This report provides information on the status and development of the nuclear power programme in Turkey, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Turkey.
At present, there is no nuclear power plant in operation in Turkey. However, Turkey is considering embarking on a nuclear power programme and is planning to install three nuclear power plants, to include 12 nuclear power reactor units. The first nuclear power plant (Akkuyu NPP), is expected to comprise four units of WWER-1200 type reactors; it will be constructed and operated in Mersin Province under the agreement signed with the Russian Federation in 2010. The second nuclear plant (Sinop NPP), which will include four units of ATMEA1 type reactor, will be constructed and operated in Sinop Province under the agreement with Japan made in 2013. The site selection process for the third nuclear plant is still ongoing. The construction of the first unit of Akkuyu NPP formally launched on 3 April 2018. It is planned that the first unit of Akkuyu NPP will be in operation by the end of 2023. The other units will be put into commercial operation at one year intervals until the end of 2026. Other NPPs will be in operation by 2035.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
Overaching Turkish energy policy focuses on assuring the supply of energy in a reliable, sufficient, timely manner. Energy and electricity production is to be obtained in economical and clean terms, and in such a way as to support and orient targeted growth and social development. Prepared by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR), the National Energy and Mining Policy of Turkey has developed plans in line with three considerations: security of supply, indigenous production and potential projections of the foreseeable market.
The main aims of security of supply are to achieve diversification of energy resources and markets, sustainability and reliability of resource transfer, and a reduction in the cost of imported energy products. Security of supply is also closely related to a strong economy and national security. The issue of security of supply is discussed under five headings: diversification of energy resources and supplier countries, natural gas and oil storage facilities, capacity to provide natural gas to the system, energy delivery infrastructure and energy efficiency.
Indigenous energy production using national resources is important in achieving energy independence. In this regard, indigenization is critically important for Turkey to add a new dimension to its policies and strategies to reduce the country’s dependence on imports. Many public and private sector institutions and organizations, in particular the MENR, are expending efforts to increase the use of national energy resources. In order to decrease Turkey’s dependence on imported energy, there are plans to increase the use of renewable energy resources, domestic coal and nuclear energy, and to tap into domestic oil and natural gas reserves.
Turkey intends to improve its electricity market and build up a proper natural gas market, restructure institutions in the energy sector and rehabilitate the infrastructure of the energy supply. The National Energy and Mining Policy reveals several strategies and objectives in order to create a more foreseeable, transparent and investor friendly energy market. In recent years, a series of major energy projects have been signed and these projects will contribute to Turkey’s goal of having a greater role as an energy trading hub.
Policy issues related to energy are within the responsibility of the MENR. Energy planning studies, taking into account short, medium and long term policies and measures, are carried out by the MENR within the framework of the above listed objectives.
Although almost all conventional resources exist in Turkey, these resources are not sufficient to meet the substantial growth in energy demand, except for lignite and hydro. Around 76% of energy demand is met through imports. Energy planning studies indicate that Turkey’s energy demand will continue to increase in parallel with economic development, industrialization and urbanization. In this context, Turkey has intensified efforts at further diversification in primary energy sources, imports (diversifying in both type and origin), technologies and infrastructures, while accelerating the production and utilization of remaining domestic resources potential and efficiency gains along the energy supply–demand chain.
Turkey became a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2004, based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”. The law regarding the accession of Turkey to the UNFCCC was adopted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly in October 2003 and entered into force on 24 May 2004. Studies are underway for the first National Communication to be submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Kyoto Protocol was ratified by the Turkish Parliament on 5 February 2009. Improvement of energy efficiency, greater utilization of renewable sources, deployment of clean coal technologies and the introduction of nuclear power are among the main strategies involved in addressing the challenges within the energy–environment linkage.
In order to meet the increasing energy demand without disruption, Turkey continues to develop policies to meet a considerable part of its energy demand by increasing power generation from domestic resources, enabling energy markets to gain depth. By virtue of its geographical location, Turkey connects energy supplying and energy demanding countries. As a consequence, the policy developed by Turkey becomes extremely important on both the national and international level.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
Available energy sources are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Units||Mt||Mt||Bm3||metric tonnes||metric tonnes||TWh/y||TWh/y||TWh/y||TWh/y|
|Total||12 615||45.2||6.7||9 129||380 000||160||12*||153||380|
Hydro and other renewable (geothermal, solar and wind) values given as their maximum available potentials.
* Geothermal potential is equal to 0.0072 TW(e).
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.
1.1.3. Energy statistics
Historical energy data are shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|- Other renewables||0.02||0.04||0.06||0.11||0.28||0.35||0.51||16.10|
|- Other renewables||0.02||0.04||0.06||0.11||0.28||0.35||0.51||16.10|
|Net import (Import–Export)||0.62||1.21||2.29||2.84||3.32||4.39||4.43||4.88||4.56|
* Lastest available data
** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import–Export) of secondary energy.
*** Solid fuels includes coal, lignite.
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
In parallel with economic growth and social development, electricity demand has shown a significant increase over the past decades, reaching 303.3 TWh by the end of 2018.
Turkey has coal (mostly lignite) and hydro resources for electricity generation (Fig. 1). The share of domestic resources for electricity generation was 49.65% in 2018. Turkey attaches utmost importance to the utilization of the remaining potential, with due regard, to cope with the risks stemming from import dependency. Integration of nuclear power plants into the Turkish electricity grid is also being considered as an essential tool to enhance supply security, while strengthening the greenhouse gas emission mitigation efforts.
The Electricity Market Law (Law No. 6446) was enacted in 2013 in order to conduct market operating activities in a more effective way. In addition, a new corporation, the Energy Markets Operating Corporation (EPIAS), was introduced under this new law, creating a formal electricity wholesale market as well. Since April 2015, EPIAS is the new operator of the wholesale market for electricity which includes the day-ahead market and a continuous intraday market since July 2015.
The Turkish transmission network has cross-border lines to the electricity grids of all its neighbouring countries. However, Turkey is synchronously connected only to Greece and Bulgaria.
The goals of the National Energy and Mining Policy regarding electricity generation can be summarized as follows:
To increase domestic energy production;
To increase the share of renewable energy in total energy production by at least 30% (this goal has already been achieved by the end of 2018 with a total renewables share, including hydro, to reach 32.5% in total elecricity generation);
To increase the share of nuclear power plants in electricity generation by at least 10%.
FIG. 1. Electricity generation distribution, depending on energy sources.
1.2.2. Structure of electric power section
The MENR is the main body of the Turkish energy sector and is responsible for the preparation and implementation of energy policies, plans and programmes, in coordination with its dependent and related institutions and other public and private entities. The Ministry is responsible for monitoring and taking measures regarding the security of the electricity supply.
The Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) is the regulator of the electricity, natural gas, downstream petroleum and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) products markets. EMRA is responsible for granting licences for activities in the gas and electricity markets for generation (including electricity generated from renewable sources), transmission, distribution, wholesale, retail, import and export.
The Electricity Generation Company (EÜAS) is the state owned generation company responsible for the operation of existing power plants owned by the public.
The Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) is the transmission system operator and is responsible for planning, installing and operating the transmission grid, for providing system security such that transmission constraints will be minimized, and for preparing generation capacity projection and the 20 Year Long Term Electricity Generation Development Plan.
Within the context of the Decree Law No. 703 published in the Official Gazette No. 30473 (bis) of 9 July 2018, Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Co. (TETAS) and Electricity Generation Company (EÜAS) unified under the structure of EÜAS and duties, authorities and responsibilities of former TETAS are now being performed by EÜAS.
Distribution companies: Twenty-one distribution companies with their own geographical region are all legally unbundled and privatized through transfer of operating rights contracts. The ownership of the distribution network asset remains with the state (with TEDAS as holding company)
1.2.3. Main indicators
Electricity production, consumption and capacity are shown in Table 3, and energy related ratios are shown in Table 4.
