1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. Country overview
1.1.1. Governmental system
The Republic of Turkey is a democratic, secular and social state. It is governed by the rule of law, bearing in mind the concepts of public peace, national solidarity and justice, respecting human rights, loyal to the nationalism of Atatürk, and based on the fundamental tenets set forth in the Preamble. Legislative power belongs to the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA) on behalf of the Turkish Nation.
1.1.2. Geography and climate
Turkey lies between Asia and Europe, serving as a bridge geographically, culturally and economically. Its land border has an overall length of 2,875 km. In the south, Turkey shares a 378 km border with Iraq and an 877 km border with Syria. In the west, it shares a 203 km border with Greece and a 269 km border with Bulgaria. In the east, Turkey borders on Iran for 529 km, Georgia for 276 km, Armenia for 312 km and Nakhichivan (Republic of Azerbaijan) for 18km.
Turkey is surrounded by sea on three sides, with the Mediterranean in the south, the Aegean in the west and the Black Sea in the north. The coastline exceeds 8,300 km. The two continents, Europe and Asia, are separated by the Dardanelles in the west and the Bosphorus Straits in the east.
Although Turkey is situated geographically where climatic conditions are quite temperate, the diversity of the landscape, and the fact that mountain ranges run parallel to the coasts, result in significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to the other. While the coastal areas enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolian plateau experiences hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall.
Figure 1. Climate Diagram of Turkey (Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service, 2008)
The population in Turkey is about 77 million, and the population density is about 100 inhabitants per km2 (Table 1). It is projected that the population of Turkey will reach about 84 millions in 2023.
TABLE 1. POPULATION INFORMATION
|Average annual growth (%)|
|1970(1)||1980(1)||1990(1)||2000(1)||2010(2)||2013(3)||2000 to 2013|
|Population density (inhabitants/km2)||46||58||73||88||96||100||0.99|
|Urban population (% of total)||38.5||43.9||59.0||64.9||76.3||91.3||2.66|
|Area (1000 km2)||770|
1.Results of General Population Censuses
2.Results of Adress Based Population Registration System referring to December 31, 2010.
3.Results of Adress Based Population Registration System referring to December 31, 2013.
Source: Turkish Statistical Institute
1.1.4. Economic data
Table 2 shows the historical trend of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). GDP was 810 billions of current US$ and GDP/capita was 10,782 current US$/capita in 2013.
TABLE 2. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1970||1980||1990||2000||2010||2013||2000 to 2013|
|GDP (millions of current US$)||18825*||67457*||149195*||265384||734929||810012||8.96|
|GDP (millions of constant 1998 Turkish Liras)||72436||105739||112388||3.44|
|GDP per capita
|GDP per capita
* old base year (1987)
Source: Turkish Statistical Institute
1.2. Energy Information
1.2.1. Estimated available energy
TABLE 3. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Units||Mt||Mt||bcm||metric tons||metric tons||TWh/y||TWh/y||TWh/y||TWh/y|
Hydro and Other Renewable (geothermal, solar and wind) values given as their maximum available potentials
1.Geothermal potential is equal to 0.0072 TWe
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
1.2.2. Energy Statistics
TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS (EJ)
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2010||2012||2000 to 2012|
|- Other Renewables||0.02||0.04||0.06||0.11||0.16||12.25|
|- Other Renewables||0.02||0.04||0.06||0.11||0.16||12.25|
|Net import (Import - Export)|
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
1.2.3. Energy Policy
Turkish energy policy is concentrated on the assurance of energy supply in a reliable, sufficient, timely manner. This is to be obtained in economic and clean terms, and in such a way as to support and orientate the targeted growth and social developments. In parallel to this ultimate target, the energy policy of Turkey has the following major pillars:
1.Prioritizing the energy security-related activities in order to cope with increasing demand and import dependency
2.Taking into account the environmental concerns in all stages of the energy chain, within the framework of sustainable development
3.Facilitating reform and liberalization activities in the energy sector, so as to increase the overall productivity and efficiency and to enhance the transparency through creating competitive framework
4.Intensifying energy technologies-related R&D studies and activities
5.Realization of projects regarding the transportation of hydrocarbons through the recognition of “East–West” and “North-South” Energy Corridors and Terminals concepts
Policy issues related to energy are within the responsibility of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). Energy planning studies, taking into account short-, medium- and long-term policies and measures, are carried out by the MENR within the framework of the above-listed objectives.
Achieving 3Es (energy-economy-environment) has become a crucial challenge for the Turkish energy sector, in parallel to the growing demand and investment needs. Market liberalization has tended to improve overall economic efficiency, orientating the targeted growth. On the other hand, enhancing energy security and reliability within the competitive market structure is one of the main challenges, requiring determination and implementation of policy tools on a well-defined basis. Although environmental quality has been given high priority for the past few years, the financial burden constituted by the implementation of necessary measures urges for more cost-effective approaches to be followed. Integrated approaches considering the achievement of 3Es in a sustainable manner have been taken into account in determining the policies.
Although almost all conventional resources exist in Turkey, these resources are not sufficient to meet the substantial growth in energy demand, except for lignite and hydro. Around 74% of energy demand is met through imports. Energy planning studies indicate that Turkey’s energy demand will continue to increase in parallel with economic development, industrialization and urbanization. In this context, Turkey has been intensifying efforts for further diversification in primary energy sources, imports (diversifying in both type and origin), technologies and infrastructures, while accelerating the production and utilization of the remaining domestic resources potential and efficiency gains along the energy supply-demand chain.
Turkey became a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2004, based on the principles of “common but differentiated responsibilities”. The Law regarding the accession of Turkey to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was acceded by the Turkish Grand National Assembly in October 2003, and entered into force on 24 May, 2004. Studies are underway for the first National Communication to be submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat. Kyoto Protocol was ratified by the Turkish Parliament on 5 February 2009. Improvement of energy efficiency, larger utilization of renewable sources, deployment of clean coal technologies and the introduction of nuclear power are among the main strategies involved in addressing the challenges within the energy-environment linkage.
With regard to its geographical location, Turkey has been considered a natural land-bridge, connecting Europe to Asia. Turkey therefore has an important role to play, as an “Energy Corridor and Terminal” between the major oil- and natural gas-producing countries in the Middle East and Caspian Sea and the demanding markets.
1.3. The Electricity System
1.3.1. Electricity and Decision Making Process
In parallel to the economic growth and social development, electricity demand has shown a significant increase over the past decades, and reached 242 TWh by the end of 2012.
