.vgb.org|
|Westinghouse Electric Company||http://www.westinghousenuclear.com|
|Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rückbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH)||Karlsruhe||http://www.ewn-gmbh.de/wak/wak-gmbh.html |
NUCLEAR RESEARCH INSTITUTES
|Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)||Hamburg||http://www.desy.de/|
|Fachgruppe Energietechnik an der Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz||Zittau/Görlitz||http://f-m.hszg.de/fakultaet/fachgruppe-energietechnik.html|
|Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH||Jülich||http://www.fz-juelich.de/portal/|
|Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.(HZDR)||Dresden||http://www.hzdr.de|
|Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI)||Darmstadt||http://www.gsi.de/|
|Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie (HZB) ||Berlin||http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/|
|Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbH||Geesthacht||http://www.hzg.de/index.php.de|
|Institut für Endlagerforschung der TU Clausthal||Clausthal-Zellerfeld||http://www.ielf.tu-clausthal.de/de/ueber-uns/|
|Institut für Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE) an der Universität Stuttgart||Stuttgart||http://www.ike.uni-stuttgart.de/|
|Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)||Karlsruhe||http://www.kit.edu/|
|Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik||Heidelberg||http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/|
|Institut für Energietechnik der Technischen Universität Dresden||Dresden|
|Physikalisches Institut der Universität Heidelberg||Heidelberg||http://www.physi.uni-heidelberg.de/|
|VKTA - Strahlenschutz, Analytik & Entsorgung Rossendorf e.V.||Dresden||http://www.vkta.de/de/index.html|
Name of report coordinator
Dr. Claudia Link
Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz / Federal Office for Radiation Protection
Fachbereich Sicherheit in der Kerntechnik (SK) / Department Nuclear Safety
Postfach / P.O. Box 10 01 49
D- 38201 Salzgitter
Phone: +49 30 18333 – 1534