REPUBLIC OF KOREA
This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Republic of Korea, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Republic of Korea.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. Energy Information
1.1.1. Energy Policy
The government announced a long-term strategy in January 2014 that will determine the direction of its national energy policy until 2035. The Second Energy Master Plan aimed at reducing final energy consumption by 13% by 2035, with six basic directions: conversion to demand management policies, establishment of distributed generation system, balance with the environment and safety, enhancement of energy security and stable energy supply, stable supply system of each energy source and energy policy reflecting public opinion.
The overall energy saving goal for 2035 is nearly 34 Mtoe, 47% should be achieved in industry (16 Mtoe), 36% in the transport sector (12 Mtoe), 13% in the residential and commercial sector (4 Mtoe) and 4% in the public sector (1.3 Mtoe).
The Government plans to depend more on environmental-friendly new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic energy, and wind power energy (increasing their share from 3.9% in 2014 to 11% by 2035), and reduce its reliance on fossil fuels.
1.3. Electricity System
1.2.1. Electricity System and Decision Making Process
The principle ministry responsible for developing the electricity policy in Korea is the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE). MOTIE works in consultation and close co-operation with the Ministry of Strategy and Finance (MOSF), six generation companies (GenCos) and the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). With energy being regarded as a key component of Korea’s rapid economic development, the government has maintained a strong presence in the sector.
MOTIE, either through direct or indirect government ownership of energy companies, utilities and several energy research institutes, has maintained a high degree of control in all aspects of energy policy development and implementation.
The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) has the overall responsibility for ensuring nuclear safety through regulatory activities. The NSSC is also a policy maker for the nuclear sector.
MOTIE continues to establish the biannual Basic Plan of Long-term Electricity Supply and Demand (BPE for short) that provides the long-term energy policy directions and information on electricity supply and demand, such as the electricity facility plan, to secure stable electricity supply. Generation companies can apply for government approval of their generation business and power plant construction plans based on the BPE.
The 7th BPE was established in 2015 and covers a planning period from 2015 to 2029. The BPE was made based on the construction intentions of GenCos and the demand forecast provided by Korea Power Exchange (KPX). For establishing the plan, the government reviewed and prepared the working drafts of four subcommittees (Generating capacity expansion, Demanding forecast, Demand side management and Transmission system expansion), and collected opinions on every aspect from various economic organizations through a public hearing.
The basic directions of the 7th BPE are as follows:
Power Supply Stability on Top Priority: The top-notch focus in the expansion of generation facilities was power supply stability in response to a possible instability of power supply caused by any drastic changes in temperatures and delays in construction of facilities.
Accurate and Objective Demand Forecast: Forecast has been based on a scientific modeling and the fact-based decision by the subcommittee consisting of experts in power demands, away from personal judgement. There has been remarkable improvement in modeling the demand forecast by considering the power demand trend of 14 developed countries and the changes in temperatures.
Low-carbon Energy Mix for Post-2020 Greenhouse Gas Reduction: The BPE needs to reflect both the pending construction of four nuclear power plants (6,000MW) under the 6th BPE and the largest of nuclear power plant share (29%) by 2035 under the 2nd Master Plan for National Energy (MPNE).
1.3.2. Structure of the electric power sector
6 power generation companies, independent power producers, and community energy systems are producing electric power, and KEPCO transports the electric power it purchased from the Korea Power Exchange through the transmission and distribution network, and sells it to general customers.
Transmission and Distribution
KEPCO has pushed forward 765kV power transmission voltage upgrade project to address serious supply imbalance between high-demand Seoul metropolitan and large-sized power generation complexes and to support efficient use of national land. About 175.9km line linking Dangjin thermal power plant to Shin-seosan and Shin-anseong substation and 154.9km line linking Shin-taebaek to Shin-gapyeong substation are already in operation and the 46.5km line linking Ulchin nuclear power plant to Shin-taebaek substation has been completed as 765kV in April, 2006. The line is currently operating as 345kV but will be upgraded to 765kV by 2014. KEPCO also built 765kV one-circuit line 75km long that links Shin-anseong substation and Sin-gapyeong substation, which started operation in April, 2010, and is now building a 91km two-circuit line linking Shin-kori substation to North Gyeongnam substation. These two lines are expected to play a key role in improving system voltage and supply conditions in Seoul metropolitan and provide conditions to effectively transport electric power generated in high-capacity power plants. The 765kV upgrade project applied with new technology and new processes is expected to enhance technological level of domestic construction firms and materials providers and global competitiveness.
1.3.3. Main indicators
Table 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1980||1990||2000||2005||2010||2014||2000 to 2014|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GW)|
|- other renewables||-||-||-||0.16||1.76||4.47||-|
|Electricity production (TWh)|
|- other renewables||-||-||3.87||5.32||14.65|
|- Total (1)||37.24||107.67||266.40||364.64||474.92||521.91||4.92|
|Total Electricity consumption (TWh)||32.73||94.38||239.54||332.41||434.16||477.59||5.05|
(1) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
Source: Korea Electric Power Corporation (http://www.kepco.co.kr/eng)
Table 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||25.24||48.15||90.85||170.82||198.87||208.92|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)||240||859||2 206||5 067||6 883||9 472|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||7.68||27.36||99.11||175.47||179.21||232.29|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||0.00||9.34||49.12||40.90||40.25||30.0|
|Ratio of external dependency (%) (1)||47.56||73.37||87.95||97.15||96.66||95.2|
(1) Net import / Total energy consumption.
Source: Energy Info. Korea 2015 by Korea Energy Economics Institute (http://www.kesis.net/)
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical Development and Current Organizational Structure
Nuclear activities in Korea were initiated in 1957 when Korea became a member of the IAEA. The following year, Korea passed its Atomic Energy Law. In 1959, the Office of Atomic Energy was established in conformity with the global trend toward development of peaceful uses of atomic energy.