Turkey has coal (mostly lignite) and hydro resources for electricity generation. Roughly 41% of the total indigenous potential had been utilized by 2012. Turkey attaches utmost importance to the utilization of the remaining potential, with due regard, to cope with the risks stemming from import dependency. Integration of nuclear power plants into the Turkish electricity grid is also being considered as an essential tool to enhance supply security, while strengthening the GHG emission mitigation efforts.
The Electricity Market Law (Law No: 6446) was enacted in 2013, in order to conduct market operating activities in a more effective way, a new Corporation, the Energy Markets Operating Vorporation (EPIAS), has been introduced under the new law. The new Corporation has been welcomed by the sector and is considered a step forward for the liberalisation of the market. EPIAS will establish a stock exchange where a reference price may be determined, the generators foresee the prices for a long term, and electricity will be bought and sold. The market also expects EPIAS to pave the path for issuance of derivatives depending on power purchase contracts.
Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy Paper has been approved by High Decision Council on 18 May 2009, as a road map towards a fully competitive electricity market structure. The Strategy Paper draws together the essential elements for ensuring security of supply and enhancing competitiveness in the rapidly growing electricity market of Turkey. According to the Strategy Paper, the share of electricity produced from renewable sources in the total electricity generation mix is projected to be at least 30% by 2023.
The Strategy Paper also states that new interconnection lines will be set up and the capacity of existing interconnection lines upgraded, so as to advance electricity import and export potential with neighbouring countries. In this context, synchronous parallel operation with ENTSO-E (former UCTE) has been realized, and Turkey physically integrated to the EU internal electricity network. In addition to that new Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy Paper studies are carried out by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.
Figure 2. Electricity Generation Distribution Depend on Energy Sources (Source: Turkish Electricity Transmission Company, 2013)
1.3.2. Structure of Electric Power Section
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources is the main body of the Turkish energy sector and is responsible for the preparation and implementation of energy policies, plans and programmes, in co-ordination with its dependent and related institutions and other public and private entities. The Ministry is responsible for monitoring and taking measures regarding the security of electricity supply.
The state owned companies acting in the electricity sector are as follows:
The Electricity Generation Company (EÜAS) is the state-owned generation company responsible for the operation of existing power plants owned by the public and for new capacity additions, as well as being the last resort, should the market fail to provide sufficient capacity to cover demand.
The Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) is the transmission system operator and is responsible for planning, installing and operating the transmission grid, for providing system security such that transmission constraints will be minimized, and for preparing generation capacity projection and the 20-Year Long-Term Electricity Generation Development Plan.
The Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company (TETAS) is the wholesale company established to offset the stranded cost element of the electricity market reform, and is responsible for electricity wholesales and purchases.
The Turkish Electricity Distribution Corporation (TEDAS) is responsible for carrying out electricity distribution activities. The Strategy Paper, endorsed by the High Planning Council in March 2004, envisages privatization in the distribution segment of the electricity market. Accordingly, in 2011, privatization of TEDAS was completed.
The State Water Works (DSI) is in charge of the planning, design and building of hydro plants as well as flood protection, irrigation, water supply to big cities and land drainage works.
Figure 3. The General Structure of the Existing Electricity Sector in Turkey
1.3.3. Main Indicators
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
||Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2010||2012||2000 to 2012|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|Electricity production (TWh)|
|Total electricity consumption (TWh)||8.62||24.62||56.81||128.28||160.79||210.43||242.36||5.44|
Source: TEIAS (Turkish Electricity Transmission Company)
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||22.37||30.12||39.51||49.99||52.91||62.25||62.04||65.23|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kW.h/capita) (Gross)||244||550||1006||1891||2231||2770||2854||3205|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||5.1||11.5||19.4||41.2||56.7||58.3||55.9||64.4|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)1||23.1||46.1||54.4||68.0||74.5||73.5||72.41||74.33|
(1) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical development and current organizational structure
Turkey has had plans for establishing nuclear power generation since 1970. In order to meet the increasing domestic demand for energy and reduce dependency on energy imports, various initiatives were undertaken in the past to build Turkey’s first nuclear power plant.
Regarding the nuclear history of Turkey, studies to build a nuclear power plant in Turkey were started in 1965. Later, between 1967 and 1970, a feasibility study was undertaken by a foreign consultant company to build a 300-400 MW nuclear power plant. This nuclear power plant would have been in operation in 1977. However, the project could not come to fruition because of problems related to site selection and other issues.
In 1973, the Turkish Electricity Authority (TEK) decided to build an 80 MWe prototype plant. However, in 1974, the project was cancelled for the reason that this project could delay the construction of a greater capacity nuclear power plant. Instead of this prototype plant, TEK had decided to build a 600 MWe Nuclear Power Plant in southern Turkey.
Site selection studies were made in 1974 and 1975, and the Gulnar-Akkuyu location was found suitable for the construction of the first nuclear power plant. In 1976, the Atomic Energy Commission granted a site license for Akkuyu. In 1977, a bid was prepared, and ASEA-ATOM and STAL-LAVAL companies were awarded the contract as the best bidders. Contract negotiations continued until 1980. However, in September 1980, due to the Swedish government's decision to withdraw a loan guarantee, the project was cancelled.
A third attempt was made in 1980. Three companies were awarded the contract to build four nuclear power plants (1 CANDU unit by AECL, 1 PWR unit by KWU in Akkuyu, and 2 BWR units by GE in Sinop). Due to Turkey's request to apply the Build Operate Transfer (BOT) model, KWU resigned from the bid. Although AECL accepted the BOT model, it insisted upon a governmental guarantee of the BOT credit. The Turkish government refused to give such a guarantee, and consequently the project was cancelled.
In 1993, the Supreme Council for Science and Technology identified nuclear electricity generation as the project of third highest priority for the country. In view of this decision, the Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Company (TEAS) included a nuclear power plant project in its 1993 investment program. In 1995, TEAS selected the Korean KAERI as the consultant for the preparation of the bid specifications. The bid process started in 1996. Three consortiums (AECL, NPI and Westinghouse) offered proposals in 1997.
In July 2000, after a series of delays, the government decided to postpone the project.
Later on, the Law on Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and Energy Sale (Law No: 5710) was ratified, and entered into force in 21 November 2007.
Regulation regarding the Principles, Procedures, and Incentives for the Contracts and the Contest that will be made within the context of Law on the Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of the Energy Generated was published in the Official Gazette dated 19 March 2008. The purpose of the Regulation is to regulate the procedures and principles regarding the construction and operation of nuclear power plants for electrical energy production, and to regulate energy sale.
In accordance with this, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) issued a set of criteria that establish general principles that should be met by investors.