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
||Average annual growth rate (%)|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GW(e))|
|Electricity production (TWh)|
|Total electricity consumption (TWh)||24.62||56.81||128.28||210.43||265.72||296.70||303.28||5|
* Lastest available data.
** Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
Source: TEIAS (Turkish Electricity Transmission Company).
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||30.12||39.51||49.99||52.91||62.25||62.04||68.70||71.46||75.28|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita) (gross)||550||1006||1891||2231||2770||2854||3325||3499||3672|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||11.5||19.4||41.2||56.7||58.3||55.9||73||67||72|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)**||46.1||54.4||68.0||74.5||73.5||72.41||76||74||76|
* Lastest available data.
** Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
—: data not available.
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Since 1970, Turkey has had plans in place to establish nuclear power generation capabilities. In order to meet the increasing domestic demand for energy and reduce its dependence on energy imports, various initiatives were undertaken in the past to build Turkey’s first nuclear power plant (NPP).
Regarding the nuclear history of Turkey, studies to build an NPP in Turkey started in 1965. Later, between 1967 and 1970, a feasibility study was undertaken by a foreign consulting company to build a 300–400 MW NPP. This plant would have been in operation in 1977. However, the project did not come to fruition because of problems related to site selection and other issues.
In 1973, the Turkish Electricity Authority (TEK) decided to build an 80 MW(e) prototype plant. However, in 1974, the project was cancelled because it could have delayed the construction of a greater capacity NPP. Instead of this prototype plant, TEK decided to build a 600 MW(e) NPP in southern Turkey.
Site selection studies were made in 1974 and 1975, and the Gulnar–Akkuyu location was found suitable for the construction of the first NPP. In 1976, the Atomic Energy Commission granted a site licence for Akkuyu. In 1977, a bid was prepared, and the ASEA-ATOM and STAL-LAVAL companies were awarded the contract. Contract negotiations continued until 1980. However, in September 1980, the withdrawal of a loan guarantee led to the project’s cancellation.
A third attempt was made in 1980. Three companies were awarded the contract to build four nuclear power plants: one Canada deuterium–uranium (CANDU) reactor unit by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), one pressurized water reactor unit by KWU in Akkuyu, and two boiling water reactor units by General Electric in Sinop. Due to Turkey’s request to apply the build–operate–transfer (BOT) model, KWU resigned from the bid. Although AECL accepted the BOT model, it insisted upon a governmental guarantee of the BOT credit. The Turkish government refused to give such a guarantee, and consequently the project was cancelled.
In 1993, the Supreme Council for Science and Technology identified nuclear electricity generation as the project of third highest priority for the country. In view of this decision, the Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Company (TEAS) included a nuclear power plant project in its 1993 investment programme. In 1995, TEAS selected the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) as the consultant for the preparation of the bid specifications. The bid process started in 1996. Three consortia (AECL, Nuclear Power International and Westinghouse) offered proposals in 1997.
In July 2000, after a series of delays, the government decided to postpone the project.
Following this delay, the Law on Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of Energy Generated (Law No. 5710) was ratified; it entered into force on 21 November 2007.
The Regulation Regarding the Principles, Procedures, and Incentives for the Contracts and the Contest that will be made within the context of Law on the Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of the Energy Generated was published in the Official Gazette on 19 March 2008. The purpose of the regulation is to regulate the procedures and principles regarding the construction and operation of NPPs for electrical energy production, and to regulate energy sales.
In accordance with this, the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) issued a set of criteria that establish general principles to ideally be met by investors.
A competition for construction and operation of NPPs and energy sale was held on 24 September 2008 by the TETAS for the construction of NPP units on the Akkuyu site.
Only one consortium bid for the competition. After evaluating the technical documents provided by the consortium, TAEK announced, on 19 December 2008, that the proposed NPP met TAEK’s criteria.
The last envelope provided by the consortium on 24 September 2008, including the energy sale unit price, was opened by TETAS on 19 January 2009. After assessment, the competition performed on 24 September 2008 was canceled by TETAS on 20 November 2009.
Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant
Direct negotiations with the Russian Federation to build an NPP on the Akkuyu site in Turkey started in February 2010 and concluded with an intergovernmental agreement (IGA) based on a build–own–operate (BOO) model. The agreement was signed on 12 May 2010. It aims to build nuclear capacity in Turkey through mutual cooperation, ranging from NPP construction and operation in Akkuyu–Mersin, to decommissioning.
For the implementation phase of the project, the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant Electricity Generation Joint Stock Company (Akkuyu Project Company, APC), was established on 13 December 2010. On 7 February 2011, TAEK recognized APC as the owner, according to the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations. Akkuyu NPP Electricity Generation JSC was renamed and registered as Akkuyu Nuclear JSC (Akkuyu Project Company, APC) in September 2014.
In 2011, the Akkuyu site, with the existing site licence, was given to APC. Then, APC started site investigations in Akkuyu to update site characteristics and parameters, according to the national procedures laid out in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations. In May 2012, APC submitted an updated site report (USR) to TAEK. A review and assessment were conducted by TAEK, its Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety and the IAEA, and a positive decision for the USR was given in December 2013. Then, a site parameters report (SPR) was submitted to TAEK in November 2014. The updated SPR (Rev. 2), which addresses the site licence’s validity, was submitted to TAEK in December 2015. The report was updated according to TAEK’s evaluation findings. The SPR (Rev. 4), which was presented by Akkuyu Nuclear JSC and which includes the results of detailed site investigations performed at the NPP site and the precise values of the project parameters, was approved by TAEK on 9 February 2017.
On 3 March 2017, Akkuyu Nuclear JSC applied to TAEK for a construction licence for Akkuyu NPP Unit 1 and TAEK awarded a limited work permit to APC on 20 October 2017. Under this permit, APC was able to start construction of that part of the building and infrastructure unrelated to nuclear safety, such as the port, road and personnel buildings. After reviewing the licence application documents, TAEK issued the construction licence on 2 April 2018. With this licence, APC can start construction of nuclear safety related buildings and infrastructures such as a reactor or turbine buildings. On 3 April 2018, construction of the first unit of Akkuyu NPP formally launched with the pouring of concrete for the sub-base foundation of the nuclear island.
APC applied to the Ministry of the Environment and Urbanism (MOEU) for an environmental impact assessment (EIA) on 2 December 2011 and submitted the EIA to MOEU on 6 December 2013. An affirmative decision was given on 1 December 2014.
APC obtained an electricity generation licence for 49 years from EMRA on 15 June 2017. In addition, APC and TETAS signed a power purchase agreement (PPA) on 30 December 2017.
Fundamental aspects of the IGA to build and operate a nuclear power plant on the Akkuyu site in Turkey include the following:
The Russian party established a joint stock project company in Turkey initially with a 100% share.
The Turkish party allocated Akkuyu site to the project company free of charge until the decommissioning of the NPP. Other additional land shall also be allocated free of charge if required.
The Russian party’s share will never be below 51% at any time (and the Government of the Russian Federation will be the guarantor of the project).
APC will be the owner of the NPP.
The general contractor will be JSC Atomstroyexport (ASE).
The Russian party shall provide funding to ASE for the construction of NPPs.
15 year PPA will be awarded to APC for:
70% of the electricity generated by Units 1 and 2;
30% of the electricity generated by Units 3 and 4.
Generated electricity shall be bought by TETAS in accordance with a PPA for 15 years at US $0.1235/kWh (fixed price, no escalation) on weighted average.
In case of less production than the volume stipulated in the PPA, APC shall fulfill its obligations by providing the lacking volume of electricity.