Korea has carried out a very ambitious nuclear power program since the 1970s in parallel with the nation’s industrialization policy. Korea has maintained a strong commitment to nuclear power development as an integral part of its national energy policy, aiming to reduce external vulnerability and insure against global fossil fuel shortages. Currently, Korea has one of the most dynamic nuclear power programs in the world.
During the early years of nuclear power development, power plants were constructed mostly through turnkey contracts, providing little opportunity for domestic industries to participate in the construction. Since then, however, domestic participation in overall construction management, design, equipment supply and civil construction has continuously increased through the adoption of non-turnkey approaches. As part of this trend, a high degree of technological self-reliance in various fields of the nuclear industry has been achieved through the construction of Yonggwang-3 & 4. At present, nuclear power plant (NPP) technology and related fuel cycle technologies are maturing.
The first domestic reactors were Ulchin-3 & 4, 1,000 MWe PWRs initially called the Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP), but now referred to as the OPR1000, which entered commercial operation in 1998. The Ulchin-3 & 4 became the reference plant for OPR1000 plants thereafter. Six more OPR1000 plants are being built at Ulchin, Shin-Kori and Shin-Wolsong as shown in Table 5.
The newly advanced reactors being built at Shin Kori-3 & 4 are 1,400 MWe PWRs, called APR1400. These third generation reactors have been under construction since September 2007. The plants are evolutionally advanced in the field of technology, safety and economics. Two more APR1400 plants are being built at the Shin-Ulchin site, as shown in Table 6.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)
Nuclear-related activities are planned and carried out by various organizations such as the Ministry of Science, ICT & future Planning (MSIP), the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC).
The MSIP has the overall responsibility for the nation’s nuclear research and development and nuclear international cooperation affairs.
The MOTIE is responsible for the construction and operation of NPPs, the nuclear fuel supply, and the management of radioactive waste.
The NSSC is responsible for nuclear safety, security and non-proliferation as a regulatory body.
Source: Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning
FIG 3 Main nuclear-related organizations in South Korea
2.2. Nuclear Power Plants: Overview
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
Currently, a total gross capacity of 21.7 GWe is installed in the 24 operating Korean NPPs, comprising 20 PWRs and 4 CANDU pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). There are five units under construction. Table 5 shows the status of NPPs as of June 2016 and Figure 4 shows the geographical locations.
Table 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table 7 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
FIG 4. Geographical location of NPPs
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals
Plant upgrading and plant life management
Beginning in September 2002, KHNP conducted Power Uprating Projects for Kori-3 & 4 to uprate their reactor thermal power and eventually to increase their electrical output. Kori-3 & 4 reached their new rated thermal power (2,900MWth, 4.5% SPU uprating) in December and February 2009, respectively, and increased their electrical output by 34.1MWe from 999MWe (original output) to 1,033.1MWe (uprated output).
After implementation of Power Uprating (SPU) for Kori-3&4, KHNP has tried to conduct another Power Uprating projects for Hanbit (Younggwang)-1&2 and Hanul (Ulchin)-1&2. But, due to the issues of Public Acceptance (PA), these projects have been held to implement. If the atmosphere of PA for Power Uprating would be improved, these projects will be started again. To effectively manage major Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) and to reduce the maintenance cost of the operating nuclear power plants, Long Term Asset Management (LTAM) strategies based on equipment reliability processes (INPO AP-913) were developed in KHNP as a part of plant life management.
LTAM program settling is progressing to achieve its own goal through the continuous improvement and finding-out the issues regarding the process implementation of LTAM.
Continued Operation (License renewal)
The period of continued operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is ten years according to the current legal framework in the Republic of Korea. It is mandatory for the utility to conduct a Periodic Safety Review (PSR) for its operating NPPs every ten years and to submit PSR reports for the regulatory review and approval. The definition of Continued Operation (CO) is stated in the nuclear law enforcement ordinance and, under this legal statement, it is possible to extend a plant’s operation beyond its design lifetime. A enhanced PSR report, including a Lifetime Evaluation Report(LER) and Radiological Environment Report(RER), should be submitted by the utility to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(MEST) in the CO application two to five years before the end of the original license period. The LER of the CO includes identifying the Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) within the scope of the CO, Aging Management Programs (AMPs) and Time Limited Aging Analyses (TLAAs). In June 2006, KHNP submitted the safety evaluation report for continued operation of Kori-1 to the MISP (then MEST) 2007 and MISP (then MEST) officially permitted continued operation on December 11, 2006. The safety evaluation report on Wolsong-1 was also submitted in December 2009 and Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) permitted continued operation on February 27, 2015.
2.3. Future Development of Nuclear Power
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
According to the 7th Basic Plan of Long-term Electricity Supply and Demand, which was finalized by MOTIE in July 2015, 8 units of APR 1400 and 4 units of APR+ will be constructed by 2029. Of which 4 units of APR 1400 are under construction.
Table 6. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/Project Name||Type||Capacity||Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|DAEJIN-1 or CHEONJI-3*||PWR||1500||-||2028|
|DAEJIN-2 or CHEONJI-4*||PWR||1500||-||2029|
* Sites of last 2 units will be determined between Daejin and Cheonji in the licensing stage.
The APR1400 is a Generation III type light water reactor with a capacity of 1,400MWe developed on the basis of OPR1000. Unlike OPR1000 with 2 trains active type safety system, APR1400 has 4 trains active type safety system. It is expected to be ten times safer than OPR1000. The standard design of the APR1400 was certified by the Korean regulatory agency in May. Shin Kori-3 & 4 will be the first APR1400 plants and are now under construction at the site adjacent to the present Kori nuclear power station. They are scheduled to start commercial operation in 2016 and 2017, respectively.
The APR+ is a Generation III+ type of light water reactor with a capacity of 1,500MWe developed to enhance the safety feature and economic competitiveness on the basis of APR1400. Unlike APR1400, APR+ has active type safety system and passive type safety system. It is expected to be ten times safer than APR1400. The standard design of the APR+ was certified by the Korean regulatory agency in August 2014 and appraised as the new design concept with enhanced safety and economic competitiveness. Cheonji-1 & 2 will be the first APR+ plants scheduled to be online in 2026 and 2027, respectively.