A competition for construction and operation of nuclear power plants and energy sale was held on September 24, 2008, by the Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company (TETAS), for the construction of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) units at Akkuyu Site.
Only one consortium bid for the competition. After evaluation of the technical documents provided by the consortium, TAEK announced, on 19 December 2008, that the offered nuclear power plant met the TAEK criteria.
The last envelope given by the consortium on 24 September 2008, and including energy sale unit price, was opened by TETAS on 19 January 2009. After assessment, the competition performed on 24 September 2008, was canceled by TETAS on 20 November 2009.
Figure 4. Location of NPP sites
Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant
Direct negotiations with the Russian Federation to build a nuclear power plant near on Akkuyu site in Turkey started in February 2010, and concluded with an Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) based on Build, Own, Operate (BOO) Model. The agreement was signed on 12 May 2010. It has been aimed at building nuclear capacity in Turkey through mutual co-operation, ranging from nuclear 4 power plant construction and operation in Akkuyu-Mersin, to technology transfer and decommissioning.
For the implementation phase of the project, a project company, Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant Electricity Generation Joint-Stock Company (Akkuyu Project Company, APC), was established in December 13, 2010. On 7 February 2011, TAEK recognized APC as the owner, according to the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations.
In 2011, Akkuyu site, with the existing site license, was given to APC. Then, APC started site investigations in Akkuyu for the updating of the site characteristics and parameters, according to the national procedures laid out in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations. In May 2012, APC submitted updated site report to TAEK.
APC applied to Ministry of Environment and Urbanism (MoEU) for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on 2 December 2011 and submitted EIA Report to MoEU on 6 December 2013. APC also submitted a document of Electric Generation License (EGL) to EMRA on 24 November 2011.
It is expecting that APC will have submitted Final EIA Report to the MoEU until May of 2014. Then, APC will apply to TAEK for construction license in May 2014.
On the other hand, negotiations are proceeding regarding preparation of Power Purchase Agreement (PPA). After obtaining electricity generation license, PPA will be signed between APC and TETAS.
Fundamentals of the IGA to build and operate a nuclear power plant in Akkuyu Site in Turkey include;
Russian Party established a joint stock project company in Turkey initially with 100% share.
Turkish Party allocated Akkuyu Site to the Project Company free of charge until the decommissioning of NPP. Other additional land shall also be allocated free of charge if required.
Russian Party’s share will never be below 51% at any time (and Russian Government will be the guarantor of the Project).
APC will be the owner of NPP.
General Contractor will be JSC Atomstroyexport (ASE).
Russian Party shall provide funding for ASE for the construction of NPPs.
15 year-PPA will be awarded to APC for
70% of the electricity generated by unit 1 and 2 and
30% of the electricity generated by unit 3 and 4
Generated electricity shall be bought by TETAS in accordance with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) for 15 years at 12.35 US cents/kWh (fixed price-no escalation) on weighted average.
In case of less production than the volume stipulated in the PPA, APC shall fulfill its obligations by providing the lacking volume of electricity.
Nuclear Fuel shall be sourced from suppliers based on long-term agreements entered into between APC and the suppliers.
Subject to separate agreement that may be agreed by the Parties, spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin may be reprocessed in Russia Federation.
APC is responsible for the decommissioning and the waste management of the NPP. Within this framework, APC will make the necessary payments to relevant funds.
For the PPA period;
0.15 US cent/kWh shall be paid for spent fuel and radioactive waste management
0.15 US cents/kWh shall be paid for decommissioning.
Turkish companies and citizens will be included in the project to the extent possible.
Project will be subject to all applicable laws, regulations and codes in Turkey. All necessary licenses, permits and approvals from related governmental organizations shall be obtained by APC.
Sinop Nuclear Power Plant
Electricity Generation Joint-Stock Company (EUAS) is a state-owned company and the largest electricity generation company in Turkey. EUAS operates the existing hydraulic and thermal power plants including the maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of the power plants under operation. EUAS has been given the role of state operating organization for nuclear power plants in case the nuclear power plant will be owned and operated by the state (as whole owner or shareholder).
EUAS has applied to TAEK for being owner on August 2, 2012. EUAS has been recognized by TAEK as an owner on 22 August 2012. After being recognized as a owner by TAEK, the preparation of the site report for Sinop NPP Project has been initiated by EUAS in order to obtain site license in accordance with TAEK regulations.
In the meantime, another study has started for the installation of nuclear power plants in the Sinop province. A Joint Declaration was signed between state owned utility EUAS and South Korea Electrical utility KEPCO in Istanbul, on 10 March 2010, for the construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of Sinop nuclear power plant. However, during the negotiations, an agreement has not been reached with South Korea.
Following that, negotiations with the Government of Japan and Japanese companies started on 26 November 2010, for the Sinop NPP Project. After the Fukushima event, negotiations with Japan have been suspended.
After Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) have negotiated with candidate vendor countries (such as China, Japan, S. Korea Canada, etc.). An Agreement Between the Government of Republic of Turkey and the Government of Japan on Co-Operation for Development of Nuclear Power Plants and The Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Turkey was signed on 3 May 2013. This agreement has to be approved by Turkish Parliament and to be published in official gazette according to Turkish regulations in order to enter into force. The approval process is ongoing. Additionally, it is expected to be signed some other agreements such as Host Government Agreement (HGA), Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) and Shareholder Agreement (SHA) of Feasibility Studies Special Purpose Vehicle (FS SPV). After signing these agreements, the Project Company will be established.
According to the IGA the share of the Government of Republic of Turkey will be 49% in the APC and EUAS will be a shareholder of the Sinop PC together with Japan Consortium which consists of Mitsubushi, Itochu, GDF Suez Companies.
Until establishing the Project Company, EUAS and Japan Consortium will carry out feasibility activities through SHA. Some site studies that have been carrying out by EUAS are still ongoing and will be completed.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart
Figure 5. Organizational structure
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) is the main body of the Turkish energy sector. It is responsible for the preparation and implementation of energy policies, plans and programmes, in co-ordination with its dependent and related institutions and with other public and private entities.
The Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EPDK) has been established by Laws 4628 and 4646. “Electricity Market Law”, published in the Official Gazette dated 3 March 2001, is enacted to unbundle electricity market activities, enable progress into a liberalized electricity market and provide fair and transparent market regulation.