Nuclear fuel shall be sourced from suppliers based on long term agreements entered into between APC and the suppliers.
Subject to separate agreements that may be agreed by the parties, spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin may be reprocessed in the Russian Federation.
APC is responsible for decommissioning and waste management for the NPP. Within this framework, APC will make the necessary payments to relevant funds.
For the PPA period:
US $0.0015/kWh shall be paid for spent fuel and radioactive waste management;
US $0.0015/kWh shall be paid for decommissioning.
Turkish companies and citizens will be included in the project to the extent possible.
The project will be subject to all applicable laws, regulations and codes in Turkey. All necessary licences, permits and approvals from related governmental organizations shall be obtained by APC.
Sinop Nuclear Power Plant
Electricity Generation Joint Stock Company (EUAS) is a state owned company and the largest electricity generation company in Turkey. EUAS operates the existing hydraulic and thermal power plants, including their maintenance, repair and rehabilitation. EUAS has been given the role of state operating organization for NPPs that are owned and operated by the state (as whole owner or shareholder).
EUAS applied to TAEK as an owner on 2 August 2012. EUAS was recognized by TAEK as an owner on 22 August 2012. After being recognized as an owner by TAEK, EUAS initiated the preparation of the site report for the Sinop NPP in order to obtain a site licence in accordance with TAEK regulations.
The MENR negotiated with candidate vendor countries (such as Canada, China, Japan, Republic of Korea). An agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Japan on Cooperation for Development of Nuclear Power Plants and the Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Turkey was signed on 3 May 2013. This agreement entered into force on 31 of July 2015 after completion of diplomatic procedures.
In the context of the Sinop project, feasibility studies are ongoing for verification of site suitability and development of the financial scheme. It is expected that the feasibility studies will be completed by the first half of 2018. After the feasibility studies have been completed, the Sinop Project Company (SPC) will be established.
EUAS International Incorporated Cell Company (EUAS ICC) was established on Jersey Island in 2016 as an international private nuclear company of EUAS.
According to the Sinop IGA, EUAS ICC will be a shareholder of the SPC together with a Japan consortium which consists of Mitsubushi, Itochu and ENGIE.
A law on the establishment of a Turkish–Japanese Science and Technology University was ratified by the Turkish Parliament in 2016.
Having applied for an EIA, EUAS ICC organized a public participation meeting on 6 February 2018.
Third Nuclear Power Plant
For the third NPP, a memorandum of understanding was signed by EUAS, Westinghouse EC and SNPTC (Chinese State Power Technology Company) for the implementation of feasibility studies for the third NPP on 13 June 2017. Currently, site selection studies are ongoing for the third NPP project.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart
The MENR is the main body of the Turkish energy sector. It is responsible for the preparation and implementation of energy policies, plans and programmes, in coordination with its dependent and related institutions and with other public and private entities.
The EMRA was established by Laws No. 4628 and 4646. The Law on the Electricity Market, published in the Official Gazette on 3 March 2001, was enacted to unbundle electricity market activities, enable progress into a liberalized electricity market and provide fair and transparent market regulation.
Until mid-2018, TAEK was the regulatory body of Turkey. After that time, the regulatory activities of TAEK were transferred to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA), which has undertaken the regulatory activities concerning facilities (including nuclear power plants), devices, substances and activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation as the regulatory authority of Turkey.
TAEK conducts experimental and theoretical studies at its research centres and collaborates in projects with universities and other related organizations. The research infrastructure at the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center of TAEK (ÇNAEM) is especially devoted to research and development activities addressing issues for nuclear reactor and fuel technology.
The MOEU has jurisdiction for making environmental assessment reports for power plants, including nuclear power plants.
The TETAS is responsible for electricity wholesale sales and purchases.
The TEIAS is the transmission system operator and is responsible for planning, installing and operating the transmission grid.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
There are no nuclear power plants in operation or being decommissioned. The first unit of the Akkuyu NPP is under construction.
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
Integration of nuclear energy into the Turkish energy supply will be one of the major means of decreasing the risks emerging from dependence on imported fuels by satisfying the increasing electric energy demand. MENR targets call for the share of NPPs in electric energy generation to reach at least 5% by the end of 2023.
According to an agreement with the Russian Federation, four units with WWER-1200 type reactors, each with a capacity of 1200 MW, will be constructed on the Akkuyu site. The total installed capacity of Akkuyu NPP will be 4800 MW(e) and the lifetime of each unit is 60 years. It is expected that the first unit of the Akkuyu NPP will be put into operation in 2023 and other units at one year intervals until the end of 2026 (Table 5).
According to an agreement with Japan, four units with ATMEA-1 type reactors, each with 1120 MW power, will be constructed in Sinop Province. The total installed capacity of the Sinop NPP will be 4480 MW(e) and the lifetime of each unit is 60 years. The first two units of Sinop NPP are expected to be in operation in 2025 and 2026 and the other two units in 2029 and 2030.
Site selection studies for the third nuclear power plant are ongoing.
TABLE 5. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/Project name||Type||Capacity||Expected construction start year||Expected commercial year|
|Akkuyu NPP — 1||WWER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2018||2023|
|Akkuyu NPP — 2||WWER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2019||2024|
|Akkuyu NPP — 3||WWER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2020||2025|
|Akkuyu NPP — 4||WWER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2021||2026|
|Sinop NPP — 1||ATMEA-1||1120 MW(e)||2020||2025|
|Sinop NPP — 2||ATMEA-1||1120 MW(e)||2021||2026|
|Sinop NPP — 3||ATMEA-1||1120 MW(e)||2024||2029|
|Sinop NPP — 4||ATMEA-1||1120 MW(e)||2025||2030|
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
The Akkuyu NPP construction project is the world’s first nuclear power plant project implemented on the BOO (build–own–operate) principle. Under the long term contract, APC assumes obligations for designing, constructing, maintaining, operating and decommissioning the plant.
Under the terms of the agreement with the Russian Federation, the general contractor for the construction of Akkuyu NPP is ASE, which is a leading Russian engineering company of State Corporation ‘Rosatom’ in construction of nuclear power facilities abroad.
Russian companies will be involved in architectural engineering as well as the supply of reactors and main components. Provisions are included in the agreement to maximize local participation and utilization of the workforce. APC envisages high participation of local companies in constructing the plant and providing workers, construction materials and equipment.
MENR also initiated a study in order to perform a realistic assessment of local supplier capabilities for either nuclear or non-nuclear safety related activities. As a result of this study, a capacity improvement plan is to be established and implemented with Turkish companies willing to participate in the construction activities of other NPP projects, as well as Akkuyu NPP projects.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
Rosatom affiliates established APC as a JSC in Turkey on 13 December 2010. According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, Russian companies will initially own 100% of APC and retain the majority stake during the lifetime of the project (51–100%). Turkish and third country investors can join the project and acquire up to 49% of APC at any stage of its implementation (Table 6).
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for operation of the plant. The operation and maintenance contractor will be Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC, which owns a major share of APC.
TABLE 6. SHAREHOLDERS OF APC (AKKUYU NPP ELECTRICITY GENERATION JSC)
|Shareholders||Share percentage of APC|
|CJSC Rusatom Oversea||74.915%|
|OJSC Concern Rosenergoatom||21.948% |
|JSC Atomstroyexport||2.267% |
|JSC Inter RAO||0.820% |
|JSC Atomenergoremont ||0.025% |
For the Sinop NPP project, EUAS ICC will be one of shareholders in the project company to be established after the feasibility study.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for decommissioning the Akkuyu NPP. In addition, APC will make the necessary payments to the national decommissioning fund stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
In the Sinop project, SPC is responsible for decommissioning of the plant. In addition, APC will make the necessary payment to the national decommissioning fund stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
A reactor materials unit, for the refining of uranium concentrate for conversion to UO2 and for the manufacturing of sintered pellets, has been in operation at the ÇNAEM since 1986 and is subject to IAEA safeguards. At present, research and development activities are focused on pellet manufacturing and characterization.