2.3.2. Project management
In 1985, the Korean government made the landmark decision to implement a national self-reliance policy and allocated the roles and duties among the domestic nuclear organizations to streamline the nuclear power industry.
FIG 5. STRUCTURE OF NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY
Doosan Heavy Industry has taken part in plant manufacturing by virtue of its capability to supply heavy industrial construction equipment and machinery. KEPCO E&C was established in 1975 to foster the nation’s self-reliance in power technologies, particularly in nuclear power engineering for pressurized water reactors. KEPCO E&C has taken the prime architect engineer’s responsibility. KEPCO NF was established in November 1982 by joint investment of KEPCO and KAERI to localize the nuclear fuel fabrication for pressurized water reactors and PHWR reactors. NSSC/KINS conduct safety reviews and inspections of nuclear facilities or radiation facilities.
The technological self-reliance strategy has been applied since construction of HANBIT 3&4. Domestic nuclear industries became the projects’ prime contractors on the condition of technology support, guidance and then transfer from foreign subcontractors.
2.3.3. Project funding
KHNP works to secure the reasonable sales price of electricity and reduce the cost of production in order to maximize retained earnings which can be used for future capital expenditure. To acquire additional funding, in the short-term, KHNP is issuing corporate bonds with diversified maturities to attract national and international investors.
In the long-term, KHNP is considering diverse arrangements like equity financing in addition to current debt financing to maintain financial soundness.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
According to the 5th Basic Plan of Long-term Electricity Supply and Demand, which was finalized by the MKE in December 2010, 68-c-km-long transmission lines for Shin Kori-1&2 and 172-c-km-long transmission lines for Shin Kori-3&4 will be added to the current grid.
2.3.5. Site Selection
LIST OF SELECTED NPPs SITES AND CHARACTERISTICS
|Station||Source of Cooling Water||Operation Status||Transportation Infrastructure||Approval Status|
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
|SHIN KORI-1||Sea Water||Operational||Wharf|
Main Access Road
|SHIN KORI-2||Sea Water||Operational||Wharf|
Main Access Road
|SHIN KORI-3||Sea Water||Trial Operational||Main Access Road||Operating |
|SHIN KORI-4||Sea Water||Under Construction|
|Main Access Road||Construction |
|SHIN KORI-5||Sea Water||Under Construction||Main Access Road||Construction |
|SHIN KORI-6||Sea Water||Under Construction||Main Access Road||Construction |
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
|SHIN WOLSONG-1||Sea Water||Operational||Main Access Road||Operating|
|SHIN WOLSONG-2||Sea Water||Operational||Main Access Road||Operating|
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
Main Access Road
|Sea Water||Under Construction||Main Access Road||Construction |
|Sea Water||Under Construction||Main Access Road||Construction |
2.3.6. Public Awareness
In order to expand public acceptance, KHNP puts utmost effort in various activities in local support business, conflict management and social contribution works. Every year, survey regarding social contribution works is carried out among local residents around nuclear power plants. Criteria of survey are as follow; contribution in local economy, satisfaction in local co-operation, ecology engineering, public supports in nuclear use, safety credibility, and information release confidence. Results of the survey will be used as reference for policy making in continued operation of nuclear power plant and introduction of new nuclear power plant.
2.4. Organizations Involved in Construction of NPPs
Since the Korean government decided to pursue technological self-reliance in 1985, the structure of the domestic projects in Korea has been similar to that shown in Figure 5.
KHNP is in charge of total project management from construction to start-up, as an Owner. KHNP designated KEPCO E&C for Architect/Engineering of plants and NSSS design, Doosan Heavy Industry for the supply of the NSSS and the Turbine/Generator, and KEPCO NF for nuclear fuel. KAERI contributes to the nuclear technology research and development. Construction is performed by several domestic companies, such as HYUNDAI, SAMSUNG, etc.
2.5. Organizations Involved in Operation of NPPs
Figure 5 shows the main organizations involved in nuclear power plant operation. Additionally, KEPCO KPS provides maintenance services for all the operating nuclear power plants, while 5 individual companies are providing maintenance services for some of the nuclear power plants.
2.6. Organizations Involved in Decommissioning of NPPs
According to Nuclear Safety Act, KHNP, the sole NPP operator in the Republic of Korea, has responsibility for decommissioning of NPPs. Kori NPP-1, the first nuclear power plant in Korea, will be shut down for decommission in June 2017, to this end decommissioning organizations have implemented the preparation for the decommissioning. KHNP will undertake a full-scale decommissioning project after Final Decommissioning Plan for Kori NPP-1 is approved.
2.7. Fuel Cycle Including Waste Management
The Republic of Korea’s demand for nuclear fuel cycle service has continuously increased with the expansion of its nuclear power capacity. KHNP, the only consumer of nuclear fuel in the Republic of Korea, has the guidelines for a procurement strategy which ensures the stable supply and economic efficiency of nuclear fuel. KHNP has maintained the optimal supply and demand plan through long-term contracts, spot-market purchases and the international open bid process.
According to the guidelines, in 2015, KHNP imported uranium concentrates from Australia, Canada, Japan, Germany, Kazakhstan, Niger and the U.S. Conversion services were imported from Canada, China, Japan, U.S. and enrichment services were imported from France, Russia, the U.K.
Fuel fabrication services are fully localized by the KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KEPCO NF). The spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel storage facilities of their respective nuclear power plants. The national policy for spent fuel management, including construction of a centralized spent fuel interim-storage facility in disposal site, will be determined at a later date.
2.8. Research and Development
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The Atomic Energy Act stipulates that the MSIP shall formulate the National Nuclear R&D Program according to a sector-by-sector implementation plan.
The Nuclear R&D Program, the so-called “National Medium-and-Long-term Nuclear R&D Program,” is mainly implemented by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), the Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRMS), and the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Additional industry-led R&D programs are implemented mainly by the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP), KEPCO Engineering & Construction Company, Inc. (KEPCO E&C), KEPCO Plant Service and Engineering CO., Ltd (KEPCO KPS), and KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF).
