This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Ghana, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Ghana.
Ghana does not have a nuclear power plant, but seeks to build a unit before 2029.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
The Ghanaian energy sector went through a phase change in the mid-1990s, triggered by a shift in the overall policy framework. Prior to the mid-1990s, the country’s energy sector was financed by the government and managed by public utilities and companies. However, some private oil marketing companies were involved in the distribution and marketing of petroleum products. In 1994, the government initiated the process of reforming and restructuring the energy sector to improve operational efficiency and increase consumer access to electricity and petroleum products.
The objective of the policy shift was:
To create an environment which can attract private investment for the expansion of electricity generation and refinery capacity;
To deploy technical innovation;
To ensure realistic energy pricing policy and competition;
To incorporate use of renewable energy resources into the country’s energy mix .
The policy sought to phase out the government’s involvement as owner and manager of energy businesses and re-focus its role on policy making and market regulation. Consequently, with the government out of the energy business, public funds can be saved to improve social infrastructure. In the pursuit of the reform, the Public Utilities and Regulatory Commission (PURC) was established in 1997 by a Parliamentary Act, Act 536. Among other functions, this is intended to:
Regulate utility tariffs;
Ensure customer protection;
Promote competition in the provision of energy services .
This was followed by another Parliamentary Act in 1997, Act 541, which established the Energy Commission in order to:
Regulate technical standards in the provision of energy (excluding crude oil and natural gas);
Prepare, review and periodically update indicative energy plans to ensure that all energy requirements of the economy are met in a sustainable manner;
Formulate national energy policies for the development and utilization of indigenous energy resources, in particular renewable energy sources: solar, wind and biomass .
Furthermore, the National Petroleum Authority was established in 2005 by a Parliamentary Act, Act 691. Among other activities, it was to;
Regulate the price of petroleum products.
Establish standards in the downstream petroleum sector.
Promote competition in the supply of petroleum products . The energy sector reform policy is expected to limit the role of government to the operation of the electricity transmission network, market regulation and energy sector planning.
The restructuring of the energy sector was undertaken in order to create an environment where market forces are allowed to drive competition, thereby improving operational efficiency and reducing the costs of service delivery. Consequently, electricity generation by oil refining and importation of crude oil and refined products have all been liberalized to promote competition. Currently, there are three types of companies (private, public–private and public) generating electricity in the country. A two-tier wholesale electricity market (i.e. contract or unregulated and regulated) was also established for the sale and purchase of bulk electricity. In the contract market, electricity consumers are free to negotiate the price and quantity of electricity with their suppliers. The price of electricity outside the contract market is regulated by the PURC.
In the case of the petroleum sector, market liberalization was expected to promote efficient market operation and realistic pricing of petroleum products. The number of companies operating in various segments of the sub-sector increased with the market liberalization. The number of companies importing refined petroleum products increased from one (i.e. Tema Oil Refinery) before 2005 to 33 in 2017. Similarly, the number of oil companies distributing and marketing refined products has also increased. Since 2017, there are now 107 oil marketing and 40 liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) marketing companies. Alongside this expansion, the companies distributing and marketing refined petroleum products have increased the number of service or retail outlets, which has brought products closer to consumers. This rapid increase in industry players is a result of the new policy to increase competition and bring petroleum products closer to consumers. The government also established the Bulk Oil Storage and Transportation (BOST) Company, Ltd in order to expand capacity and maintain strategic petroleum products reserves.
The country depends mainly on foreign sources for its crude oil supply. Imports of crude oil and petroleum products account for a substantial proportion of the country’s annual foreign exchange earnings, which undermines economic growth. In an effort to address this situation, the government established the Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) in 1984, to facilitate rapid exploration and development of hydrocarbon resources in the country. In 2001, GNPC was restructured to focus on its core business: the technical evaluation of the hydrocarbon potentials in the country and aggressive promotion of the exploratory blocks. The fiscal and regulatory frameworks for exploration were reviewed, to attract foreign investors and intensify exploration activities. In an effort to secure energy supply and promote inter-regional energy trade, the country imports natural gas from richly endowed Nigeria through the West African Gas Pipeline, and trades electricity with its neighbours.
The impact of climate change on the country includes a rise in average temperature, variability in rain fall, changes in the intensity and pattern of extreme weather events and a rise in sea level . Hydropower now plays a major role in electricity generation for much of its electricity supply. Yet, reduced rainfall and recurrent droughts have affected electricity supply from the hydropower systems, especially in 1983/1984, 1997/1998 and 2006/2007, when there was drastic shortfall in electricity generation from the hydropower systems. These led to a national load shedding exercise that lasted about a year. Hence, extreme weather patterns will pose a lot of danger to the development and sustainability of mini- and small hydropower facilities, as most of them could dry out completely in the dry seasons.
Other extreme weather conditions which affect hydropower generation include an observed rise in mean surface temperatures, which has led to increased evaporation of water from the 8 500 km2 surface area of the Volta Lake . This results in the loss of high volumes of water which could have been used for hydropower generation. On the other hand, there have been severe rainstorms, especially in the catchment area of the Volta River. These rainstorms lead to excessive water inflows into the Volta Lake, which tend to threaten the safety of the dam. In November 2010, the Volta River Authority was forced to spill water from the dam when the water level in the reservoir reached a height of 277.1 ft (the maximum height is 278 ft). This is the highest level reached since the dam was constructed in 1961.
The development of renewable energy sources like wind, solar and biomass based electricity generation, which depend so much on weather patterns, could also be threatened by climate change and by extreme weather variability. Furthermore, persistent droughts experienced in the country are known to adversely affect the growth and availability of fuel wood, especially in the savannah zones, where there is high dependency.