The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) is responsible for determining the basis of the national policy and the related plans and programs regarding the peaceful utilization of atomic energy, for executing and supporting research, analysis and studies that might lead to nation’s scientific, technological and economical development related with the utilization of atomic energy, for establishing research and training centers, laboratories, test facilities and pilot plants without electricity-producing purposes wherever there is need in the country, for educating the personnel in the nuclear field and arranging co-operation with universities and related organizations, for giving approval, permission and license, related to the site selection, construction, operation of nuclear facilities, for enlightening the public in nuclear matters, and for preparing and implementing decrees and regulations to determine the basis for the nuclear and radiological safety. TAEK undertakes the research duty by performing experimental and theoretical studies at TAEK’s research centers, and by collaborating in projects with universities and other related organizations. The research infrastructure at the Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center of TAEK is especially devoted to research and development activities addressing issues for nuclear reactor and fuel technology.
The Ministry of Environment and Urbanism has jurisdiction for making environmental assessment reports for power plants, including nuclear power plants.
The Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company (TETAS) is responsible for electricity wholesale sales and purchases.
The Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) is the transmission system operator and is responsible for planning, installing and operating the transmission grid.
2.2. Nuclear power plants: Overview
There are no nuclear power plants in operation, under construction or decommissioned.
2.3. Future development of nuclear power
Integration of nuclear energy into our energy supply sources will be one of the major means for decreasing the risks emerging from dependency to imported fuels by satisfying the increasing electric energy demand. MENR targets that the share of nuclear power plants in electric energy generation will reach at least 10% by the end of 2023. To achieve this target, it is planned that two nuclear power plants will be in operation and one will be under construction by the end of 2023.
According to the Agreement with the Russian Federation, 4 units of VVER-1200 type reactor, each with 1,200 MW power, will be constructed at Akkuyu site. Total installed capacity of Akkuyu NPP is 4800 MWe and lifetime of each units is 60 years. It is expected that first unit of Akkuyu NPP will be put into operation in 2020 and other units one-year interval until 2023.
According to the Agreement with the Japan, 4 units of ATMEA-1 type reactor, each with 1,120 MW power, will be constructed in Sinop province. Total installed capacity of Sinop NPP is 4480 MWe and total lifetime of each units is 60 years. It is expected that first two units of Sinop NPP will be in operation in 2023 and 2024 and other two units in 2027 and 2028.
For third nuclear power plant, site selection studies are ongoing.
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/Project Name||Type||Capacity||Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial year|
|Akkuyu NPP – 1||VVER-1200||1200 MWe||2016||2020|
|Akkuyu NPP – 2||VVER-1200||1200 MWe||2017||2021|
|Akkuyu NPP – 3||VVER-1200||1200 MWe||2018||2022|
|Akkuyu NPP - 4||VVER-1200||1200 MWe||2019||2023|
|Sinop NPP - 1||ATMEA-1||1120 MWe||2019||2023|
|Sinop NPP - 2||ATMEA-1||1120 MWe||2020||2024|
|Sinop NPP - 3||ATMEA-1||1120 MWe||2023||2027|
|Sinop NPP - 4||ATMEA-1||1120 MWe||2024||2028|
2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs
Akkuyu NPP Construction Project is the world’s first nuclear power plant project implemented on BOO (build-own-operate) principle. Under the long-term contract, APC assumes obligations for designing, constructing, maintaining, operating and decommissioning the plant.
Under the terms of the Agreement with the Russian Federation, the general contractor for the construction of Akkuyu NPP is Atomstroyexport JSC (ASE) which is a leading Russian engineering company of State Corporation “Rosatom” on construction of nuclear power facilities abroad.
Russian companies will be involved in the architect engineering, reactor supply and main component supply. Provisions are included in the Agreement to maximize local participation and utilization of manpower. APC envisages large participation of local companies in construction of the plant, providing workforces, construction materials and equipment.
On the other hand, MENR has initiated a study in order to perform a realistic assessment of local supplier capabilities for either nuclear or non-nuclear safety related activities. As a result of this study, a capacity improvement plan is going to be established and be implemented to Turkish companies willing to participate in the construction activities of other NPP Projects as well as Akkuyu NPP Projects.
2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs
Rosatom affiliates established APC as a JSC in Turkey in 13 December 2010. According to the Agreement with the Russian Federation, initially, Russian companies own 100% stake of APC and it retains the majority stake during the lifetime of the Project (51% - 100%). Turkish and third countries investors can join the project and can acquire up to 49% stake of APC at any stage of its implementation.
According to the Agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for operation of the the plant. Operation and maintanance contractor will be Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC which own a major share of the APC.
Shareholders of APC (Akkuyu NPP Electricity Generation JSC)
|Shareholders||Share percentage of APC|
| Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC||92.8478 %|
|Inter RAO UES JSC||3.4719 %|
|Atomstroyexport JSC||3.4719 %|
|Atomtechenergo JSC||0.1042 %|
|Atomenergoremont OJSC||0.1042 %|
For Sinop NPP Project, EUAS will be a shareholder of the project company to be established after the ratification of the Intergovernmental Agreement by the Turkish and Japanese Assemblies.
2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs
According to the Agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for decommissioning of Akkuyu NPP. In addition, APC will make the necessary payment to national decommissioning fund stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management
A reactor materials unit, for the refining of uranium concentrate for conversion to UO2 and for the manufacturing of sintered pellets, is in operation at the Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (ÇNAEM) of TAEK since 1986. This unit is subjected to IAEA safeguards. At present, research and development activities are focused on pellet manufacturing and characterization.
Waste management is currently limited mainly to radioactive waste arising from the industrial and medical applications of nuclear technologies, and there is a facility for interim storage of these wastes. This storage facility was built and has been operating since 1989, in the ÇNAEM. Compaction, cementation and precipitation processes have been carried out at this facility.
According to the Agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for NPP fuel supply and waste management.
Nuclear fuel will be sourced from suppliers based on long-term agreements entered into between APC and the suppliers. At the current stage of Akkuyu NPP Project, APC is planning that the first core and further reloads for Akkuyu NPP will be supplied from TVEL, which is a Rosatom Fuel Supply Company, based on a long-term contract.
According to the Agreement with the Russian Federation, APC is responsible for safely management of spent fuel and radioactive wastes and decommissioning of the plant. In addition, APC will make the necessary payment to national spent fuel and radioactive waste management fund stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
On the other hand, subject to a separate agreement that may be agreed by the Parties, spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin may be reprocessed in the Russian Federation.
Currently, there is no any specific entity in charge of infrastructure development regarding radioactive waste and spent fuel management in Turkey. However, MENR has initiated a work for the determination of national policy for management of all kind of radioactive waste. TAEK is contributing to this work as well in building the national radioactive waste management policy. Plans for waste management organizations or national waste management facilities will be made according to national policy determined.