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
The “National Medium-and-Long-term Nuclear R&D Program” was launched in June 1992 as a 10-year (1992-2001) program. In 1997, the Korean government established the Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP), which includes the national policy on nuclear energy utilization and promotion and its sectoral tasks. As part of the plan, a national R&D program has been formulated every 5 years since 1997 to take into account the major changes in the R&D environment and the technological progress. As of June 2016, an updating of the 5th CNEPP for 2017-2021 is progressing. The national R&D program for the 5th CNEPP period will be formulated subsequently.
The national R&D Program focuses on five research fields: 1) advanced reactors and fuel; 2) nuclear safety; 3) radioactive waste management; 4) application of radiation and radioisotopes; and 5) fundamental technologies. A technology innovation project for operating NPPs has also been developed for the nuclear industry.
Projects for further development of advanced reactors and fuel cycle technology are progressing under the mid- and long-term nuclear R&D programs. As a near-term reactor option, the Korean Next Generation Reactor, which is called the APR1400, has been developed and is under construction. Building on the APR1400, the Advanced Power Reactor Plus with improved economy and safety is under development.
KAERI also developed the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), which is used for electricity generation and seawater desalination, and is well suited for applications in countries where large-sized commercial power plants are infeasible and where water scarcity is a problem. The NSSC issued a Standard Design Approval for SMART in July 2012. A safety enhancement project has been carried out to design a fully passive safety system through validation tests since 2012. In preparation for the advent of the hydrogen era, research on the demonstration technology of economical nuclear hydrogen production is also underway. In the long term, to technically solve the problem of spent fuel accumulation, KAERI is developing proliferation-resistant SFR fuel cycle technology coupled with a sodium-cooled fast reactor and pyro-processing.
Even though the Republic of Korea has applied a “wait and see policy” for spent fuel management, several technological alternative studies on spent fuel management have been carried out. R&D activities on the disposal and treatment of radioactive wastes, as well as the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, are in progress.
Several research projects concerning radiation and radioisotopes, including the production of radioisotopes, have been or are being conducted for applications in various areas such as medicine, agriculture, food, and industry.
2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives
The international nuclear society has a common recognition of the expanded role of nuclear energy systems to cope with increasing energy demand and deal with climate change. International cooperative programs have been initiated for the development of new nuclear energy systems with significant improvements in safety, economics, resource reutilization, environmental friendliness, and proliferation resistance.
Korea has been actively participating in these programs. These programs include the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle (INPRO), and the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC).
GIF is a co-operative international endeavour that was set up to carry out the research and development needed to establish the feasibility and performance capabilities of the next-generation nuclear energy systems. GIF has thirteen members who are signatories of its founding document, the GIF Charter, the goals of which are to provide the basis for identifying and selecting six nuclear energy systems for further development. Their designs include thermal and fast neutron spectra cores, and closed and open fuel cycles. The reactors range in size from very small to very large. Depending on their respective degree of technical maturity, the first Generation IV systems are expected to be deployed commercially in around 2030 to 2040. Korea has been a chartered member of GIF since 2000, and has played a significant role in the development of Gen-IV nuclear energy systems. The 41st Policy Group meeting held in Paris decided to designate the Korean PG delegate as the new Vice Chair (VC) of GIF, and to give an external GIF collaboration mission, which includes interactions with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and their various initiatives or international projects. Korea can further expand its contributions to GIF in this regard. Since 2006, Korea has participated in the co-development of the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). In November 2015, Seoul National University (SNU) has concluded a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in the development of a Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Korea has participated in various SFR projects including an Advanced Fuel Project, CD&BOP (Component Design and Balance-Of-Plant) Project, Safety and Operation Project, and SIA (System Integration and Assessment) Project, as well as a Hydrogen Production Project, High Temperature Material Project, Nuclear Fuel Project, and CMVB (Computational Method Validation and Benchmark) Project in the VHTR
INPRO was initiated in 2000 for the purpose of jointly considering the international actions required to achieve the desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. Currently, thirty-nine countries are members of INPRO, and Korea has been a member since 2001. INPRO has investigated the role of nuclear energy in the 21st century for sustainable development and determined the requirements and criteria for innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear power. Korea coordinated the activities for developing the criteria for proliferation resistance of nuclear reactors and fuel systems and participated in case studies for the examination of innovative nuclear energy technologies against the criteria and requirements. In addition, Korea has participated in the INPRO Collaborative Projects (CPs) which are addressing technical issues. Korea played a leading role in moving forward the project on Proliferation Resistance, Acquisition/Diversion Analysis (PRADA), for attaining the security of future nuclear energy systems and is participating in new CPs such as Proliferation Resistance and Safeguardability Assessment (PROSA), Synergetic Nuclear Energy Regional Group Interactions Evaluated for Sustainability (SYNERGIES).A Korean expert leads the Task 4 of INPRO(Policy and Dialogue) and contributes to facilitate the exchange of information among INPRO member countries and to integrate national activities of various issues surrounding nuclear energy, while also participating in the INPRO/GIF Joint Meetings to discuss recent developments and the relationship between INPRO and GIF.
The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) was launched in February 2006 as an international cooperation regime, and is intended to support the expansion of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes worldwide in a safe and secure manner, and to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation. GNEP changed its name to the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) in June 2010 to focus on international cooperation activities to address challenges facing nuclear energy. This framework provides a forum for cooperation among participating states to ensure the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. To date, 33 nations have joined as participants, and 31 nations and four international organizations (the IAEA, GIE, Euratom, and NEA) have been participating as observers. In IFNEC, there are the following operational structures: the Executive Committee, Steering Group, and Working Group. IFNEC members set up two expert-based Working Groups: the Reliable Nuclear Fuel Services Working Group and the Nuclear Infrastructure Development Working Group. Korea joined GNEP in 2007 and has been sharing its knowledge and experience in infrastructure development including human resource development, radioactive waste management, small and medium-sized reactors (SMRs), financing options, and public acceptance in identifying infrastructure requirements for the member countries in their plans to introduce a nuclear program. In addition, Korea has participated in discussions on a multilateral disposal approach to explore economical and attractive solutions for spent fuel management. Korea hosted the 5th IFNEC Executive Committee meeting held in October 2014 in Seoul. At this annual meeting, representatives from 36 countries and International Organizations addressed issues relevant to IFNEC activities to explore mutually beneficial approaches for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in a manner that meets the highest standards of safety, security, and non-proliferation.