In order to ensure that the production of energy services in the country is done in a sustainable manner, taking into account all energy utilisation issues (i.e. energy security, environmental impact and socio-economic issues), the country came out with a comprehensive National Energy Policy document in 2010. The main goal of this National Energy Policy is to “make energy services universally accessible and readily available in an environmentally sustainable manner”. A revised version of the existing policy document is being prepared to address current issues in the energy sector, which include the utilization of the country’s hydrocarbon resources, effects of climate change on the energy sector, energy security and high electricity end user tariffs.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy resources
The country’s domestic energy resources are crude oil, natural gas, hydropower and other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and traditional biomass. In terms of energy resource endowment, the country cannot be compared to other countries. In 2007, commercial quantities of crude oil and associated natural gas were discovered about 63 km offshore at the Cape Three Points sedimentary basin. Since this discovery, a number of other discoveries have also been made and currently, Ghana’s proven oil reserve is estimated to be 840 million barrels . Some of these oil discoveries are associated with natural gas deposits. Non-associated natural gas deposits have also been discovered. Total natural gas deposits have been estimated at over 2.0 trillion cubic feet (tcf) .
Until the discovery of oil and gas in the country, hydropower potential used to be the largest indigenous commercial energy resource. It has been estimated that the country has about 2 400 MW of hydropower potential, about 60% of which has been exploited as of the end of 2013 . The major exploited hydropower potentials are the 1 020 MW Akosombo hydropower and 160 MW Kpong hydropower plants on the Volta River. A third 400 MW Bui Hydropower plant on the Black Volta was constructed in 2013. The cost of the project was estimated to be about US $600 million . The remaining hydropower resources are of small sizes, with the highest potential being about 90 MW.
The Energy Commission has undertaken a wind resource assessment along the coast of the country, east of the Greenwich Meridian. The results indicate that there exist wind regimes with speeds between about 5.5 m/s and about 6.2 m/s. An evaluation by experts from Risoe of the potential of the wind regime to generate electricity established a potential of about 300–500 MW . The average annual solar irradiation in different parts of the country ranges from 4.4 kWh/m2/day to 5.6 kWh/m2/day . This large solar potential can be harnessed for electricity and process heating purposes. However, the current cost of the technology is excessive and not easily affordable, in particular if the need for storage is taken into account. In order to promote the deployment of renewable sources of energy, the government enacted a Renewable Energy Law in 2011. A feed-in tariff scheme is also being developed, to promote investment in renewable energy technologies. Apart from hydropower, the resource level of other renewable energy sources like wind and solar is unavailable because the land area that can be earmarked for the utilisation of these sources has not been determined. Table 1 shows oil and gas reserves as well as total hydropower resources in the country.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
|Estimated available energy sources|
|Total amount in specific units*||0||112.86||54.00||0||2417.36|
|Total amount in exajoule (EJ)||0||16.77||1173.67||0||0.042|
* Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: tonnes; hydro, other renewables: MW.
Sources of data: Petroleum Commission; Volta River Authority; Energy Commission.
1.1.3. Energy statistics
Crude oil production from the Jubilee Field began in December 2010. Daily crude oil production rates in 2011 have averaged 70 000 barrels, which is lower than the anticipated 120 000 barrels . In 2011, the total crude oil production from the Jubilee Field was about 23.76 million barrels . Furthermore, about 650 barrels of crude oil per day is being produced from the offshore Saltpond Fields, which were discovered in 1974, but not put into commercial production because it was then uneconomical owing to low crude oil prices . Alongside the production of crude oil from the Jubilee Field is natural gas, which was being produced at about 100 mmscf per day (million standard cubic feet) on average, in 2011 .
A large proportion of the gas is re-injected into the oil reservoir to boost pressure, while some is used as fuel on the rig and the rest flared. In 2011, a total of 29 940 mmscf of gas was produced from the Jubilee Field . With the discovery of additional fields, the country’s crude oil production increased to 58.66 million barrels in 2017, translating to about 161 000 barrels a day. Gas production also increased, and in 2014 a gas processing plant was commissioned. Gas production for national use has increased from 1980 mmscf in 2014 to 32 766 mmscf in 2017 . The government’s policy is to monetize the natural gas by stripping it of LPG, and use the dry natural gas for electricity generation and other industrial uses. The LPG is expected to be sold in the domestic market, with the excess exported.
The country’s refinery has a capacity of 45 000 barrels per stream day (BPSD), but additional refined petroleum products have to be imported a result of the inadequate capacity of the refinery. In 2017 3 717 kilotonnes of refined products were imported. In addition, 1.63 million barrels of crude oil was imported for electricity generation . The country has also been importing natural gas from Nigeria for electricity generation since 2010, through the West African Gas Pipeline. In 2010 and 2011, about 14 620 mmscf and 28 580 mmscf were imported, respectively . In 2017, about 11 371 mmscf of gas was imported . The country’s energy statistics are presented in Table 2.
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
(Units: Exajoule – EJ)
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1980||1990||2000||2005||2010||2017||2000 to 2017 unless otherwise indicated|
|- Total||0.053 348||0.056 273||0.258 4||0.124 4||0.260 2||0.335 4||1.54|
|- Liquids||0.036 62||0.039 633||0.089 749||0.091 564||0.114 457||0.156 5||2.46|
|- Hydro||0.016 728||0.016 64||0.024 925||0.021 296||0.027 811||0.020 21||-1.22|
|- Other renewables3||—||—||0.143 7||0.114 9||0.103 1||0.118 4||-1.13|
|- Total||0.018 998||0.020 595||0.186 7||0.153 3||0.190 0||0.566 6||6.75|
|- Liquids||0||0||0||0||0.008 164||0.350 8||329.69*|
|- Gases||0||0||0||0||0||0.032 14||not applicable|
|- Hydro||0.018 998||0.020 595||0.023 795||0.020 26||0.025 18||0.020 21||-15.0|
|- Other renewables3||-||-||0.162 9||0.133 0||0.155 0||0.163 4||0.30|
|- Total||0.038 200||0.036 903||0.091 447||0.092 196||0.111 237||-0.168 5||-203.0|
1 Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import-Export) of secondary energy.
2 Solid fuels include coal, lignite.
3 Other renewables include wood fuel and solar.
*Percentage increase estimated from 2010 to 2017.
Source: Energy Statistical Bulletin 2000–2014, Energy Commission Publication, April 2015; Energy Statistical Bulletin 2008–2017, Energy Commission Publication, April 2018.