Waste management is currently limited mainly to radioactive waste arising from the industrial and medical applications of nuclear technologies, and there is a facility for interim storage of these wastes. This storage facility was built in the ÇNAEM and has been operating there since 1989. Compaction, cementation and precipitation processes are carried out at this facility.
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for NPP fuel supply and waste management.
Nuclear fuel will be sourced from suppliers based on long term agreements between APC and the suppliers. At the current stage of the Akkuyu NPP project, APC is planning that the first core, and further reloads for the Akkuyu NPP will be supplied from TVEL, a Rosatom fuel supply company, based on a long term contract.
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC is responsible for safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste and decommissioning of the plant. In addition, APC will make the necessary payment to the national spent fuel and radioactive waste management fund stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
Subject to a separate agreement that may be agreed to by the parties, spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin may be reprocessed in the Russian Federation.
Currently, there is no specific entity in charge of infrastructure development regarding radioactive waste and spent fuel management in Turkey. However, after some work carried out by MENR and TAEK to determine a national policy for management of all kinds of radioactive waste, it was decided that national policy, including establishment of this entity for management of radioactive waste, would be included in the draft Act on Nuclear Energy. The draft act, which was developed by TAEK and MENR, includes arrangements for radioactive waste management policy such as determining the responsibilities of the Government, operator and other organizations; funding of waste management, including monitoring after closure of disposal facilities; financial responsibilities of waste producers; and transferring of waste management liabilities. The rules and regulations for the details of spent fuel management such as liabilities and financial aspects will be set in the secondary legislation. The national programme, which will cover the details of the radioactive waste management policy and strategy, will be prepared within two years of the enactment of the draft act.
For near surface disposal of very low and low level radioactive waste in Çölovasi/Afyon, Aslan Avci Casting Industry and trade Company applied for recognition as owner on 22 January 2018.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The nuclear policy of the country includes R&D activities concerning the application of nuclear technology in various sectors such as energy, environment, human health, industry and agriculture.
The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established as the nuclear regulatory body by Law No. 2690. TAEK regulates all nuclear and radiation activities and facilities in Turkey. Law No. 2690 gives TAEK authority and responsibility for ensuring nuclear safety and nuclear security by licensing and inspecting such activities and facilities. TAEK also coordinates and supports research and development activities in the nuclear field.
TAEK operates three nuclear research and training centres to perform research, training and development activities:
Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center;
Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center.
Although Turkey has no nuclear power plants, there are two research reactors. The governmental research centre ÇNAEM, which is one of the three institutions affiliated with TAEK, cooperates with universities and other scientific and research institutes for the development and application of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. ÇNAEM commissioned a 1 MW research reactor (TR 1) in 1962 for both research and production of isotopes for industrial and medical purposes. It was operational from 1962 to 1977, and has since been dismantled. A pool type 5 MW reactor (TR 2) was later built in the same building and operated at 5 MW between 1984 and 1994 for irradiation purposes. It operated at low power levels between 1995 and 2009 due to updates of seismic evaluation studies of the reactor building that were required. In 2013, the project to strengthen the reactor building was completed.
The second research reactor in Turkey, ITU TRIGA MARK II, reached its first criticality on 11 March 1979. It is a pool type, light water cooled and graphite reflected reactor. The ITU TRIGA MARK II reactor is capable of steady state operation at power levels up to 250 kW or pulsing mode operation where powers as high as 1200 MW are achieved for about 10 msec.
The General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration is responsible for systematic investigation and research into all kinds of resources, including thorium and uranium.
Research and development activities in nuclear technology are performed by a limited number of universities in Turkey. Hacettepe, Istanbul Technical, Ankara, Ege and Akdeniz universities are among the notable ones.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
TAEK closely follows worldwide trends and progress in the field of nuclear reactor technologies and fuel cycles.
Turkey is an associate member of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, which is the world’s leading laboratory for particle physics. All activities related to CERN in Turkey are coordinated and sponsored by TAEK. Turkey is a founding member of the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME), and TAEK is the funding and representing authority for SESAME. Turkey’s main objectives are to establish a qualified workforce by actively participating in the experimental programmes of CERN and SESAME, and to follow worldwide scientific progress.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
There are more than 180 universities in Turkey (state and private) with higher education organizations operating under Turkish Higher Education Council. Almost all universities have engineering faculties. Moreover, some universities in Turkey have undergraduate and graduate programmes in the field of nuclear engineering and science (Tabel 7).
Nuclear engineering education started in Turkey under the Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in 1961. In 2003, the NEI was restructured as the Energy Institute (EI) with a graduate programme on nuclear energy. ITU-EI has operated a TRIGA type training and research nuclear reactor with a power of 250 kW since the 1970s, mainly for educational purposes, academic research and training.
Hacettepe University (in Ankara) has provided a nuclear engineering programme in English at undergraduate and graduate levels since 1982. In 35 years, 459 nuclear engineers graduated from this programme; 15% of them are working in the nuclear sector abroad (mainly in the United States of America) and 25% of them are working at governmental organizations related with the nuclear power programme in Turkey. The remaining graduates are working in different sectors or are in graduate education at home or abroad.
In 2015, undergraduate programme on nuclear engineering was established under Sinop University. The curriculum is provided only in Turkish, and the department targets mostly education in nuclear physics, however the enrolment is low.
There are three universities in Turkey which have nuclear sciences institutes. The Ege University (in Izmir) Nuclear Sciences Institute focuses on nuclear applications in industry and environmental radiation detection/measurement. Hacettepe University Nuclear Sciences Institute focuses on radiation physics and its applications, and Ankara University Nuclear Sciences Institute focuses on medical applications, health physics, radiation protection and monitoring. The students who graduate from the Nuclear Sciences Institute get a title of Health Physicist.
TABLE 7. TURKISH UNIVERSITIES HAVING NUCLEAR EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
|Hacettepe University||B, M, D||
|Istanbul Technical University||M, D||1961, 2003|
|Ege University||M, D||
|Hacettepe University||M, D||2003|
|Ankara University||M, D||2006|
*Degrees; B: Bachelor, M: Master of Science, D: Doctor of Philosophy.
Currently there are no vocational schools providing educational activities in the fields of nuclear technology or nuclear applications. Ankara Chamber of Industry and Hacettepe University are making efforts in this area and there is a new radiation technician programme in Akdeniz University.
On the other hand, there are three nuclear research and training centres in Turkey which are affiliated institutions of TAEK. These centres are:
ÇNAEM in Istanbul;
Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in Ankara;
Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center in Ankara.
The ÇNAEM was established in 1960. A TR-2 type research nuclear reactor with a power of 5 MW has operated there since 1984. The centre includes six technical divisions related to health physics, nuclear electronics, radioactivity and analytical measurement, nuclear techniques, nuclear technology and waste management. The centre is the responsible institution for processing and storage of low and intermediate radioactive wastes arising from medical, training and research activities. In addition, radiopharmaceutical, radiation protection and nondestructive inspection training is provided in the centre.
The Saraykoy centre was established in 2005. The centre has a cyclotron type proton accelerator facility and includes four divisions related to radiation applications, measurement and instrumentation, research and development, and technology. In addition, quality assurance training for nuclear sector is provided in the centre.
The Ankara centre was established in 2010 in order to perform national and international training in the nuclear field, such as radiation protection, radiation safety, nuclear power, nuclear safety, nuclear security, and on other nuclear applications as part of the national training programme approved by TAEK administration.