The Nuclear International Cooperation Council (NICC) has been founded in 2013. The council has 14 member organizations from industry sector, R&D sector and governmental sectors. NICC member organizations cooperate with each other for exchanging information and planning new joint projects on international cooperative activities as well as monitoring the national nuclear international cooperation policy on a long term basis.
2.9. Human resources development
It has been one of key factors to develop human resources since the Government of Republic of Korea decided nuclear technology for a future growth engine. While the government had been working on a plan to recover national economy from the ashes of Korean War in late 1950s, there was a group of physicists who voluntarily studied nuclear science and technology and thought it as an electric source of country. In 1958, the government has legislated the Atomic Energy Act (now changed to Atomic Energy Promotion Act) which is about setting up long-term plan of nuclear R&D and HRD and securing necessary funds and the group of physicists took major role to prepare the legislation and to establish R&D institutes. Based on the long term plans, (five-year cycle plan) following R&D and HRD programs have been initiated for developing nuclear science and securing human resources in Korea until now.
Now, 24 nuclear power plants are in operation and there are 4 more commercial reactors under construction. In 2014, nuclear power took more than 30% of total electricity generation and the Government of the Republic of Korea has a will to set nuclear energy as a base-load energy source.
To maintain the level of electricity generation and to develop new technology, there are 16 universities providing degree course in nuclear engineering. In 1958, Hanyang University established the first nuclear engineering department in Korea. After Seoul National University in 1959, following universities were starting to set up nuclear engineering faculty: the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Kyunghee University, Chosun University, Jeju University, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Dongguk University, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS) and so on. In 2013, there were about 241 students in B.A., 83 in M.A., and 41 in Ph.D. graduated.
In addition to universities, many nuclear organizations, such as KAERI, KINS, KINAC and KHNP, have in-house training centres for education and training and have provided nuclear E&T courses for their staff members, as well as domestic nuclear professionals.
Along with domestic nuclear education and training, Korea provides nuclear education and training courses for partner countries, such as UAE, Saudi Arabia and Jordan and has been running international education programs in partnership with international organizations such as IAEA, OECD/NEA and WNU.
In 2011, the Nuclear Education Cooperation Council (NECC) has been founded. The council has 25 member organizations from industry sector, R&D sector and academic sectors. NECC member organizations cooperate for information exchanges, collaborating on education and training programs for domestic and overseas needs, as well as monitoring the national nuclear HRD policy and programs.
FIG 6. NUCLEAR HRD HISTORY IN KOREA
2.10. Stakeholder Involvement
Nuclear energy institutes, including Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power (KHNP) and Korea Nuclear Energy Agency (KNEA), are pushing ahead with public education on nuclear energy with the goal of eliminating the negative perception of nuclear energy held by many members of the public and building a social consensus on its use. To achieve this, the public is being provided information on NPP operation and the current state of radioactive waste through websites and through newsletters sent out to website members. In addition, booklets are being published on the operation of NPPs and the safety and necessity of nuclear energy, with each booklet targeting different readers with different content.
Visitors are provided with opportunities to learn about the current state of NPPs and may tour facilities through the information and exhibition centres that are located in the plant. Additionally, the public is informed about the safety, economic feasibility and eco-friendliness of nuclear energy through various exhibitions.
The nuclear industry in Korea strives to provide the public with objective and scientific knowledge on nuclear energy through mass media such as TV and newspapers and in various forms such as advertisements, informational features, publicity campaigns and articles. Efforts are also being made to promote a positive awareness of nuclear energy by organizing or supporting seminars, workshops and academic presentations.
In the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident, public concerns for safety has increased the need to build up the public’s trust in nuclear safety and has led to more opportunities to let the public directly experience nuclear sites and better understand nuclear energy. Based on current utilization rates, there is a need to create and distribute comprehensive nuclear energy information and materials. In 2016, KNEA will continue to diversify and enhance the public’s trust by conducting more research to better investigate and predict nuclear energy and energy agendas.
Heightened public interests as well as concerns for the negative effects of radiation have increased the need to cultivate specialists that can explain and consult within various sites to relieve public fear and anxiety. Accordingly, the Agency has been cultivating radiation counsellors and conducting counselling to enable the public to better understand the effects of radiation within medical or industrial environments.
Public relation activities targeting local residents, who are the direct stakeholders, are very interested in the nuclear energy business, focus on narrowing the gap and strengthening the bond between these stakeholders and the industry through direct contact to reassure them about the safety of nuclear energy. The nuclear industry in Korea recognizes that the degree of acceptance of nuclear energy varies depending on local opinions and international situations, so it establishes and executes public acceptance strategies to best meet the needs of these stakeholders. NPP workers are also active in conducting person-to-person public relations activities with local residents.
KHNP provides the public with information on the operation of NPPs, the operating principles of NPPs, and the current radioactive waste situation through its website and information and exhibition centres. In addition, KHNP conducts joint environmental inspections around NPPs with local representatives and local universities, and provides available information to local residents to monitor the operation of NPPs in non-government environment watchdog groups.
As young people do not yet have a firmly-established point of view about nuclear energy, it is very important to help them develop positive perceptions regarding nuclear energy based on the facts and rationality. KHNP and KNEA work to educate young people on the advantages and necessity of nuclear energy in many ways.