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
The main policies that govern the electricity sector are formulated by the Ministry of Energy. The Ministry is also responsible for monitoring and evaluating policies, programmes and projects in the electricity sector. The Energy Commission, a quasi-independent body established by the Energy Commission Act 1997 (Act 541), is the government’s energy policy advisor and makes national energy policy recommendations to the Minister of Energy. The Commission advises the Minister of Energy on national energy policies for the efficient, economical and safe supply of electricity and natural gas, having due regard for the economy. In addition, the Commission is to formulate national policies for the development and utilization of indigenous energy resources, in particular, renewable energy: solar, wind and biomass.
There has been a shift in the electricity sector policy direction since the mid-1990s. The electricity sector was reformed to attract private sector investment and state of the art technology to electricity generation. As part of the reform, the Volta River Development Act (Act 61), which established the Volta River Authority, was revised in 2005 into the Volta River Development Amendment Act, Act 692 . The new Act 692 ceded the electricity transmission function of VRA to a new company, Ghana Grid Company Ltd (GRIDCo), incorporated on 15 December 2006 as a private liability company under the Companies code 1963, Act 179. GRIDCo is expected to provide fair and non-discriminatory transmission services to all electricity market participants.
The reform policy expects the establishment of a wholesale electricity market to promote competitive electricity pricing. In 2008, Parliament enacted Wholesale Electricity Market — Technical Rules (Legislative Instrument No. 1934) and Wholesale Electricity Market Operational Regulations — (Legislative Instrument No. 1937), which effectively establish the wholesale electricity supply market.
The planning of the electricity sector system is the responsibility of the Energy Commission. The Commission was given the mandate to prepare, review and periodically update indicative national energy plans, to ensure that all reasonable demands for energy are met. The Commission has undertaken the Strategic National Energy Plan (2006–2020) and Planning for Sustainable Energy Development — Ghana Country Study (2004–2030) studies, and is currently in the process of updating the Strategic National Energy Plan. The Energy Commission and the Ghana Grid Company have also undertaken a Generation Master-plan Study for Ghana.
Two power system planning studies have taken place in the recent past. The Energy Commission and other stakeholders under the IAEA national technical cooperation project (TCP) GHA/0/008 undertook a study called Planning for Sustainable Energy Development — Ghana Country Study. The other study, the Generation Master-plan Study for Ghana, was undertaken by Tractebel Engineering on behalf of the Energy Commission and GRIDCo Ltd. These two studies were based on the Bui Hydropower plant coming online in 2013, the use of natural gas from Nigeria imported through the West African Gas Pipeline and the domestic Jubilee Fields for electricity generation. The least-cost capacity requirements for the two studies are shown in Fig. 1.
FIG. 1. Actual and projected electricity generation capacity.
The actual generation capacity increased from about 1 418 MW in 2000, at an annual growth rate of about 4.3%, to 2 170 MW in 2010. The low growth rate in capacity additions to the generation system during this period can be attributed to lower demand owing to the shutdown of Volta Aluminium Company, an aluminium smelter, and inability to attract adequate investment for capacity expansion. Hence, there was a high degree of suppressed demand in the electricity system during this period. According to the results of the Planning for Sustainable Energy Development — Ghana Country Study, the generation capacity is expected to increase from 2 200 MW in 2010 to 8 220 MW in 2030, at an annual growth rate of 6.8%. In the case of the results of the Generation Master-plan Study for Ghana, the generation requirement is expected to increase from 1 855 MW in 2011 to 5 466 MW in 2026, at an annual growth rate of 7.5%.
The results of the studies show that the dominant fuel for electricity generation in the future is expected to shift from hydropower to fossil fuels. This is expected to be associated with a higher level of emissions from the electricity generating system. The results of the Planning for Sustainable Energy Development — Ghana Country Study show that nuclear power is favoured only under assumptions of strict environmental regulations and a moratorium on importation of fuels for electricity generation excepting natural gas imports from Nigeria.
Recently, the Government, under the auspices of the National Development Planning Commission (NDPC), launched a long term development plan meant to propel the country’s economy to a highly industrialised economy by 2057, following 100 years of independence in Ghana. A power sector infrastructure plan for 2018 to 2047 has therefore been developed in connection with this long term development plan. According to the economic targets, the total GDP is expected to increase from about US $46.0 billion in 2018 to about US $1.370 trillion by 2047 at an average annual rate of 11.8%. The per capita GDP is expected to increase from US $1 546 in 2018 to US $27 195 in 2047 at an average rate of 9.9%. The study assumes that the government policy on energy efficiency coupled with the emergence of energy efficient technologies will lead to a significant reduction in energy intensity as the country industrialises to move its economy forward. The results of this plan are presented in Table 3, which indicates the crucial role nuclear power is expected to play in meeting the economic development targets of the nation . Ghana’s oil and gas resources are expected to be depleted by 2045.
TABLE 3. OPTIMAL INSTALLED CAPACITY FOR POWER INFRASTRUCTURE PLAN
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
The organizational structure of the electricity sector is shown in Fig. 2.
FIG. 2. Structure of Ghana electricity system. Source: Power Sector Reform and Regulation in Africa — Chapter 6.
The country’s electricity generation system is mainly made up of hydropower and thermal power plants (Table 4). Currently, the electricity generation is dominated by thermal plants, which account for 63.48% of total installed capacity. Hydropower plants, which used to be the main source of electricity in the country now account for about 36% of the total installed capacity. Solar plants and a municipal waste biogas plant account for 0.51% .
TABLE 4. INSTALLED CAPACITY OF GRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN 2017
|PLANT||INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW)|
Source: National Energy Statistics 2008-2017, publication of Energy Commission, April 2018
The electricity transmission system of the country is interconnected with the networks of CIE (Compagnie Ivoirienne d’Electricité) of Côte D’Ivoire at Elubo, via a 225 kV transmission line, CEB (Communaute Electrique du Benin) of Togo and Benin at Lome, via a 161 kV transmission line in the south, and at Dapaong in the north via 33 kV low voltage lines, and that of SONABEL of Burkina Faso at Po and Leo, via a 33 kV transmission line. The Ghana Grid Company Ltd manages the country’s transmission network and acts as the independent system operator (ISO), and therefore has dispatch responsibility. The country’s National Interconnected Transmission System is shown in Fig. 3.