TAEK trains personnel in the nuclear field at the affiliated research and training centres, also arranging for cooperation with universities and related organizations on this matter. The IAEA is one of the main supporting organizations for developing national human resources through training and fellowship programmes. Recently, TAEK has introduced three training courses for nuclear engineering, radiation monitoring and emergency preparedness under the support of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
The General Directorate of Nuclear Energy under the MENR (MENR-GDNE) serves as the nuclear energy programme implementation organization in Turkey according to the IAEA’s milestone publication. The responsibilities of the MENR-GDNE in the Turkey’s nuclear power programme are to facilitate the implementation of NPP projects and to develop the national nuclear infrastructure by ensuring coordination among national authorities, the private sector and academia.
An IAEA workshop on workforce planning and human resources development was held in Ankara in July of 2013. In this workshop, IAEA experts explained the usage of Nuclear Power Human Resources model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States of America and allocated to the IAEA for use by Member States. This modelling tool can be used to calculate needs and supply of workforce for nuclear power plant projects for different time periods involving different organizations and different project models.
A human resources and knowledge development (HRKD) plan was drafted in the light of results obtained from the model. In May of 2015, an IAEA expert mission was held in Ankara in order to review the draft human resources development plan for Turkey’s nuclear power programme. The IAEA expert team and model developer provided comments on the draft plan during the mission.
After the expert mission, the MENR-GDNE established another working group from faculty members working at Hacettepe University Nuclear Engineering Department (HUNEM), ITU-EI and Akdeniz University Nuclear Science Application and Research Center. This group developed a national strategy report on localization, human resources development and technology transfer in the nuclear field. This report also included results of the model. One of the important recommendations in this report is to establish a nuclear HRKD network in the country.
In 2016, the MENR-GDNE prepared a draft road map for nuclear HRKD between 2018 and 2023 by utilizing statements in the national strategy report. It is expected that the road map will be approved by the Higher Council of Science & Technology presided over by the Prime Minister within the year. This road fmap includes a plan for establishment of a structure to coordinate human resources development in the nuclear field.
In the scope of the HRKD studies, the following activities were also carried out:
Turkey joined the IAEA project named “Human Resources and Knowledge Development Networks Initiative” along with Japan, Malaysia and South Africa in 2016 in order to establish a national network on HRKD in the country.
The law establishing the Turkish–Japanese Science and Technology University was ratified by the Turkish Parliament in 2016. This university will include a nuclear engineering programme.
The MENR has initiated a study to get in touch with Turkish nuclear experts living abroad, especially those working in France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
Hacettepe University opened a two year vocational education programme called “Nuclear Energy Technologies” that includes a Russian language course in 2017. The students to graduate from this programme may work on the construction of Akkuyu NPP.
Four Turkish experts from Hacettepe University, ITU and MENR were sent to the Nuclear Energy Management School in Japan from 8 July to 3 August 2017 with joint financial support from IAEA and JICC.
Twelve Turkish experts from the MENR, TAEK, EUAS ICC, Hacettepe University Vocational High School and the Turkish Standards Institution were sent to the Nuclear Power Generation Safety Bases course in Japan on 4–15 December 2017. In addition, another 12 Turkish experts from the MENR, TAEK, Anadolu Agency, Sinop Nuclear Ltd. Co., AJSC and EUAS ICC were sent to the Public Acceptance course in Japan on 18–22 December 2017. The courses were carried out in Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center in Tsuruga, Japan. All expenses were covered by the JICC.
The following studies are being conducted:
Ankara Chamber of Industry is conducting a study on the establishment of a pilot nuclear training centre in Ankara for training of construction and manufacturing workers in the nuclear industry by the financial support of Ministry of Development. The chamber signed a cooperation agreement with the International Institute of Nuclear Energy in France and the Central Institute for Continuing Education and Training in the Russian Federation for the development of training curriculum for trainees and trainers of the centre.
The MENR is carrying out a study on the establishment of education programmes at vocational high schools near the nuclear power plant sites. A national workshop on the determination of nuclear courses to be added into the curriculum of selected vocational high schools was held with participants from MENR, Ministry of National Education, Akkuyu Nuclear JSC and universities in Ankara on 3–7 December 2018.
A scholarship programme selected 268 Turkish students to pursue graduate education in nuclear field at foreign universities with support from the Ministry of National Education. The students are obligated to work in MENR-GDNE, NRA, TAEA and EUAS for a period twice as long as their education period abroad after return to the country. In the context of this programme, 21 students for MENR-GDNE, 100 students for TAEA, 75 students for NRA and 72 students for EUAS will receive graduate education at foreign universities in the list of global top 500 universities in Belgium, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The education fields are related to nuclear finance; nuclear law; public relations; nuclear fuel cycle; design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical and electrical nuclear instrumentation and control equipment, systems and components; spent fuel and radioactive waste management; nuclear safety, security and safeguards; site selection and evaluation; nuclear plant construction; nuclear material science; health physics; radiochemistry; radiobiology; radiation protection; particle acceleration, etc.
According to the IGA with the Russian Federation, AJSC is responsible for education and training of operating staff without any financial burden on the Turkish government. Therefore, AJSC developed a training plan for Turkish students who will make up of 30% of technical staff. The plan includes one year of Russian language and five and a half years of nuclear engineering education at Mephi University in the Russian Federation as well as on the job training at Russian NPPs after graduation. Turkish students are awarded scholarships from the AJSC and obligated to work at Akkuyu NPP as engineers and operators. Currently, 151 Turkish students are studying in the Russian Federation in the scope of this plan. Eighty eight students have graduated from this training programme and started working at AJSC.
Moreover, according to the IGA, AJSC will establish a training centre near the plant site including a full scope control room simulator for initial and continuing training of future Turkish operating staff.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
APC established two public information centres for Akkuyu NPP, one in the town of Buyukeceli, and one in the city of Mersin, in 2012.
The Public Information Centre (PIC) in Mersin is a multifunctional communication platform. Tour programmes are designed for residents of Mersin and nearby provinces and other regions. Among the visitors are children, schoolchildren, students, government representatives, the media, tourists and many others.
Visitors to the PIC are told about the history and development of the nuclear industry, achievements in physics, energy development prospects, as well as the socioeconomic development of Turkey associated with the construction of nuclear industry enterprises and related infrastructure.
At the PIC, the principal operations of the power plant are presented graphically, and models of the industrial site of the future NPP and its reactor are displayed, while visitors are acquainted with how the protective barriers at the NPP are arranged.
The centre implements educational programmes; holds lectures, seminars and roundtables; and organizes joint programmes with government agencies, local authorities of the Turkish Republic and social and political organizations. Russian language courses are organized at the centre for those wishing to attend.
FIG. 2. Public information centre in the city of Mersin.
MENR has already developed public communication strategies on nuclear energy. A national workshop was held in Ankara in 2017 with experts from the IAEA and national organizations in order to discuss Turkey’s stakeholder involvement and public information policy and strategy on nuclear energy.
The following activities were performed for public information on nuclear energy:
On national TV channels, a public spot with Nobel laureate Aziz Sancar was broadcast.
Representatives of local people from Mersin and Sinop regions visited French nuclear installations in 2015 (television documentary).
Turkish journalists visited French nuclear installations in 2017.
Conferences in various universities.
Informative visits to schools for children in the Mersin region.
Booklets, brochures and fliers reached tens of thousand of people.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
The Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (AFAD) is the coordinating agency for all kinds of disasters and emergencies at all levels including large scale nuclear and radiological emergencies. AFAD has its own Disaster and Emergency Management Center (DEMC) like all the stakeholders which have role in emergency response according to the related regulation. AFAD-DEMC is operated on a 24/7 basis.