KHNP holds regular Nuclear Contests such as a drawing contest, a writing contest and a science camp during summer vacation, while also opening its information and exhibition centres and offering plant tours for students in the neighbouring areas. In addition, KNEA presents a Nuclear Musical and Festival for young people to enjoy and learn about nuclear energy with their families. Science teachers across the nation are provided with nuclear energy work training and distributed promotional magazines. Nuclear energy experts as guest teachers are also available to visit schools to teach students. Moreover, KHNP provides NPP tours and lectures to special purpose high school students, such as science high school students, to help encourage excellent students to build a career in the nuclear power industry. KHNP is making many efforts to help more young people understand nuclear energy through other diverse approaches such as the National Open Recruitment of University Students to act as public relations representatives. There is a project called National Academic Paper Contest for university students and its winners are given a priority on the list in the hiring process.
In particular, since schools have a powerful influence on students, KNEA is making all efforts to analyse textbooks used in elementary, middle, and high schools and reflect any additions or corrections to the textbooks, so that nuclear energy education is systematically provided. Additionally, KNEA has developed and distributed educational materials – books, presentations, pictures – for teachers who want to teach nuclear energy related subjects. KNEA also provides NPP tours for textbook editors to increase their understanding of nuclear power.
The mass media, such as television, newspapers and Internet, provide information to the public and shapes public opinion. Therefore, it is helpful to the nuclear energy industry to offer objective material and scientific information on nuclear energy through reliable mass media channels. KHNP and KNEA do this and provide special reports on nuclear energy in joint campaigns with newspapers or editorials written by nuclear energy specialists.
The news media requires facts in order to provide accurate reports on nuclear power programs. Background information provided to the news media includes photographs, films, videotapes, fact sheets, copies of technical reports, government laws or policy statements, and information booklets or pamphlets. Moreover, KHNP and KNEA try to broadcast important ceremonies, including ground-breaking events, reactor installations and plant construction completions, etc. to increase media awareness.
KHNP and KNEA utilize positive advertisements to directly inform people that nuclear energy is an essential part of our everyday lives. These advertisements convey their messages not only through the mass media such as TV, radio, newspapers and magazines, but also through full-colour electronic signboards and outdoor billboards at crowded airports, bus terminals, and railway and subway stations.
KHNP and KNEA work to continuously stage campaigns to promote nuclear energy, the environment, and energy security through joint efforts with the media. These attempts have made great contributions to public awareness of nuclear energy issues.
One of the key KNEA’s programs that introduce nuclear policies is its publication ‘Nuclear Energy Culture’. By publishing a theme-based informational booklet with planned articles across various themes including nuclear energy, energy policy, and technology, KNEA has been utilizing the publication as a media to quickly deliver fair and objective information regarding current issues on nuclear energy. In 2016, KNEA will continue to develop and disseminate objective and fair contents by overseeing in-house content creation, editing committee review, and content regeneration processes.
KHNP utilizes its official website to build public confidence about safe operation of NPPs by providing the public with real-time information on the state of operation, maintenance, and stoppage of all NPPs in the Republic of Korea. The nature of KNEA’s communication has become more interactive after implementing online programs. KNEA’s online program includes collecting network citizens’ (‘Netizens’) opinions through real-time online discussions and bulletin boards and providing prompt answers to Netizens’ questions regarding nuclear energy through social network services, such as Facebook, Twitter, the nuclear energy portal site Atomstory, and the official blog Energy Planet. KNEA tries to raise participation of Netizens, inducing their interest, by holding events such as User’s Created Contents, nuclear energy quizzes and various contests.
The company also provides educational videos on its website, so that the public and local residents can easily gain knowledge on nuclear energy. Through these videos, viewers can obtain information about nuclear energy as a safe, economical and eco-friendly energy source, which will build a social consensus on the use of nuclear energy as clean and viable energy for the future.
Finally, KHNP sends its nuclear power online-newsletter to approximately 147,000 people biweekly including the domestic and overseas nuclear energy trends, KHNP news, and management agendas.
In 2015, KNEA tried to enhance its online communication through 312 blog contents which introduce nuclear energy related information in a friendly manner. Among them, 18 were multimedia contents, such as infographics, web toons, or videos. In addition, KNEA provides objective and accurate information to fight against the unverified and exaggerated information being disseminated online by providing answers to 150 nuclear energy related questions through Naver ‘Jisik In Partners’ and ‘Operation of Nuclear Energy Public Communication Committee’.
Motivated by a global future research and Club of Rome institute, Nuclear Energy Future Forum was established on July 23rd, 2015. The forum deals with current energy issues and develops future energy concepts. The purpose of the forum is to improve public perceptions and propose government policy directions. Comprised by 17 energy specialists, the forum operates within four sectors including power configuration, climate change, and nuclear energy safety.
Nuclear Power Facility Tour
The nuclear power facility tour is one of the best ways to provide an opportunity to the public to understand and believe in the safe operation of NPPs by actually seeing them. Each NPP in South Korea has an information and exhibition centre, and they record approximately 450,000 visitors per year. Visitors listen to explanations of nuclear power generation and ask questions and hear answers about the current state of NPPs from operators and at the end, they are given a chance to look at the actual plant.
The Main Control Room and radioactive waste disposal and storage facilities are included in the course of the program and the visitors are also able to see the new NPPs that are under construction.
KNEA also holds exhibitions of nuclear related facilities. Major exhibition facilities include the Nuclear Centre at the National Seoul Science Museum, the Electric Energy Pavilion of the Expo Science Park in Daejeon and Energy Experiencing ‘Happy i’ Centre in the head office. The exhibits are comprised of nuclear energy-related models, experimental devices, graphic panels, an information search section and other exhibits for hands-on experiences, offering a good learning venue for all ages.
KNEA trains elementary and middle school instructors through job training in order to provide accurate information on nuclear energy and the overall energy industry to the next generation. The job training is expected to greatly spread safety culture by providing accurate information on nuclear energy. The training has helped people understand better about the energy and steady power supply and demand. In 2015, 723 teachers participated, whose knowledge levels on nuclear energy improved by 20.8 points after receiving the training. The project continues to contribute to increased understanding for the energy sector and stable power supply.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory Framework
3.1.1. Regulatory authorities
Prior to the establishment of the NSSC in October 2011, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) was responsible for comprehensive regulation on overall nuclear safety while the Ministry of Knowledge and Economy (MKE) was focusing on promoting nuclear energy.