The transmission network connects the electricity generation sites at Akosombo, Kpong, Aboadze and Tema to the various load centres in the country. The network is made up of more than 40 primary substations (transformation and switching substations), linked by over 4315.5 km of high voltage transmission lines. About 3888.1 km and 132 km of the transmission system are energized at 161 kV and 69 kV, respectively. Furthermore, 73.4 km of the transmission is also energized at 225 kV. The current total installed transformer capacity of the network is 2915 MVA .
There is an ongoing project to replace all the 161 kV lines with 330 kV as the primary voltage. About 219.5 km of the 161 kV lines have already been replaced with 330 kV lines. There is a regional effort to integrate the transmission networks of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) member states to facilitate power trade among the regional entities. In this regard, the West African Power Pool has begun efforts to build regional transmission lines to interconnect major load centres. One such regional transmission line is the 330 kV Aboadze–Volta (Tema)–Lome (Togo)–Sakete (Benin)–Ikeja West (Nigeria) transmission line. There are also plans to build additional regional lines such as the 330 kV Takoradi (on the coast)–Kumasi–Han (in the north) transmission line [15,16]. Upon completion of these projects, the country’s primary transmission backbone will be 330 kV, which will provide significant reinforcement and increased power transfer capability from generators to load centres. In 2010, the transmission network transported about 10 232.1GWh of electricity with 3.7% losses, compare to the 8 066.2GWh transmitted in 2000 with 2.8% losses on transmission [15,16].
FIG. 3. National Interconnected Transmission System (Source: GRIDCo).
The high transmission voltages are reduced to 34.5 kV, 11.5 kv and 6.6 kV at primary substations, for supply to bulk customers and/or onward distribution to end users throughout the country. Electricity distribution in the country is undertaken by two public distribution companies (Electricity Company of Ghana Ltd (ECG) and Northern Electricity Distribution Company Ltd (NEDCo)) and one private distribution company (Enclave Power Distribution Company Ltd). ECG distributes electricity in the southern sector of the country to a total customer population of 2 120 564 as of the end of 2010 . NEDCo distributes electricity in the northern sector of the country to a total population of 342 207  (Fig. 4).
FIG. 4. Electricity Distribution Zones: ECG (yellow) and NEDCo (red). Source: Ghana Wholesale Power Reliability Assessment Final Report 2010.
As at the end of 2010, the electricity distribution network of Electricity Company of Ghana comprised 26 bulk supply points, 98 primary substations (33/11 kv) and about 8 787 secondary substations. The subtransmission lines are made up of about 14 177 km of 33 kV lines, 15 521 km of 11 kV lines and 1 458 355 of LV lines. In 2010, ECG distributed a total of 6 771.3 GWh of electricity, of which 26.9% was accounted for as losses, compared to 3 989 GWh in 2000, with 27% losses (both commercial and technical) .
The total distribution network of NEDCo is made of 5 bulk supply points, 7832 km of low voltage lines and 5486 km of medium voltage lines . In 2010, NEDCo distributed a total of 635 GWh of electricity, of which 25.5% was accounted for as losses, compared to 330 GWh in 2000, with 30% losses (both commercial and technical) .
The Enclave Power Company is a private electricity distribution company operating in the Tema Free Zone area.
1.2.3. Main indicators
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1980||1990||2000||2005||2010||2017||2000 to 2017|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|- Other renewable||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.02||Not applicable|
|Electricity production (TWh)|
|- Other renewable||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.03||Not applicable|
|Total electricity consumption (TWh)||4.65||4.62||6.92||5.92||7.73||12.09||3.00|
1Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
Source: Volta River Authority, Ghana Energy Statistical Bulletin — 2011, National Energy Statistics 2008 to 2017.
Note: Capacities are recorded as gross.
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||4.7717||3.9106||6.0642||5.2986||6.3723||10.0810|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kW.h/capita)||415.61||321.20||366.13||277.73||313.27||416.90|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||38.44||40.24||39.95||28.39||47.50||8.94|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)1||71.6053||65.5785||79.7452||81.6906||70.7880||-50.23|
1Net import / Total energy consumption.
Source: Calculated from data from Volta River Authority, Tema Oil Refinery and National Petroleum Authority, National Energy Statistics.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The country’s attempt to acquire nuclear power technology dates back to 1961. The government took a decision at that time to initiate the Kwabenya Nuclear Reactor Project. The objectives of the project were to introduce nuclear science and technology into the country, and to exploit nuclear energy in its peaceful applications for the solution of problems of national development. The government therefore set up the Ghana Atomic Energy Committee, to implement the nuclear project. The Committee was later replaced by the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), through an Act of Parliament (Act 204) in 1963. The main functions of the Commission include the promotion, development and utilization of peaceful applications of nuclear and biotechnological techniques for the economic and social advancement of Ghana . In 2000, the new Ghana Atomic Energy Commission Act 588 superseded Act 204.
The main rationale behind the country’s nuclear power ambitions can be found in the speech delivered by Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, the first President of the Republic of Ghana, on 25 November 1964. In this speech, the President declared:
“We have been compelled to enter the field of Atomic Energy, because this already promises to yield the greatest economic source of power since the beginning of man. Our success in this field will enable us to solve the many-sided problems which face us all, in all the spheres of our development in Ghana and Africa .”
Hence, the nuclear programme was expected to build local human capacity in the area of nuclear research and deploy nuclear reactor technology to secure the country’s long term energy independence.
The initial agenda of GAEC therefore included building a nuclear research reactor, to facilitate the development of manpower and promote plans to undertake a nuclear power programme. The implementation of the project began with the training of Ghanaians and development of manpower in fields of nuclear science and technology, to support the introduction of nuclear power for electricity generation in the country to support socioeconomic development. As part of the project, a bilateral agreement with the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was to provide scientists and technicians to staff the initial stages. The construction of physical infrastructure for the implementation of the project had reached an advanced stage, with the project expected to take off by the end of 1966, when a military coup d’état on 24 February 1966 terminated the project.