Besides, Draft Act on Nuclear Energy has been developed by TAEK and MENR respectively. Each Draft Act includes arrangements for radioactive waste management issues such as responsibilities of government, operator, other organizations; funding of waste management including monitoring after closure of disposal facility; financial responsibilities of waste producers, transferring of waste management liabilities and so on. The rules and regulations for the details of spent fuel management such as liabilities, financial aspects and so on will be set in the secondary legislation.
Detailed strategies and regulations regarding the roles and responsibilities of the relevant organizations in the radioactive waste management area; creation, management and monitoring of the radioactive waste management and decommissioning funds; interactions and interfaces between the relevant organizations will be established after the decision on the national radioactive waste management policy.
2.8. Research and development
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The nuclear policy of the country includes research and development activities concerning the application of nuclear technology in various sectors, such as energy, environment, human health, industry, agriculture etc.
TAEK is the national authority responsible for research and development activities in nuclear energy and technology. TAEK has five departments and three research and training centers.
The bodies of TAEK are:
The Atomic Energy Commission
The Advisory Council
Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety
The Specialized Departments:
Department of Nuclear Safety
Department of Radiation Health and Safety
Department of Technology
Department of Research, Development and Coordination
Department of Administrative and Financial Affairs
The Affiliated Centers:
Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center
Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center
Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center
The General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) is responsible for the systematic investigation and research into all kinds of resources, including thorium and uranium.
Research and development activities in nuclear technology are performed by the related departments of some universities in Turkey.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives
The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) is closely following worldwide trends and progress in the field of nuclear reactor technologies and fuel cycle. Turkey is participating in the “International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactor Technologies and Fuel Cycles”, coordinated by IAEA. TAEK also participates and contributes to the studies and projects of the OECD/NEA working groups.
Turkey has an observer status for CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, which is the world’s leading laboratory for particle physics. All activities in Turkey are coordinated and sponsored by TAEK. Turkey is a member of the Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME), another important international initiative, and TAEK is the representing Authority. The main objectives of Turkey are to establish qualified manpower by actively participating in the experimental programs in CERN and SESAME, and to follow world-wide scientific progress.
2.9. Human resources development
Some universities in Turkey have undergraduate and graduate programs in the field of nuclear engineering. TAEK trains personnel in the nuclear field at the affiliated research and training centers, also arranging for co-operation with universities and related organizations on this matter. IAEA is one of the main supporting organizations for developing national manpower through training and fellowship programs.
Turkish students will be awarded scholarships to receive a nuclear engineering education in Russia, with the goal of employing them at the planned nuclear power plant in Akkuyu, Mersin, when it begins operation.
According to the Agreement with Russian Federation, APC is responsible for education and training of Akkuyu NPP staff. In this regard, A full-scope simulation center will be established in Akkuyu Site in order to train Turkish operators.
According to the action plan, 600 Turkish citizens is going to be trained in Russian Federation. Training plan contains 1 year Russian Language and 4 years nuclear science or engineering education at MePhi University in Russia, and 7-24 months on job training at Russian reference NPP. 190 Turkish students went to Russia between the years of 2011 and 2013.
On the other hand, MENR has initiated a study to produce a human resources development plan. The aim of this study is to determine the required number of staff in state organizations (NEPIO, Regulatory Body, TSO), APC, Turkish industry, universities, research centers (academic staff, researchers), etc. In this context, MENR has set up a special working group (7 members from NEPIO and universities) and initiated a work plan to address all these issues. Currently, this working group is using Nuclear Power Human Resources (NPHR) Modelling Tool in order to identify current gaps and then they will define means to further develop the national HRD programme according to the results of modelling.
2.10. Stakeholder communication
APC established two public information centers for Akkuyu NPP, in the town of Büyükeceli and in the city of Mersin in 2012
The Public Information Center (PIC) in the city of Mersin is a multifunctional communication platform. Tour programs are designed for residents of Mersin and nearby provinces and other regions. Among the visitors are children, schoolchildren, students, government representatives, the media, tourists, and many others.
Visitors to the PIC can be told about the history and development of the nuclear industry, the use of achievements in physics, energy development prospects, as well as the socio-economic development of Turkey associated with the construction of nuclear industry enterprises and related infrastructure.At the PIC, the principle of operation of the power plant is presented graphically, models of the industrial site of the future NPP and its reactor is shown, the visitors is acquainted with how the protective barriers at the NPP are arranged and how many of them.
The Center implements educational programs, hold lectures, seminars, and roundtables, organizes joint programs with government agencies, local authorities of the Turkish Republic and social and political organizations. Russian language courses is organized at the Center for those wishing to attend.
Figure 6. Public Information Center in the City of Mersin (Source: APC, www.akkunpp.com)
On the other hand, MENR is planning to hire consultant services related with the preparation of public communication strategies and public information documents on nuclear energy.
2.11. Emergency Preparedness
Turkey is party to relevant international conventions related to early notification and assistance in the case of emergencies. TAEK is recognized as the competent authority for communication with the IAEA regarding information exchange on nuclear or radiological incidents and emergencies.
Turkey has bilateral agreements with Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and Russian Federation on early notification in case of nuclear emergencies. Turkey plans to have similar arrangements with other neighbouring countries.
The national coordinating authority for disasters and emergencies including nuclear and radiological emergencies is the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency of Prime Ministry (AFAD).
The Prime Minister Disaster and Emergency Management Centre (“AFAD DEMC”) is the body responsible for response, co-ordination and collaboration at the national level and is established within AFAD.
TAEK is the leading organization within DEMC for radiation emergencies and is activated in the case of radiological emergencies. “TAEK DEMC” is responsible for radiation monitoring, coordinating and implementing emergency response activities. TAEK provides advice for relevant authorities on protective measures that should be taken as a consequence of the radiological emergency.
The Disaster and Emergency High Council (the Council) has been established under the Presidency of the Undersecretary of the Prime Minister. The Council approves all plans, programmes and reports related to disasters and emergencies. The main duties and objectives of the Council are to specify the measures to be taken, to facilitate and supervise their implementation, and to provide coordination among organizations, institutions and NGOs and to evaluate the situation after the event.
Approval and testing of emergency plans and procedures are going to be completed before the first nuclear fuel arrives on Akkuyu site.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory Framework
3.1.1. Regulatory Authority(s)
The Law on Turkish Atomic Energy Authority authorizes the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) as the regulatory body for all nuclear and radiation activities and facilities in Turkey and gives responsibility for ensuring the nuclear safety by licensing and inspecting such activities and facilities.