All the responsible authorities take part in AFAD-DEMC related to a particular emergency when effective response, coordination and collaboration at the national level are required for management of emergencies.
The Disaster and Emergency Advisory Board was established in 2018. Its meetings are chaired by the President or the Vice-President of AFAD. It consists of representatives of the following institutions and organizations: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Interior, Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory, Earthquake Research Institute, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Turkey Red Crescent and designated university lecturers.
The board is responsible for protecting against disasters and emergencies, reducing the risks of disasters and emergencies, providing suggestions on the activities that will be carried out after disaster and emergencies, and determining the policies and priorities. The board gathers at least twice a year. In case of need, the board may hold extraordinary meetings upon the call of the President of AFAD.
Provincial disaster and emergency directorates, which are affiliated with AFAD, were established within the body of governorships in provinces.
The mission of the NRA is to lead the way for ensuring that Turkey benefits from nuclear technology and to undertake regulatory and inspectorial activities.
The regulatory body is recognized as the “warning point” and the “competent authority” by the IAEA according to the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.
The NRA will provide technical consulting in case of major radiation emergencies within the AFAD-DEMC within the new preparedness and response infrastructure which was established with the foundation of AFAD. In this new framework, the NRA is one of the support solution partners of the chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) service group which has been established within the framework of the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP).
In terms of emergency/disaster response, the roles and responsibilities of ministries, related institutions and governorships are defined in related legislation and in the NDRP which was issued in 2014. The NDRP is the highest-level overarching plan and can be executed for all types of emergencies and disasters. Twenty eight service groups are designated in the NDRP for national level response. Each service group is dedicated to a specific service which may be required in case of emergency/disaster.
Based upon the Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services and National Disaster Response Plan, the National Radiation Emergency Plan (NREP) was prepared by the regulatory body in collaboration with AFAD (Fig. 3). The preparation process was carried out transparently and the comments of and inputs from the related stakeholders were taken into consideration. NREP was ratified by the Presidency of the Republic of Turkey on 6 April 2019.
The most recent approach of the IAEA on emergency preparedness and response was adopted and international practices were taken into account.
NREP is an event-type plan according to the National Disaster Response Plan. The roles of ministries, institutions and service groups set forth in the legislation are elaborated in the plan.
FIG. 3. The National Emergency Planning Framework.
The APC is responsible for developing the on-site emergency plan which determines the required actions for mitigation of the accident consequences, while respective governmental organizations (Mersin Governorship, supported by AFAD and regulatory body) will prepare the provincial radiation emergency plan. The off-site emergency plan regulates zones and distances of emergency planning and defines actions to be taken by authorized local and state authorities to protect the public, property and the environment in the event of an emergency. The public and the environment are protected by implementing radiation emergency action plans developed for local authorities (Mersin Province), companies and the facility (NPP) involved in the local response that are associated with the NREP and NDRP.
According to the Draft Regulation on Management of the Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies, the on-site emergency plan should generally include at least the following topics:
Classification of the emergency and the identification of the underlying events and plant parameters when this classification is made;
Formation of on-site emergency response organization and determination of responsibilities;
Principles of response activities to be carried out on-site and preparations for response activities;
Arrangements for alarms, notifications and communication;
Emergency management and realization of the situation assessment;
Emergency workers’ safety and protection from radiation;
Radiological monitoring to be carried out in the facility, on-site and near the site during emergency situations;
Information to be provided for off-site emergency response organization to inform the public about the emergency situation;
Centres and points to be used during emergency response, equipment and other additional units;
Termination of the emergency and remedial actions;
Implementation instructions of the emergency response organization.
The on-site emergency plan will provide clear and straightforward interface with the off-site decision makers. The necessary procedures will be identified, developed and agreed with the responsible officials prior the commissioning of the Akkuyu NPP.
After the on-site emergency plan is developed it shall be submitted to the regulatory body for review and approval prior to the fuel loading for the first reactor at the site. The regulatory body will evaluate the on-site plan and consistency of the on-site plan with the off-site plan according to the related regulations. The full scale exercise for each NPP should be conducted before the fuel loading and pre-operational tests.
The plan shall be revised and updated periodically and also if specific circumstances require these changes.
The analysis related to emergency planning and the applicability of the emergency planning to the Sinop site are evaluated in the Sinop Site Report, which is a part of the assessment for site suitability. The detailed on-site and off-site plans for emergency conditions will be prepared in accordance with the Turkish and international requirements and the emergency plan for the Sinop NPP will submitted with the final safety analysis report before fuel loading.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
The NRA undertakes regulatory activities concerning facilities (including nuclear power plants), devices, substances and activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation as the regulatory authority of Turkey. The NRA was established by Decree Having the Force of Law No. 702 dated 2 July 2018 (Decree Law No. 702) as an independent authority. The NRA is an independent authority associated with the MENR.
Decree Law No. 702 defines the duties and responsibilities of the NRA as follows:
Determining the strategy and working principles of the NRA.
Carrying out regulatory procedures (including preparing regulatory documents such as regulations).
Authorizing; defining and changing the technical, legal, administrative and financial context and conditions of authorizations; limiting, suspending, terminating, canceling, determining the duration of the authorizations and changing the authorization granted; reviewing and evaluating the information and documents submitted to the NRA before or after authorization; determining and changing the conditions of the authorization given as a result of the safety assessments made.
Performing inspections or having inspections done before and after the authorization; within the scope of examination and inspection activities, analyzing, testing, performing, checking, requesting and retaining all kinds of documents and records, keeping the written record.
Requesting and evaluating all the information and documents required from the applicants and authorized persons.
Requesting that the authorized person carry out a safety assessment of the activity and take additional measures.
Determining whether the authorized persons have fulfilled their obligations regarding nuclear liability and account of radioactive waste and special account of decommissioning.
Establishing and operating the national radiation sources registration system, national dosimetry services, and national nuclear material accounting and control system.
Conducting and maintaining the national radiation monitoring system.
Cooperating with the institutions and organizations of other countries, participating in joint activities or coordinating the activities carried out with these institutions in the field of their duty.
Informing relevant national or international organizations about unusual events.
Carrying out research and development activities required in the field of safety and security in order to support its regulatory activities.
Exchanging information and communicating directly with public and private institutions and organizations, non-governmental organizations and the public.
Determining regulatory activities, decisions and opinions to be sent to national and international institutions and organizations and made available to the public.
Requesting and/or examining all kinds of information and documents which are deemed necessary in the execution of its duties and/or viewing from all legal persons including public institutions and organizations.
Cooperating with the AFAD and related institutions and organizations in the management of radiation emergencies that may occur as a result of non-regulated activities.
The organizational structure of NRA is defined by Decree Law No. 702. The structure of NRA consists of a Nuclear Regulatory Board (NRB) and Presidency.
The NRB is headed by five board members appointed by the President of Turkey for four year terms. One of the members is designated to be the President of the NRB and President of NRA and one of the members is appointed as Vice President of the NRB by the President of Turkey. The NRB is the decision making body of NRA.
NRA’s main organization consists of five technical and five administrative departments:
Nuclear Facilities Department (regulatory activities in nuclear safety);
Radiation Applications Department (regulatory activities in radiation applications and radiation facilities);
Security and Safeguards Department (regulatory activities in nuclear security and safeguards and transportation and import/export of radioactive materials);
Radiation Protection Department (regulatory activities in radiation protection and radioactive waste management safety);
Inspection Department (nuclear safety and radiation safety inspections);
Foreign Relations Department (national and international coordination of all kinds of activities within the scope of duties and responsibilities of NRA);
Legal Services Department;
Strategy Development Department (administrative and financial activities of NRA);
Support Services Department (human resources and other supporting services);
Press and Public Relations Consultancy;
Directorate of Board Services (conducting secretarial work and operations of the NRB).