In 1973, a new management committee and a reactor technical committee were established to reactivate the reactor project. The new management committee made efforts to acquire a 1 MW reactor belonging to Frankfurt University, in the then Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). All documentation with regard to the acquisition of the reactor was signed by the government, and payments towards the dismantling of the reactor in Germany, its shipment to Ghana and subsequent assembly at the project site at Kwabenya were all concluded. However, before the shipments were made, another coup d’etat in the country forced the government of the former FRG to cancel all the arrangements, which once again stalled the country’s effort to embark on a nuclear power programme.
These events resulted in the waning of government interest in the development of a nuclear power programme, and the exodus of the core of the country’s nuclear experts. A long lull in nuclear power development lasted until 1997/1998, when the country experienced a drastic shortfall in electricity generation as a result of poor inflows into the Volta Lake, the reservoir of the Akosombo hydropower plant. This situation led to almost one national load shedding exercise and had enormous impact on socioeconomic development. The issue of electricity supply security became a national concern, and nuclear power was proposed to offer a solution to the perennial shortfalls in hydropower generation. However, when the crisis faded away, interest in nuclear power also waned.
The prospects of nuclear power came to the fore again in 2007, when the country’s hydropower generation was crippled due to protracted drought in the subregion, from 2003 to 2006. The situation was aggravated by the following two factors: (i) drastic curtailment in electricity supply from Côte d’Ivoire due to shortfall in their hydropower generation because of the drought; and (ii) very high crude oil prices, which made thermal electricity generation very expensive. Thermal electricity generation was unable to make up the shortfall in hydropower generation. The country was left with no other option than to resort to a nationwide load shedding exercise from August 2006 to September 2007.
As a response to the electricity supply crisis, in April 2007, the government announced its intention to deploy nuclear power for electricity generation. A Nuclear Power Committee was therefore inaugurated in May 2007. The Committee was tasked with the responsibility of assessing the viability of nuclear power in the country’s energy system and developing a roadmap for deployment of nuclear power for electricity generation in the country. After its assessment, the Committee recommended that nuclear power should play a significant role in the country’s future electricity generation mix. A roadmap was developed for launching the country’s first nuclear power plant of capacity 400 MW in 2018. The Committee also recommended the establishment of a Presidential Commission on Nuclear Power Development, which will act as the nuclear energy programme implementation organization (NEPIO), to see to the implementation of the roadmap .
The government thereafter took a Cabinet decision, in December 2008, to implement the recommendations of the Presidential Committee on Nuclear Power just before the elections in December 2008. The change of government after the election created a hiatus in implementation of the country’s nuclear power programme. The country was however awarded an IAEA national TCP, GHA/0/011 — “Evaluating the role of Nuclear Power in Ghana’s future electricity generation mix”, under the auspices of GAEC. In April 2011, about seven working groups were established to assist in various aspects of the planning of the country’s nuclear power programme. The Ministry of Energy also established a nuclear power unit within its setup to deal with all issues associated with the planning and implementation of the nuclear power programme in the country .
The Ministry of Energy established and inaugurate the country’s NEPIO in September 2012. The function of the country’s NEPIO, which is called Ghana Nuclear Power Programme Organisation (GNPPO), is to coordinate the activities of all stakeholder institutions involved in the planning of the nuclear power programme.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)
The organizational structure envisaged for the implementation of the country’s nuclear power programme and the relationships between the various stakeholders is shown in Fig. 5.
FIG. 5. Working groups to undertake various aspects of TCP GHA/0/011.
The main stakeholders who will take part in the various working groups for the implementation of the IAEA national TCP GHA/0/011 are listed in Table 7. The placement of these stakeholders in the various working groups is a result of their functions. The main functions of these ministries and agencies are not limited to those listed.
TABLE 7. MAIN ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
|Ministry of Energy||Formulation, implementation and monitoring of energy policies;|
Liaising with other agencies on matters relating to power;
Supervision of state owned power utilities to ensure adequate, reliable and cost effective service provision.
|Ministry of Environment Science and Technology||Provision of leadership and guidance for the environment, science and technology within the broad sector of the economy through policy formulation and implementation;|
Ensuring the establishment of regulatory framework and the setting of standards to govern the activities of science and technology and the management of the environment for sustainable development;
Ensuring the coordination, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of activities of environment, science and technology, while fulfilling national benefits sharing commitments.
|Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning||Formulation and implementation of sound fiscal and financial policies;|
Effective mobilization and efficient allocation of resources;
Improve public financial management.
|Ghana Atomic Energy Commission||Advise government on matters relating to nuclear energy, science and technology;|
Draft governmental proposals for legislation in the field of nuclear radiation and radioactive waste management;
Collaborate with universities and research institutes for the purpose of conducting research into matters connected with peaceful uses of nuclear energy and technology.
|Energy Commission||Advise Minister of Energy on national energy policies;|
Indicative energy planning at the national level;
Licensing and technical regulation of the activities of all electricity sector operators.
|Public Utilities and Regulatory Commission||Provide guidelines for rates to be charged by public utilities;|
Monitor standards of performance for provision of utility services;
Protect interests of both consumers and providers of utility services
Promote fair competition.
|National Development Planning Commission||Undertake studies and make recommendations on development and socioeconomic issues;|
Formulate comprehensive national development planning strategies and ensure that the strategies, including consequential policies and programmes, are effectively carried out;
Prepare broad national development plans.
|Ghana Grid Company||Undertake economic dispatch and transmission of electricity from wholesale suppliers (generating companies) to bulk customers;|
Provide fair and non-discriminatory transmission services to all power market participants;
Carry out planning and implementation as necessary for transmission system investments to reliably transmit electric energy and manage the wholesale power market.
|Environmental Protection Agency||Create awareness to mainstream environment into the development process at the national, regional, district and community levels;|
Ensure that the implementation of environmental policy and planning are integrated and consistent with the country’s desire for effective, long term maintenance of environmental quality;
Ensure environmentally sound and efficient use of both renewable and non-renewable resources in for national development.
|Universities and polytechnics||Research and training to support human resource development.|
|Ghana Nuclear Regulatory Authority1||Licensing of nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities;|
Performing regulatory activities;
Training and organizing personnel, according to the Nuclear Law.