TAEK, undertakes all the regulatory activities concerning nuclear and radiation safety and nuclear security. TAEK also coordinates and supports research and development activities in nuclear field.
According to the Act, the duties and authorizations of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority are as follows:
To determine the basis of the national policy and the related plans and programmes in connection with the peaceful utilization of atomic energy for the benefit of the State and to submit them to the Prime Minister for approval; to do all kinds of research, development, studies and activities and have them done for the use of atomic energy is the State’s scientific, technical and economic development and to coordinate and support such activities in this field.
To determine the general principles to be complied in all kinds of prospecting, exploiting, purification, distribution, import, export, trade, transport, use, transfer and storage of nuclear raw material, special fissionable material and other strategic materials used in nuclear fields and to make recommendations and cooperation thereon.
To establish or enforce the establishment of research and training centers, units, laboratories, test centers and pilot plants without energy production purposes located in the necessary places of the country and to operate them or have them operated; to realize the activities to direct the national industry towards the nuclear technology; to make recommendations for the establishment of fuel cycle installations for management, purification and other necessary purposes.
To establish and operate the radioisotope production, quality control, scaling and distribution installations.
To determine the guiding principles and provisions for protection against the damages of ionizing radiation in the activities performed using radiation equipment, radioactive materials, special fissionable materials and such ionizing radiation sources and to determine the limits of legal liability.
To give license as a basis for authorization to governmental or private bodies or persons who keep, use, import or export, transport, store and trade in radioactive materials and radiation equipments and to control those regarding radiation protection; to enforce the responsibility of liability for implementing the above activities; to cancel the given license permanently or temporarily, in contradictory cases to radiation regulations; if necessary to decide for the termination of above organizations and to provide the commencement of legal investigations within the general legal principles. To prepare decrees and regulations governing the general principles for the use, export, import, transport and insurance liability of radioisotopes.
To grant approval, permission and license related to the site selection, construction, operation and environmental protection of nuclear power and research reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities; to do necessary inspections and controls, to limit (restrict) the operating authority in case of noncompliance with the permission or license; to cancel permanently or temporarily the permission or license given and to make recommendations to the Prime Minister for closing down those installations; to prepare the necessary technical guides, decrees and regulations for those purposes.
To take the necessary measures or have them taken for the safe process, transport, permanent or temporary storage of the radioactive waste from nuclear facilities and radioisotope laboratories.
To establish relations with the national institutions and bodies concerned with the atomic energy; to cooperate; to participate in the scientific studies of the foreign and international institutions and bodies concerned with nuclear energy and to contact and cooperate with such institutions; to program and distribute the assistances that will be provided from domestic or foreign sources for all kinds of nuclear studies.
To train the personnel who will work in the nuclear field or to assist their training when necessary and to cooperate with concerned bodies and higher educational organizations; to make recommendations on the distribution of the fellowships supported by domestic sources in nuclear field; to distribute the fellowships supported by the foreign sources; to conduct and help to conduct training courses within the country; to send students and personnel to foreign countries; to plan and follow their education and studies.
To collect, disseminate and introduce the necessary information and the results of the studies from inside and outside the country related to the application of atomic energy; to announce the necessary information to public; to inform the public in nuclear matters.
To carry out studies related to national and international law in nuclear field and to propose the necessary regulatory arrangements.
To prepare and implement the decrees and regulations determining the basis related to the protection of nuclear materials and facilities and to control the subjects related to those and to give comments about the regulations to be prepared by other institutions related to this subject.
TAEK is headed by a president, assisted by three vice presidents, who are appointed by the Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey. The administrative organs of TAEK include the Atomic Energy Commission, the Advisory Council, specialized technical and administrative departments and research centers. The organizational structure of TAEK is defined by the Law. There exists no documented formal management system including roles, responsibilities and organizational structure of TAEK.
The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), under the chairmanship of the President of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, consists of the Vice Presidents of TAEK, one member from each of the Ministries of National Defense, Foreign Affairs, Energy and Natural Resources and of four faculty members in the field of nuclear energy. Duties of AEC are:
To set the working principles and programs of TAEK, to approve the draft budget for submittal to the Prime Minister,
To draft and submit to the Prime Minister laws, decrees and regulations related to nuclear field, and
To observe and evaluate the studies of TAEK, to submit the annual work program and annual work report to the Prime Minister.
Figure 7. Organization Chart of TAEK
AEC also acts as a decision making body for licenses and some of the permits for nuclear installations.
The Advisory Council consists of faculty members working in the nuclear field and experts from other related institutions and bodies, and meets upon invitation. The members of the Advisory Council are appointed with the nomination of the AEC and approval of the Prime Minister. The Council is invited to meet at least once a year by the President of the TAEK who presides the meeting. The Advisory Council comments on the subjects addressed by the AEC.
TAEK’s main organization consists of four technical and one administrative department:
Department of Nuclear Safety (regulatory activities in nuclear safety and security),
Department of Radiological Health and Safety (regulatory activities in radiation, transport and waste safety),
Department of Technology (technological development in nuclear field),
Department of Research, Development and Coordination (coordination of all kind of activities in nuclear field), and
Department of Administrative and Financial Affairs (administrative and financial activities of TAEK).
3.1.2. Licensing Process
In Turkey, nuclear installations are licensed by TAEK regarding nuclear safety, security and radiation protection issues. Licensing procedure is initiated by the application to be recognized as the “Owner”. Licensing process for a NPP comprises three main stages in succession: Site License, Construction License and Operating License. There are several permits functioning as hold points during the licensing process. These are: limited work permit, commissioning permit, permit to bring fuel to site, fuel loading and test operations permit for operating license. For each authorization, documents required for review and assessment of TAEK are defined in the Decree. Design approval is not a part of the authorization in Turkey. The Decree also requires the owner to apply for authorization of TAEK for every modification that may have an impact on the safety of nuclear installation. Authorization process for decommissioning stage is not defined in the Decree. Authorization for decommissioning will be held in draft law and other relevant legislation.
Licensing approach of TAEK is defined in the “Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants, 2012”, which lays out the rules for establishing a licensing basis for NPPs. These rules state that the issues insufficiently addressed by existing Turkish regulations on nuclear safety shall be covered by requiring compliance with the regulations of the vendor or designer country and the IAEA safety documents, particularly, safety fundamentals and safety requirements. For remaining issues, third party country laws, regulations and standards are referenced. The directive also requires the Applicant to submit the regulatory body a reference plant of the proposed design for facilitating the licensing process. Directive is established in accordance with the principles laid out in “Licensing the First Nuclear Power Plant, INSAG-26” document of IAEA.