After the Fukushima Daiichi accident, however, a discussion started in earnest to establish an independent commission to take care of nuclear safety. As a result, on October 26th, 2011, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was founded as an independent presidential commission, a regulatory body for nuclear safety responsible for nuclear safety, security, and non-proliferation.
When the new administration was inaugurated in Korea in February 2013, there was a sweeping change in the government organizational structure. As a part of such change, the NSSC was placed under the Prime Minister's Office from President. Since then, as illustrated in FIG 9, the NSSC has been responsible for nuclear safety regulation including licensing and permit of nuclear installations and nuclear industry while the Ministry of Industry while Trade and Resources being responsible for the promotion of nuclear industry and the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning for nuclear research and development.
Under the regulatory framework of nuclear safety of Korea, in accordance with the Act on Establishment and Operation of the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, the NSSC takes the responsibility and function on regulatory and administrative activities for nuclear safety, which include the utilization of reactors and related facilities, fuel cycle facilities, radioactive waste disposal facilities, nuclear materials, and radioactive isotopes/radiation generator. Nuclear Safety Act (NSA) stipulates that the NSSC has the full authority and sole responsibility when it comes to the safety regulation on the nuclear installation.
In addition, for effective nuclear safety regulation on technical areas, the government added two provisions in the NSA; Article 5 (Nuclear Safety-Specialized Institution) and Article 6 (Establishment of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control). It also enacted a special act entitled as “Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety Act.” These legislative actions became a firm legal basis to establish the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) responsible for nuclear safety regulations including review and inspection as well as the Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Control (KINAC) for the nuclear security and safeguards.
There is Korea Foundation of Nuclear Safety, specialized in supporting pre-cautionary control for nuclear and radiation safety.
FIG 7. Government Organization on Nuclear Safety
3.1.2. Licensing System and Safety Assessment
The licensing procedures for nuclear installations consist of two steps: the Construction Permit (CP) and the Operating License (OL), pursuant to the NSA. When necessary, licensee may apply for Standard Design Approval and the early site approval (FIG 10).
FIG 8. Licensing Process for Nuclear Installations
3.2. Main national laws and regulations on nuclear power
National laws related to the development, utilization and safety regulation of nuclear energy are the Atomic Energy Promotion Act and the Nuclear Safety Act (NSA) as well as the Electricity Business Act, the Basic Law of Environmental Policy and others as shown in Table 10.
LAWS CONCERNING NUCLEAR REGULATION
|Title||Major Contents||Competent Authorities||Note|
|Nuclear Safety Act||The highest level of law on nuclear safety regulation||NSSC||-|
|Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety Act||Provides the establishment and operation of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety||NSSC||-|
|Act on Physical |
|Establishes effective physical protection system of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities and provides legal and institutional basis for preventing radiological disaster and preparing countermeasures against radiological emergency||NSSC||-|
|Nuclear Liability Act||Provides the procedures and extent of compensation for any damages which an individual has suffered from a nuclear accident||NSSC||-|
|Act on |
|Provides the particulars on a contract between the government and the operator to make up any compensation not covered by insurance||NSSC||-|
|Act on Establishment and Operation of the |
|Provides the particulars on establishment and operation of the NSSC||NSSC||-|
|Nuclear Promotion Act||Provides the particulars on research, development, production and utilization of atomic energy ||Ministry of |
Science, ICT and
|Provides the particulars on promotion of atomic energy|
|Electricity Business Act||Provides the basic system of electricity business||Ministry of Trade, |
Industry and Energy
|Entrusts safety regulations on installation, maintenance, repair, operation and security of nuclear reactor facilities to the Nuclear |
|Electric Source |
|Provides special cases relevant to the development of electric sources||Ministry of Trade, |
Industry and Energy
|Provides special cases for the procedure of selecting nuclear installation sites|
|Framework Act on Environmental Policy||Mother law of the environmental preservation policy||Ministry of Environment||Entrusts the measures for preventing pollution by radioactive substance to the Nuclear Safety Act|
|Act on Environmental Assessment||Provides the extent and procedures to assess environmental impacts according to the Framework Act on Environmental Policy||Ministry of Environment||Assesses environmental impact excluding radiation effects|
|Framework Act on Fire Services||Provides the general matters on the prevention, precaution and control of fire ||National |
|Provides the requirements for managing inflammables|
|Building Act||Provides the general matters on construction||Ministry of Land, |
Infrastructure and Transport
|Entrusts the construction permit of reactor facilities to the Nuclear Safety Act|
|Industrial Safety and Health Act||Provides the preservation and enhancement of workers' health and safety ||Ministry of |
Employment and Labor
|Entrusts the matters concerning radiation effects to the Nuclear Safety Act|
|Industrial Accident |
|Provides insurance to compensate for workers with industrial disaster||Ministry of |
Employment and Labor
|Compensation for the employees in the atomic energy industry is made in accordance with the compensation standard in the |
Nuclear Safety Act
|Basic Act on Civil Defense||Provides the general matters on the civil defense system ||Ministry of|
Public Safety and Security
|Nuclear disasters are covered in the provisions of the Basic Civil |
Defense Plan established by this Act
|Basic Act on |
Disasters and Safety
|Prescribes basic principles and framework of the national disaster management||Ministry of|
Public Safety and Security
|As for radiological disasters, management framework prescribed in Act on Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency shall prevail others.|
All provisions on nuclear safety regulation and radiation protection are prescribed in NSA. The NSA is, therefore, the main law concerning safety regulations of nuclear installations.