3.1.2. Licensing process
In Turkey, nuclear installations are licensed by NRA on issues regarding nuclear safety, security and radiation protection. Before the NRA, TAEK was the licensing authority according to Law No. 2690 regulating duties and responsibilities of TAEK as a regulatory body.
In July 2018, with the Decree Law No. 702, NRA was founded and became the regulatory authority of Turkey. Within the same month, Presidential Decree No. 4 dated 15 July 2018 came into force. Duties and responsibilities of NRA were determined and TAEK was reorganized as a research and development and technical support service organization.
As a part of the transition process NRA issues new regulations according to a new licensing system. For the time being, the authorization process for nuclear installations will continue as follows:
The existing authorization applications shall be concluded in accordance with the provisions of the legislation in force (decrees, regulations etc.) until the new regulations are issued pursuant to Decree Law No. 702. In this context, the implementations of the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, which is the main legislation used in licensing, will continue.
The licensing process according to the existing legislation is as follows:
The licensing procedure is initiated by the applicant, to be recognized as the ‘owner’. The licensing process for an NPP comprises three main stages in succession: site licence, construction licence and operating licence. There are several permits functioning as hold points during the licensing process. These include the limited work permit, commissioning permit, permit to bring fuel to the site, fuel loading and test operations permit for the operating licence. For each authorization, documents required for review and assessment are defined in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations of 1983. There is no design approval authorization in Turkey. The decree also requires the owner to apply for authorization by NRA for every modification that may have an impact on the safety of a nuclear installation. The authorization process for the decommissioning stage is not defined in the decree. This issue is addressed in Presidential Decree No. 4.
The licensing approach is defined in the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants of 2012, which lays out the rules for establishing a licensing basis for NPPs. These rules state that the issues insufficiently addressed by existing Turkish regulations on nuclear safety shall be covered by requiring compliance with the regulations of the vendor or designer country and the IAEA’s Safety Standards, particularly its safety fundamentals and safety requirements. For remaining issues, third party country laws, regulations and standards are referenced. The directive also requires the applicant to submit to the regulatory body a reference plant of the proposed design to facilitate the licensing process. The directive was established in accordance with the principles laid out in the IAEA publication INSAG-26, Licensing the First Nuclear Power Plant.
This directive is being implemented for the Akkuyu project. A list of applicable regulations, guides and standards was determined by the owner according to Article 6 of the directive. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of TAEK approved the list on 2 November 2012. The revised list (Rev. 2) was approved on 14 November 2014. The licensing basis for Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant is mainly composed of Turkish regulations, IAEA safety fundamentals and requirements and Russian Federation regulations. The list also contains standards and guides of Turkey and the Russian Federation. Novovoronezh-II NPP in the Russian Federation is approved as the reference plant for Akkuyu NPP by AEC of TAEK according to Article 7 of the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants of 2012.
In addition, NPPs should obtain an affirmative decision on an environmental impact assessment, according to the Regulation on Environmental Impact Assessment from the MOEU as a prerequisite to the site licence, and an electricity production licence from the EMRA.
Nuclear power plant licensing activities are carried out by Nuclear Facilities Department. This department’s main responsibilities are licensing of nuclear installations (review and assessment of documentation related to nuclear safety) and coordination of licensing activities between technical departments. NRB is the decision maker regarding licensing of nuclear facilities. Authorizations related to nuclear facilities are made by NRB.
3.2. MAIN NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The Turkish regulatory structure is composed of laws, decree laws, presidential decrees, regulations, guides and codes and standards. The hierarchical pyramid of the Turkish regulatory structure is given in Fig. 4. Within this structure, the legislative and regulatory framework of Turkey is consistent with international conventions, treaties and IAEA Safety Standards in most aspects of nuclear safety and security.
Turkey’s legislative and regulatory framework ensures that nuclear materials and facilities are utilized and nuclear activities are performed with proper consideration for the health, safety, security and protection of people and the environment. As party to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Turkey has established a system of accountancy for and control of nuclear materials based on the Agreement between Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Safeguards Agreement) and Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Additional Protocol). Turkey received Safeguards Advisory Service Mission (ISSAS) from the IAEA in June 2010 to review this system and revisions with respect to the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol.
FIG. 4. Hierarchy of regulatory documents in Turkey (July 2018).(1)
Turkey is party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and fully implements its provisions. The Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was ratified by the Turkish Parliament on 10 February 2015 and entered into force on 8 July 2015. Both regulations, on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control and on Physical Protection, were revised in 2012 to reflect the latest developments in the country and in the international framework.
The main Turkish legislative framework regulating nuclear installations consists of the Decree Law No. 702 and Presidential Decree No. 4, which regulate nuclear safety, security and radiation protection, inspections and the enforcement process (administrative fines and criminal penalties, limiting, suspending and revoking the authorization); the Environmental Law, which regulates the environmental impact of these facilities; and the Law on the Electricity Market, which regulates electricity production licences. These establish NRA, the MOEU and the EMRA as regulatory bodies. There are several other regulatory bodies, such as the Ministry of Transportation and Ministry of Health, which indirectly regulate NPPs with regard to other issues.
Regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, there are two decrees:
Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, 1983;
Decree on Radiation Safety, 1985.
Further details regarding safety principles are addressed in regulations. There are currently 18 regulations directly or indirectly addressing the safety of NPPs.
The Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations; the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants; and the regulations constitute the basis of the legal framework of the nuclear safety of nuclear installations in Turkey.
Rules and procedures related to the licensing of nuclear installations are laid out in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, which entered into force in 1983. The decree defines permits and licences to be obtained; requirements for applications for these permits and licences, including lists of documents to be submitted; review and assessment procedures; the authorizing entities within NRA for each authorization; and approval mechanisms for modifications during construction and operation. It also authorizes NRA to inspect the installations throughout their lifetime.
Another important regulatory document is the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants, which lays out the rules for establishing a licensing basis for nuclear power plants. The licensing approach of NRA is defined in the directive.
Rules and procedures for accounting for and control of nuclear materials are described in the Regulation on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control of 2012, which satisfies the requirements of the Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. This regulation has been prepared in compliance with the Additional Protocol. The national aspects of the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material were implemented in the Regulation on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities of 2012. This regulation was prepared in compliance with INFCIRC 225/Rev. 4 and some provisions of INFCIRC 225/Rev. 5. This regulation is being updated for full compliance with INFCIRC 225/Rev. 5 and for resolving some issues regarding domestic procedures.
There are several regulations associated with nuclear safety. The suitability of NPP sites is addressed in the Regulation on Nuclear Power Plant Sites of 2009. Basic requirements on the design of an NPP are laid out in the Regulation on Design Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants of 2008, and those on construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of an NPP in the Regulation on Specific Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants of 2008. Nuclear and radiological emergencies are covered in the National Regulation on Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies of 2000; Regulation on Official Duties Related to the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Hazards of 2012; and Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services of 2013. These regulations cover the roles and responsibilities of governmental authorities and general provisions related to emergency planning and response in case of a radiation emergency. For requirements on emergency preparedness and response, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 7, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, is addressed. The NREP has been prepared and is expected to be approved by the Disaster and Emergency High Council in 2018.
The Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management of 2013 and Regulation on Clearance in Nuclear Facilities and Release of Site from Regulatory Control of 2013 cover clearance and release of sites from regulatory control and radioactive waste management in nuclear installations.
The Regulation Regarding Equipment Procurement Process and Approval of Manufacturers for Nuclear Facilities of 2015 establishes the provisions for the procurement process for all equipment used in nuclear facilities, including the permits the owner must obtain to initiate the procurement process and issues regarding approval of manufacturers taking part in the procurement process for equipment important to safety, as well as regulatory inspections and sanctions to be implemented in the procurement process.