In addition, NPPs should obtain an affirmative decision on environmental impact assessment according to the “Regulation on Environmental Impact Assessment” from the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization as a prerequisite to the site license and an electricity production license from the Energy Market Regulatory Authority.
Department of Nuclear Safety (DNS) is the responsible unit for the licensing of nuclear installations (review and assessment of documentation related to nuclear safety), preparation and amendment of regulations and inspection of nuclear installations.
Nuclear power plant licensing activities are carried out by Department of Nuclear Safety, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) and The Vice President for Nuclear Power and Safety.
During the licensing process, the safety analysis reports submitted by the applicant are reviewed and assessed by DNS and ACNS. DNS prepares an evaluation report taking into consideration of ACNS’ advice. The evaluation report is submitted to the Vice President for Nuclear Power and Safety. The Vice President prepares a report indicating results of the evaluations and sends it to the President of the Authority. The President of the Authority takes the DNS safety analysis reports together with the report prepared by the Vice President to the first meeting of the Commission for licensing decision.
ACNS is established and its main responsibilities are defined in the “Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations”. The members of ACNS are faculty members and experts working in relevant fields. ACNS performs an independent review of the documents submitted with license applications.
3.2. Main national laws and regulations in nuclear power
Turkish regulatory structure is composed of laws, decrees, regulations, guides and codes and standards. The hierarchical pyramid of Turkish regulatory structure is given in the Figure below. Within this structure, the current legislative and regulatory framework of Turkey is consistent with international conventions and treaties, and IAEA safety requirements in most of the aspects of nuclear safety and security.
Turkey’s legislative and regulatory framework ensures that nuclear materials and facilities are utilized and nuclear activities are performed with proper consideration for health, safety, security and protection of the people and environment. As a non nuclear weapon state party to the NPT, Turkey has established a system of accountancy for and control of nuclear materials based on The Agreement between Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Safeguards Agreement) and Protocol Additional to The Agreement between Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Additional Protocol). Turkey has received an ISSAS mission of IAEA in June 2010 to review this system and revisions with respect to the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol. And the broader conclusion has been drawn for Turkey by IAEA.
Figure 8. Hierarchy of Regulatory Documents in Turkey
Turkey is party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and fully implements its provisions. The proposal for the ratification of its 2005 Amendment has been approved by the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA). It is currently on the agenda of the General Assembly.
The main Turkish legislative framework regulating nuclear installations consists of the “Law on Turkish Atomic Energy Authority” which regulates nuclear safety, security and radiation protection; the “Environmental Law” which regulates environmental impact of these facilities; the “Penal Law”, which defines nuclear and radiological crimes and penalties; and the “Law on Electricity Market” which regulates electricity production licenses. There are several other regulatory bodies such as Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Ministry of Transportation, etc., which indirectly regulates NPPs in regard of other issues mostly related to industrial safety of the facility.
According to the Decision on Turkey's National Programme for the Adoption of the EU Acquis Implementation, Coordination and Monitoring, enacted by the Council of Ministers’ decision dated 11.10.2008 and numbered 2008/14481, it is indicated that nuclear law shall be in line with EU standards and provide a high level of nuclear safety.
Rules and procedures related to the licensing of nuclear installations are laid out in the “Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations”, entered into force in 1983. The decree defines permits and licenses to be obtained, requirements for applications to these permits and licenses, including lists of documents to be submitted, review and assessment procedures, the authorizing entities within Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) for each authorization, approval mechanisms for modifications during construction and operation, and authorizes TAEK for inspecting the installations throughout their lifetime and enforcing penalties such as limiting, suspending and revoking the licenses.
Another important regulatory document is the “Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants”, which lays out the rules for establishing a licensing basis for nuclear power plants. These rules state that the issues that need further clarification than existing Turkish regulations on nuclear safety are covered by requiring compliance of the owner/operator with the IAEA safety documents, particularly, safety fundamentals and safety requirements. For remaining issues, vendor country or other third party country laws, regulations, codes and standards are referenced. The directive also requires the applicant to submit the regulatory body a reference plant of the proposed design for facilitating the licensing process.
The Law on Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants and the regulations constitute the basis of the legal framework of nuclear safety of nuclear installations in Turkey.
Rules and procedures for accounting for and control of nuclear materials are described in the "Regulation on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control”, which satisfy the requirements of the Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA and ensuring compliance with the additional protocol.
Already before the ratification of the 2005 Amendment of the CPPNM, the regulation on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials has been revised taking into account its provisions. The new regulation, broadening the scope of physical protection measures in Turkey, was published on the Official Gazette and entered into force on 22 May 2012. It contains principles governing the physical protection measures that should be taken to protect nuclear facilities and nuclear materials used in nuclear activities from sabotage and theft within Turkey, during handling, use, storage or transport.
There are several regulations associated with nuclear safety also. Suitability of NPP sites is addressed in the “Regulation on Nuclear Power Plant Sites”. Basic requirements on design of an NPP are laid out in the “Regulation on Design Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants” and on construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of an NPP in the “Regulation on Specific Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants”. Requirements on physical protection of nuclear facilities are laid out in “Regulation on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities”. “Regulation on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control” addresses requirements on accounting and control of nuclear materials. Nuclear and radiological emergencies are covered in the “National Regulation on Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies”. This regulation only covers the roles and responsibilities of governmental authorities in case of a radiation emergency. For requirements on emergency preparedness and response, IAEA Safety Requirement GS R-2 is addressed.
The newly issued regulations “Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management” and “Regulation on Clearance in Nuclear Facilities and Release of Site from Regulatory Control” cover radioactive waste management issues for all types, all radioactive waste facilities, and clearance and release of site in nuclear facilities
Laws, Decrees, Regulations and Guides Concerning the Safety of Nuclear Installations
Law on Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, 1982
Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, 1983
Decree on Radiation Safety, 1985
Regulation on Working Procedures of Atomic Energy Commission, 1983
Regulation on the Establishment and Working Procedures of Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety, 1997
Regulation on Radiation Safety, 2000
Regulation on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities, 2012
Regulation on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control,2012
Regulation on Basic Requirements on Quality Management for the Safety of Nuclear Installations, 2007
Regulation on Nuclear Safety Inspections and Enforcement, 2007
Regulation on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005
Regulation on Nuclear and Radiological National Emergency Preparedness, 2000
Regulation on Specific Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants, 2008
Regulation on Design Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants, 2008
Regulation on Site of a Nuclear Power Plant, 2009
Regulation on Issuing Document Base to Export Permission for Nuclear and Nuclear Dual Use Items, 2007
Regulation on Protection of Outside Workers in Controlled Areas from the Risks of Ionizing Radiation, 2011
Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management, 2013
Regulation on Clearance in Nuclear Facilities and Release of Site From Regulatory Control, 2013.