1 The Ghana Nuclear Bill proposed the formation of the Ghana Nuclear Regulatory Authority.
GAEC is expected to play a leadership role in the implementation of the country’s nuclear power programme. To date, the Commission established five institutes and a school. The institutes are the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI), Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI), Radiological and Medical Research Institute (RAMSRI), National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI) and the Nuclear Power Institute (NPI). These institutes are intended to undertake research into peaceful and safe applications of nuclear energy, science and technology, and biotechnology, in sectors such as agriculture, energy, environment, geology, health and industry .
The School of Allied and Nuclear Sciences (SNAS), under GAEC, trains postgraduate students in the techniques of nuclear science application in areas such as agriculture and medicine. The research activities include, but are not limited to, the operation of the Ghana Research Reactor 1 facility (a 30 kW miniature neutron source Chinese research reactor) for research in neutron and neutron physics, particle radiation transport, nuclear instrumentation and exploitation of nuclear energy for power generation.
Other government organizations aside from those listed, which can offer technical support for the implementation of the nuclear power programme, especially in determining appropriate sites, include the Geological Survey Department, Hydrological Services Department, Water Resources Commission and National Disaster Management Organization.
In order to streamline the nuclear power programme, GAEC established the Nuclear Power Institute (NPI) in 2016 to serve as the technical wing of the GNPPO. The structure of the newly constituted GNPPO is presented in Fig. 6 .
FIG. 6. New structure of GNPPO.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
NOT APPLICABLE — No nuclear power plant is yet in operation in the country.
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
The government took the decision to deploy nuclear power for electricity generation in the future. In order to actualize the government’s decision, GAEC, acting on behalf of the government, submitted a proposal to the IAEA for support in undertaking a study to evaluate the role nuclear power will play in the country’s future electricity generation. The country was awarded national TCP GHA/0/011: “Evaluating the role of nuclear power in Ghana’s future electricity generation mix”. Following the end of this TCP, there is an ongoing IAEA TCP on “Establishment of Infrastructure for Nuclear Electricity Generation in Ghana”, GHA/2004.
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The successful implementation of the IAEA TCP GHA/0/011: “Evaluating the role of nuclear power in Ghana’s future electricity generation mix” is expected to present the framework for developing the country’s nuclear power development strategy. A NEPIO has been established to manage the activities of seven working groups. The seven working groups will address issues with regard to the following:
Siting Grid Infrastructure Assessment: This working group is expected to undertake a series of studies to develop a strategy for the determination of potential sites, evaluation of these sites for characterization, and final determination. It will also assess the national grid and its interconnection with the West African Power Pool, and develop a strategy for nuclear power operation suitable for the national grid or in the context of the West African Power Pool.
Techno-economic Assessment, Financing and Procurement: This working group is expected to review future electricity generation expansion plans to determine the role of nuclear power and undertake a comprehensive techno-economic assessment of these plans. The group is also expected to develop a strategy for funding the nuclear power programme, long term spent fuel handling and final disposal, waste management and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant.
Legal and Regulatory Issues: This working group will address all legal and regulatory issues pertaining to the country’s nuclear power programme. A Nuclear Bill has been drafted, which proposed the establishment of a Nuclear Regulatory Authority to be in charge of licensing nuclear power plants and all nuclear related facilities and in charge of undertaking nuclear regulatory activities. The Bill has been submitted to Cabinet for approval.
Technology Assessment: This group is expected to undertake the assessment of specific technologies suitable to be adopted for the country’s nuclear power project for electricity supply and for a policy for nuclear fuel acquisition. It is also expected to develop a strategy for management of the various levels of nuclear waste.
Human Resource Development: This working group is expected to undertake assessment of human resource requirements at all stages of the nuclear power programme, and to develop a strategy for human resource development.
Nuclear Power Project Management: This working group is expected to develop the nuclear power project framework, activities and time scales. It is also expected to develop best strategy or type of contract for securing a nuclear power plant (e.g. turnkey, split package or multi-packages).
Stakeholder Involvement: This working group is expected to develop a comprehensive communication strategy for public awareness campaigns and for ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders.
A roadmap has been developed for the commissioning of the first nuclear power plant in 2029. The roadmap is shown in Fig. 7.
FIG. 7. Ghana nuclear power programme roadmap.
In December 2015, Ghana applied for the IAEA’s Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) mission for the assessment of Phase 1 of the nuclear programme. The country then developed the Phase1 INIR mission self-evaluation report in 2016. The IAEA conducted the INIR Mission in January 2017 .
2.3.2. Project management
Refer to Section 2.1.2.
2.3.3. Project funding
The government is funding all activities related to the implementation of the nuclear power programme. The Techno-economic Assessment, Financing and Procurement working groups are expected to develop a strategy for funding the nuclear power project.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
A study to assess the national electricity grid in the context of the West African Power Pool, the required expansion and the upgrade that might be required for the implementation of a nuclear power programme is expected to be undertaken as part of the IAEA national TCP GHA/0/011: “Evaluating the role of nuclear power in Ghana’s future electricity generation mix”. This project has ended and currently the IAEA cooperation for the nuclear programme is being run under a new project: “Establishment of Infrastructure for Nuclear Electricity Generation in Ghana”, GHA/2004.
A preliminary potential site mapping has been undertaken as part of the implementation of IAEA national TCP GHA/0/011: “Evaluating the role of nuclear power in Ghana’s future electricity generation mix”. The working group dealing with siting issues is expected to undertake further assessment of the sites that have been mapped out for characterization, to determine such factors as source of cooling water, transport and grid infrastructure, for the ranking of the nuclear power plant sites.
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
A strategy for management of the various levels of waste (interim storage of spent fuel and ultimate disposal of high level waste) is expected to be developed by the Technology Assessment working group. The country is not expected to be involved in the full nuclear fuel cycle (mining and milling, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing).
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
Ghana participates in international cooperation and initiatives which have the potential to enhance human resource development, transfer of nuclear science and technology know-how, and the implementation of the nuclear power programme in the country.