AFAD is responsible for all kinds of disasters at all levels, including large scale nuclear and radiological emergencies. The NREP has been developed by TAEK and put into force by the coordinating authority (AFAD). For requirements on emergency preparedness and response, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 7 is addressed.
Decree Laws, Presidential Decrees, Regulations and Guides Concerning the Safety of Nuclear Installations
Decree Laws and Presidential Decrees
Decree Having the Force of Law No. 702, 2018.
Presidential Decree No. 4, 2018.
Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, 1983.
Decree on Radiation Safety, 1985.
Regulation on Radiation Safety, 2000.
National Regulation on Nuclear and Radiological National Emergency Preparedness, 2000.
Regulation on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005.
Regulation on Nuclear Safety Inspections and Enforcement, 2007.
Regulation on Issuing Document Base to Export Permission for Nuclear and Nuclear Dual Use Items, 2007.
Regulation on Specific Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants, 2008.
Regulation on Design Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants, 2008.
Regulation on Site of a Nuclear Power Plant, 2009.
Regulation on Protection of Outside Workers in Controlled Areas from the Risks of Ionizing Radiation, 2011.
Regulation on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities, 2012.
Regulation on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control, 2012.
Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management, 2013.
Regulation on Clearance in Nuclear Facilities and Release of Site from Regulatory Control, 2013.
Regulation Regarding Equipment Procurement Process and Approval of Manufacturers for Nuclear Facilities, 2015.
Regulation on Management System in Nuclear Installations, 2017.
Regulation on Construction Inspection of Nuclear Power Plants, 2017.
Regulation on Operating Organization, Operating Personnel Qualification and Education and Licensing of Operators in Nuclear Power Plants, 2017.
Regulation on Official Duties Related to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Hazards, 2012.
Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services, 2013.
Regulation on Radiation Protectiton in Nuclear Facilities, 2018.
Documents and Guides
A Guide on Format and Content of Site Report for Nuclear Power Plants, 2009.
A Guide on Specific Design Principles, 2012.
Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants, 2012.
A Guide on Owner and Authorization Application for Nuclear Installations, 2016.
Guide on the Construction Activities in Nuclear Installations that are Authorized as per the Authorization Stages, 2016.
APPENDIX 1. INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
International Treaties, Conventions and Agreements Signed/Ratified by the Country
|1||Convention on Cooperation in the Atomic Energy Field Between the NATO Members and Its Amendment||22 June 1955||10 September 1956|
|2||Paris Convention (1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy)||29 July 1960||13 May 1961|
|3||Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water||5 August 1963||13 May 1965|
|4||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960||28 January 1964||13 June 1967|
|5||International Labour Conference Convention Number 115 Concerning the Protection of Workers Against Ionizing Radiation|
17 June 1962
25 July 1968
|6||Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||28 January 1969||28 November 1979|
|7||Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution||16 February 1976||12 June 1981|
|8||The International Convention on Railway Transportation||21 March 1985||1 June 1985|
|9||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as Amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964||16 November 1982||23 May 1986|
|10||Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||23 August 1983||7 August 1986|
|11||Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution from Land-based Sources||17 May 1980||18 March 1987|
|12||Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||28 September 1986||3 September 1990|
|13||Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||28 September 1986||3 September 1990|
|14||Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution||21 April 1992||6 March 1994|
|15||Convention on Nuclear Safety||24 September 1994||14 January 1995|
|16||Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty||3 November 1999||26 December 1999|
|17||Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna and the Paris Conventions||21 September 1988||19 November 2006|
|18||Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East||11 September 2002||23 March 2012|
|19||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as Amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 16 November 1982||12 February 2004||—|
|20||Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||8 July 2005 ||24 April 2015|
|21||International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism||14 September 2005||8 May 2012|
|22||Agreement Between the Republic of Turkey and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Concerning the Granting of the Status of Associate Member at CERN||12 May 2014||28 April 2015|
|23||Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||—||Ratification process is ongoing|
Cooperation Agreements with the IAEA in the Area of Nuclear Power
|1||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the NPT||30 June 1981||20 October 1981|
|2||Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the NPT||6 July 2000||12 July 2001|
Bilateral Agreements with Other Countries or Organizations Signed/Ratified by the Country in the Field of Nuclear Power
|1||Agreement Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||18 June 1985||29 June 1986|
|2||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Argentine Republic for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||3 May 1988||8 February 1992|
|3||Agreement Between the Government of Turkey and the Republic of Bulgaria on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||28 July 1997||11 September 1997|
|4||Agreement Between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||14 January 1998||—|
|5||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||26 October 1998||12 April 1999|
|6||Agreement Between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||21 September 1999||18 May 2011|
|7||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||23 November 2000||2 May 2001|
|8||Agreement Between the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||26 July 2000||9 July 2006|
|9||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Romania on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||3 March 2008||16 May 2008|
|10||Memorandum of Understanding for Technical Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters Between the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine||7 June 2005||22 October 2008|
|11||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Russian Federation for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||6 August 2009||12 February 2011|
|12||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Russian Federation on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||6 August 2009||12 February 2011|
|13||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Russian Federation on Cooperation in Relation to the Construction and Operation of a Nuclear Power Plant at the Akkuyu Site in the Republic of Turkey||12 May 2010||6 October 2010|
|14||Agreement Between the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (the Republic of Turkey) and the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service (the Russian Federation) for Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Licensing and Supervision||8 June 2010||8 June 2010|
|15||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||17 February 2011||5 June 2015|
|16||Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||9 April 2012||2 September 2016|
|17||Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Japan for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||3 May 2013||22 April 2014|
|18||Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Japan on Cooperation for the Development of Nuclear Power Plants and the Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Turkey and Memorandum of Cooperation Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Japan on Cooperation on the Development of Nuclear Power Plants and the Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Turkey||3 May 2013||23 May 2015|
|19||Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Republic of Belarus on Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||11 November 2016||—|
Other Relevant International Agreements
|1||ZANGGER Committee||Member||21 October 1999|
|2||Nuclear Suppliers Group||Member||20 April 2000|
APPENDIX 2. MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
NATIONAL ENERGY AUTHORITY
Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency
Kizilirmak Mah. Ufuk Üniversitesi Cad. No. 12 Çukurambar, Sögütözü
Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
Türkocagi Cad. No. 2 Çankaya
Ministry of the Environment and Urbanism
Vekaletler Cad. No. 1 Bakanliklar
Nuclear Regulatory Authority
Mustafa Kemal Mahallesi, Dumlupinar Bulvari, No. 192
06510 Çankaya, Ankara
Turkish Atomic Energy Agency
Mustafa Kemal Mahallesi, Dumlupinar Bulvari, No. 192
06510 Çankaya, Ankara
Energy Market Regulatory Authority
Isçi Bloklari Mah. Muhsin Yazicioglu Cad. No. 51/C Yüzüncüyil, Çankaya
Turkish Electricity Transmission Company
Inönü Bulvari No. 27 Bahçelievler
Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company
Eskisehir Yolu 7. Km No. 166 Çankaya
Turkish Electricity Generation Company
Nasuh Akar Mah. Türkocagi Cad. No. 2/F-1
Akkuyu NPP Electricity Generation Company
Güvenevler Mah. Farabi Sok. No. 27 Çankaya
Hacettepe University Nuclear Engineering Department
06532 Beytepe, Ankara
Nuclear Engineers Society
Technical University of Istanbul Institute for Energy
Ege University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Hacettepe University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Ankara University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Name of report coordinator:
Head of Nuclear Infrastructure Development Department
Institution: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, General Directorate of Nuclear Energy and International Projects
Türkocagi Cad. No. 2 Çankaya AnkaraTurkey
Tel.: (+90) 312 212 6420Email: firstname.lastname@example.org