Documents and Guides
A Guide on Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants
A Guide on Documentation Examples, Work Instructions and Procedures for the QA Program for Survey, Assessment and Approval of Nuclear Power Plant Sites
A Guide on External Man-Induced Events in Relation to Nuclear Power Plant Design
A Guide on Seismic Design and Qualification of Nuclear Installations
A Guide on the Earthquake Related Subject Requested in the Issuance of Limited Work Permit and Site License, 1989
A Guide on Establishing and Implementing a Quality Assurance Programme for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-01, 2009
A Guide on Management of Non-Conformance Control and Corrective Actions for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-02, 2009
A Guide on Management of Document Control and Records for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-03, 2009
A Guide on Inspection and Testing for Acceptance for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-04, 2009
A Guide on Assessment of the Implementation of the Quality Assurance Programme for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-05, 2010
A Guide on Quality Assurance in Procurement of Items and Services for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-06, 2010
A Guide on Quality Assurance in Manufacturing for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-07, 2011
A Guide on Quality Assurance in Research and Development for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-08, 2011
A Guide on Establishing and Implementing a Quality Assurance Programme in Siting for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-09, 2010
A Guide on Quality Assurance in Design for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-10, 2011
A Guide on Quality Assurance in Construction for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-11,2011
A Guide on Quality Assurance in Commissioning for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-12, 2011
A Guide on Quality Assurance in Operation for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-13, 2011
A Guide on Quality Assurance in Decommissioning for Safety in Nuclear Installations, GK-KYS-14,2011
A Guide on Format and Content of Site Report for Nuclear Power Plants, 2009
A Guide on Specific Design Principles, 2012
 Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy Paper
 Intergovernmental Agreement with Russian Federation:
APPENDIX 1: InternatIonal, MultIlateral and BIlateral Agreements
International treaties, conventions and agreements signed/ratified by the country
|1||Convention on Cooperation in the Atomic Energy Field Between the NATO Members and Its Amendment||22 June 1955||10 September 1956|
|2||Paris Convention (1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy)||29 July 1960||13 May 1961|
|3||Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water||05 August 1963||13 May 1965|
|4||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960||28 January 1964||13 June 1967|
|5||International Labor Conference Convention Number 115 Concerning the Protection of Workers Against Ionizing Radiations|
17 June 1962
25 July 1968
|6||Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||28 January 1969||28 November 1979|
|7||Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution||16 February 1976||12 June 1981|
|8||The International Convention on Railway Transportation||21 March 1985||01 June 1985|
|9||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as Amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964||16 November 1982||23 May 1986|
|10||Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||23 August 1983||07 August 1986|
|11||Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution From Land-based Sources||17 May 1980||18 March 1987|
|12||Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||28 September 1986||03 September 1990|
|13||Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||28 September 1986||03 September 1990|
|14||Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution||21 April 1992||06 March 1994|
|15||Convention on Nuclear Safety||24 September 1994||14 January 1995|
|16||Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty||03 November 1999||26 December 1999|
|17||Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna and the Paris Conventions||21 September 1988||19 November 2006|
|18||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as Amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 16 November 1982||12 February 2004||-|
|19||Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||-||Ratification process is ongoing|
Cooperation agreements with IAEA in the area of nuclear power
|1||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with NPT||30 June 1981||20 October 1981|
|2||Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with NPT||06 July 2000||12 July 2001|
Bilateral agreements with other countries or organizations signed/ratified by the country in the field of nuclear power
|1||Agreement Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||18 June 1985||29 June 1986|
|2||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Argentine Republic for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||03 May 1988||08 February 1992|
|3||Agreement Between the Government of Turkey and the Republic of Bulgaria on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||28 July 1997||11 September 1997|
|4||Agreement Between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||14 January 1998||-|
|5||Agreement Between the Government of Korea and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||26 October 1998||12 April 1999|
|6||Agreement Between the Government French Republic and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||21 September 1999||18 May 2011|
|7||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||23 November 2000||02 May 2001|
|8||Agreement Between the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||26 July 2000||09 July 2006|
|9||Agreement Between The Government Of The Republic Of Turkey And The Government Of Romania On Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||03 March 2008||16 May 2008|
|10||Memorandum of Understanding for Technical Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters Between the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and The State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine||07 June 2005||22 October 2008|
|11||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Russian Federation for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||06 August 2009||12 February 2011|
|12||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Russian Federation on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||06 August 2009||12 February 2011|
|13||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Russian Federation on Cooperation in Relation to the Construction and Operation of a Nuclear Power Plant at the Akkuyu Site in the Republic of Turkey||12 May 2010||06 October 2010|
|14||Agreement Between Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (The Republic of Turkey) and The Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service (The Russian Federation) for Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Licensing and Supervision||08 June 2010||08 June 2010|
|15||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for the Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes.||17 February 2011||-|
Other relevant international agreements
|1||ZANGGER Committee||Member||21 October 1999|
|2||Nuclear Suppliers Group||Member||20 April 2000|
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
NATIONAL ENERGY AUTHORITY
Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency
Kizilirmak Mah. Ufuk Üniversitesi Cad. No:12 Çukurambar, Sögütözü
Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
Türkocagi Cad. No:2 Çankaya
Ministry of Environment and Urbanism
Vekaletler Cad. No:1 Bakanliklar
Turkish Atomic Energy Authority
Energy Market Regulatory Authority
Isçi Bloklari Mah. Muhsin Yazicioglu Cad. No:51/C Yüzüncüyil, Çankaya
Turkish Electricity Transmission Company
Inönü Bulvari No: 27 Bahçelievler
Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company
Eskisehir Yolu 7. Km No:166 Çankaya
Turkish Electricity Generation Company
Nasuh Akar Mah. Türkocagi Cad. No:2/F-1
Akkuyu NPP Electricity Generation Company
Güvenevler Mah. Farabi Sok. No:27 Çankaya
Hacettepe University Nuclear Engineering Department
06532 Beytepe, Ankara
Nuclear Engineers Society
Technical University of Istanbul Institute for Energy
TR- 80626 Istanbul
Ege University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Hacettepe University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Ankara University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Name of report coordinator:
Mr. Salih SARI
Energy and Natural Resources Expert, Nuclear Engineer, M.Sc.
Institution: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
Türkocagi Cad. No:2 Çankaya ANKARATURKEY
Tel: +90 312 212 6420Email: email@example.com