On 28 September 1960, Ghana became a member of the IAEA. Since then, the country has benefited immensely from its membership of the IAEA in terms of capacity training and sourcing for equipment in the field of nuclear science and applications. On 14 October 1994, the IAEA facilitated an agreement between the government of Ghana and that of the People’s Republic of China for the purchase of a 30 kW miniature neutron source research reactor and for the supply of fuel elements (enriched uranium) for the reactor. This was part of IAEA TCP GHA/1/010 entitled “Miniature Neutron Source Reactor” .
On 16 September 2007, the country joined a group of 15 other countries to respond to the United States government’s initiative to form the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). The GNEP is to provide a forum for cooperation among participating states, in an effort to explore mutually beneficial approaches and to ensure that the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is pursued in a manner that is efficient and meets the highest standards of safety, security and non-proliferation. At the first ever GNEP meeting in Africa, held in Accra, Ghana, on 16–17 June 2010, the partnership adopted the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation instead of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership .
The country is also a member of African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology, or AFRA. This regional initiative seeks to identify and prioritize regional cooperation opportunities for the sustainable promotion of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. It also seeks to promote the implementation of nuclear power programmes in countries in the context of African socioeconomic development.
In November 2011, the government of Ghana signed an agreement with Rosatom, the Russian Federation state owned nuclear energy corporation. This memorandum of cooperation provides for “a number of specific areas of cooperation”, including creating the infrastructure to support the development of nuclear energy in the country. In order to accomplish the terms of this memorandum, a working group will be established to study potential joint projects and draft framework agreements on areas of cooperation, leading to the construction of a nuclear power plant in the future .
The necessary arrangements to sign an agreement with China on nuclear power cooperation are ongoing.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
GAEC has four institutes for training and research in the promotion, development and utilization of the peaceful application of nuclear and biotechnological techniques for economic and social advancement in Ghana. In collaboration with University of Ghana and with the assistance of the IAEA, it has also established the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS). SNAS offers courses in nuclear sciences at the postgraduate level. Student enrolment increased from 36 in various fields of nuclear science at the MPhil level in 2006/2007, when the programme started, to 55 students in various fields of nuclear science at the MPhil level in 2009/2010. The school also admitted 14 PhD students at various levels of study . In the Nuclear Engineering Programme, there are two options, Reactor Physics or Reactor Engineering. The organizational structure of the graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences is shown in Fig. 8.
FIG. 8. Structure of School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
An effective Stakeholders’ Communication Strategy is expected to be developed by the Stakeholders Involvement Working Group, under the IAEA TCP GHA/0/011. The strategy is expected to address issues of public awareness and of communication within stakeholders (e.g. general public, government, industry media and neighbouring countries).
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
GAEC and stakeholders, with assistance from the IAEA, have drafted the Ghana Nuclear Energy Bill, 2009 to pave the way for peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Ghana. The Bill, which has been submitted to the Cabinet for consideration before being laid before Parliament, proposes the establishment of the Ghana Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The chapters of the Ghana Nuclear Energy Bill are listed below:
Part 1: Introductory Provisions
Part 2: The Ghana Nuclear Regulatory Authority
Part 3: Regulatory Activities
Part 4: Provisions for Reactors
Part 5: Transportation of Nuclear Materials
Part 6: Safeguards and Prohibitions
Part 7: Provisions on Mining and Processing
Part 8: Provisions on Nuclear Liability
Part 9: Inspection and Enforcements
Part 10: Offences, Penalties and Appeals
Part 11: General Provisions
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
In 1993, the Provisional National Defence Council Law 308 established a 12 member Radiation Protection Board and concurrently issued Legislative Instrument LI 1559, which prescribed the mandate and responsibilities of the Board as a licensing and regulatory authority for the purpose of radiation protection and waste safety. Hence, to facilitate the mandate of the Board, GAEC, in pursuit of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000: Act 588, established the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI) in February 2002. The organizational chart of the Radiation Protection Institute is shown in Fig. 9.
FIG. 9. Structure of Radiation Protection Institute.
In order to establish an independent regulatory body, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority was established in 2015 through the passage of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act 895 . The regulatory functions of the Radiation Protection Board were taken over by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, while the Radiation Protection Institute focuses on research activities.
3.1.2. Licensing process
The Nuclear Regulatory Authority issues licences to persons who purchase, manufacture, import, sell or deal in, store, use, dispose of or export, any kind of irradiating device or radioactive material, or any other source of ionizing radiation . The steps for the application for a licence are:
Such a person shall apply using the prescribed form for an appropriate licence or renewal to the Authority.
On receiving an application for a licence or for a renewal, the Authority may, on payment of the prescribed fee, issue to the applicant the appropriate licence or renew the licence.
A licence issued under this paragraph may:
(a) Authorize the licensee to own, purchase, acquire, import, export, posses, sell or deal in, store, install, use or dispose of, as the case may be, including irradiating devices, radioactive materials or other sources of ionizing radiation;
(b) Be specific with regard to the process, operation or facility;
(c) Be valid for such period as the Authority may determine;
(d) Contain such other conditions as the Authority considers necessary to impose for the safe disposal of all radioactive material resulting from the proposed operation, process or facility;
(e) Be in such form as the Authority shall determine.
A licence issued under this paragraph may:
(a) Be amended at any time on written notice to the holder by the Authority, if in its opinion, the amendment is necessary for the purpose of public safety;
(b) Be suspended or revoked by the Authority if the holder fails to comply with the conditions contained in the licence or laid down in this Instrument or in any regulations, and where a licence is suspended or revoked the holder shall take such steps as may be directed by the Board to ensure that no radiation hazards occur.
Licences that are issued under this Instrument shall be in addition to any licence required under any other enactment.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The main laws and regulation dealing with nuclear power are listed below:
Laws establishing institutions charged with different responsibilities relating to nuclear power:
Ghana Atomic Energy Commission Act 1963 (Act 204); Government of Ghana Printing Department. (This law established the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission in 1963, to replace Ghana Atomic Energy Committee and to promote the development and the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques for the benefit of Ghana.)
Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) Law 308, 1993; State Publishing Corporation. (The law established the Radiation Protection Board in 1993. Concurrently, the legislative instrument LI 1559 was issued, which prescribed the responsibilities of the Board as a licensing and regulatory authority for the purpose of radiation protection and waste safety.)
Ghana Atomic Energy Commission Act 2000 (Act 588); State Publishing Company. (This is an amendment of Act 204.)
Civil nuclear liability:
The laws dealing with civil nuclear liability are provisions in the Ghana Nuclear Bill, 2009, which was submitted to the Cabinet for consideration.
Establishing a regulatory body:
Nuclear Regulatory Act 895, 2015.
Implementing IAEA safeguards:
GAEC, in operating the Ghana Research Reactor 1 facility, adheres strictly to IAEA safeguards.
Rules for environmental protection:
The rules governing environmental protection are enshrined in the Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1994 (Act 490).
Protection of intellectual property rights:
The country has a Copyright Law Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) Law 110, which protects intellectual property rights.
Import and export controls of nuclear material and items and security principles, including physical protection of nuclear material and facilities and protection of sensitive information:
The mandate to license and regulate the import and export of nuclear materials and items and ensure the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities is established by the PNDC Law 308, 1993 and LI 1559.
Roles of national government, local government, and stakeholders:
The role of the government is being defined by the establishment of the NEPIO, and the roles of local governments and other stakeholders will be articulated by the Working Group in charge of Stakeholder Involvement.
Main regulations in nuclear power:
The Ghana Nuclear Energy Bill, 2009 proposed that the Radiation Protection Board and the Radiation Protection Institute be transformed into the Ghana Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The Regulatory Authority is expected to draft regulations with respect to all aspects of the use of nuclear materials and the operation of nuclear power plants.
Regulation for establishing an authorization system and responsibilities of the operator, inspection and enforcement:
Site selection and approval;
Radiation protection, including protection of workers, public and environment;
Safety of nuclear installations;
Radioactive waste and spent fuel management, including storage and disposal;
Decommissioning, including funding and institutional control;
Mining and milling;
Transport of radioactive material.
Energy Sector Reform Policy
Public Utilities and Regulatory Commission Act 1997 (Act 538), State Publishing Company, Accra; publication
Energy Commission Act 1997 (Act 541), State Publishing Company, Accra; publication
National Petroleum Authority Act 2005, (Act 691) State Publishing Company, Accra; publication
Assessing the Environmental Impacts of a Hydropower Project: The Case of Akosombo/Kpong Dams in Ghana by Yonatan Girmay, Masters’ Thesis, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 2006
Ghana’s Second National Communication to the UNFCCC, 2011
Petroleum Commission of Ghana
Renewable Energy Framework for Climate Change Mitigation in Ghana
Solar Wind Energy Resource Assessment Final Report prepared by Energy Commission, 2009
Status Report on the Jubilee Field Oil and Gas Development (Tano Deepwater and West Cape Three Points) by Management of GNPC, July 16, 2008
National Energy Statistics 2008 to 2017, prepared by Energy Commission
Volta River Development (Amendment) Act, 2005 (Act 692), State Publishing Company; publication
Energy Infrastructure Framework of the Ghana Infrastructure Plan prepared by National Development Planning Commission
Ghana Wholesale Power Reliability Assessment Final Report March 2010 by Power Systems Energy Consulting (Report submitted to GRIDCo)
Ghana Grid Company Ltd. Annual Report for 2010
Electricity Company of Ghana Annual Report and Financial Statements, 2010
Response to Data request from Northern Electricity Distribution Company Ltd by Energy Commission for Energy Statistical Bulletin for 2000–2011
Ghana Atomic Commission Act 1963 (Act 204), Government of Ghana Printing Department; publication
Speech by Dr Kwame Nkrumah, The President of Ghana, during the Launching of Ghana’s Atomic Research Reactor Project.
Presidential Committee on Nuclear Power Study Report; December 2008
Statement by Deputy Minister of Energy, Alhaji Inusah Fuseini at the Opening Ceremony of the Regional Workshop on “Co-operation and Networking for Nuclear Power Programme in Africa” in Accra, Ghana; 14–18 May 2012
Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, http://gaecgh.org/
Status of Ghana’s Nuclear Power Programme, prepared by the Nuclear Power Institute
IAEA_INFCIRC/468: Project and Supply Agreement — The Text of the Agreement of 14 October 1994 among the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governments of the Republic of Ghana and China concerning the Transfer of a miniature Neutron Research Reactor and enriched Uranium
International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC), http://www.ifnec.org/
Nuclear Education for Human Resource Development in Ghana and Africa, A Presentation by J.H. Amuasi, Coordinator, Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences at International Conference on Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 14–18 March 2010
Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Ghana, http://gnra.org.gh
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
The IAEA awarded a national TCP GHA/0/011, which will form the basis of the development of a country nuclear power programme strategy. This project, which has different dimensions, seeks to address the 19 issues and is ongoing. Along with the establishment of the NEPIO for the project, it is believed that the pace of the implementation of the project will increase.
On 14 October 1994, the country entered a project and supply agreement with China concerning the supply of enriched uranium for a miniature 30 kW neutron research reactor.
In November 2011, the country also signed a memorandum of cooperation with the Russian Federation state owned nuclear energy corporation Rosatom, which will lead to the creation of infrastructure to support the development of nuclear energy in the country.
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
Ministry of Energy
Postal Address: P.O. Box T40, Stadium, Post Office, Accra Ghana
Private Mail Bag, Ministries Post Office, Ministries, Accra, Ghana
Ministry of Education
Postal Address: P.O. Box M45, Accra
Ghana Atomic Energy Commission
P.O. Box LG80, Legon-Accra, Ghana
Name of report coordinator: Isaac Ennison
Institution: Energy Commission, Ghana
Contacts: Dr. Robert Sogbadji, Ministry of Energy/Ghana Atomic Energy Commission
Dr. Nii Allotey, Nuclear Power Institute
Dr. Joseph Essandoh Yeddu, Energy Commission