The legal framework for Nuclear Safety, as shown in FIG 11, consists of four stages: Act (the Nuclear Safety Act), Presidential Decree (the Enforcement Decree of the same Act), Prime Minister’s Regulation (the Enforcement Regulations of the same Act), the NSSC Regulation (the Enforcement Regulations Concerning the Technical Standards of Nuclear Reactor Facilities, etc., the Enforcement Regulations Concerning the Technical Standards of Radiological Safety Management, etc., and NSSC Notice). The NSA provides the bases and the fundamental matters concerning the NSSC, Comprehensive Plan for Nuclear Safety, CP and OL of nuclear installations. The Enforcement Decree of the same Act (the Presidential Decree) provides the technical standards and administrative procedures or methods necessary for the enforcement of the same Act. The Enforcement Regulation of the Act (the Prime Minister’s Regulation) and the two regulations concerning technical standards provide the particulars including the detailed procedure, the format of documents, and technical standards, as entrusted by the same Act and the same Decree. The NSSC Notice prescribes specific issues including regulatory requirements and technical standards, as entrusted by the same Act, the same Decree and the same Regulation.
KINS has been developing detailed standards and guidelines, mainly to be applied to the new nuclear power plants by applying the standards and requirements prescribed in the Act, Decrees and Notices. The guidelines on safety reviews and regulatory inspections against new NPPs are developed by KINS, a technical support organization for safety regulation and used in a practical manner. The industrial standards applicable to nuclear activities are endorsed by the regulatory body and applied to the design and operation of nuclear installations.
FIG 11. Legal Framework for Nuclear Safety Regulation
 Cheong Wa Dae; Office of the President of Korea (http://english.president.go.kr )
 Korean Statistical Information Service (http://kosis.kr/eng )
 The Bank of Korea Economic Statistics System (http://ecos.bok.or.kr)
 Korea Energy Statistics Information System (http://www.kesis.net)
 The 5th Basic Plan of Long-Term Electricity Supply, Ministry of Knowledge Economy
 Energy Info. Korea 2010, Korea Energy Economics Institute
 Yearbook of Energy Statistics, Korea Energy Economics Institute
 Yearbook of Electricity Statistics, KEPCO
 Yearbook of New & Renewable Energy Statistics 2010, Korea Energy Management Corporation
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
INTERNATIONAL TREATIES, CONVENTIONS AND AGREEMENT
Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in effect since August 1957.
Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, in effect since January 1962.
Amendment of Article VI. A.3 of the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, in effect since January 1963.
Amendment of Article VI of the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, in effect since June 1973.
Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA), in effect since October 1974.
Agreement to Extend the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (1972), in effect since July 1978.
Second Agreement to Extend the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (1972), in effect since December 1982.
Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA, 1987), in effect since December 1987.
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, in effect since July 1990.
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, in effect since July 1990.
Agreement to Extend the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (1987), in effect since December 1992.
Agreement on the Establishment of the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), in effect since March 1995.
Convention on Nuclear Safety, in effect since October 1996.
Second Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, in effect since June 1997.
Agreement on Cooperation Among the Original Members of Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization, in effect since September 1997.
Protocol Amending the Agreement on the Establishment of the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization, in effect since September 1997.
Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, in effect since December 2002.
Framework Agreement for International Collaboration on Research and Development of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems, in effect since November 2005.
Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development, and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, in effect since July 2007.
Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, in effect since October 2007.
Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, in effect since October 2007.
COOPERATION AGREEMENTS WITH IAEA
Exchange of Notes between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning Technical Assistance, in effect since May 1961.
Exchange of Notes for the Services (Application of Radioisotope in Agriculture) of Technical Assistance Experts between the Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency, in effect since October 1962.
Exchange of Notes for the Services (Experimental Nuclear Physics) of Technical Assistance Experts between the Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency, in effect since December 1962.
Exchange of Notes for the Services (Radio-Chemistry) of Technical Assistance Experts between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency, in effect since April 1963.
Supplementary Agreement on Provision of Technical Assistance by the International Atomic Energy Agency to the Government of the Republic of Korea, in effect since April 1967.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, in effect since November 1975.
Revised Supplementary Agreement concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the International Atomic Energy Agency to the Government of the Republic of Korea, in effect since January 1980.
Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, in effect since February 2004.
Agreement for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy, in effect since February 1956.
Amendment to Agreement for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy, in effect since May 1958.
Lease Agreement for the Special Nuclear Material between the United States Atomic Energy Commission acting for and on behalf of the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Korea, in effect since June 1960.
Exchange of Notes concerning a Grant by the Government of the United States of America in the Acquisition of Certain Nuclear Research and Training Equipment and Materials between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America, in effect since November 1960.
Lease Agreement for the Special Nuclear Material between the United States Atomic Energy Commission acting for and on behalf of the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Korea, in effect since September 1961.
Lease Agreement for Special Nuclear Material between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the United States Atomic Energy Commission acting for and on behalf of the Government of the United States of America, in effect since June 1963.
Amendment to Agreement for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy, in effect since January 1966.
Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards, in effect since January 1968.
Agreement to Amend the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards, in effect since March 1973.
Agreement for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy, in effect since March 1973.
Amendment to Agreement for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy, in effect since June 1974.
Exchange of Notes between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the French Republic concerning Reciprocal Cooperation for the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy, in effect since October 1974.
Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the French Republic for the Application of Safeguards, in effect since September 1975.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Canada for Cooperation in the Development and Application of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, in effect since January 1976.
Basic Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Spain, in effect since March 1976.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Australia concerning Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the Transfer of Nuclear Material, in effect since May 1979.
Exchange of Notes between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Supply of the Radionuclide Batteries to the Republic of Korea, in effect since October 1979.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the French Republic relating to Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy, in effect since April 1981.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Belgium concerning the Collaboration in the field of the Pacific Utilization of Nuclear Energy, in effect since March 1981.
Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Canada on the Establishment and Operation of the Korea-Canada Joint Coordinating Committee on Nuclear Energy, in effect since April 1983.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since April 1986.
Exchange of Notes between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Canada on Retransfer of Nuclear Material, in effect since June 1989.
Exchange of Notes between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Japan concerning Cooperation in Nuclear Energy, in effect since May 1990.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since November 1991.
Exchange of Notes on the Republic of Korea's joining the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, in effect since May 1993.
Arrangement between the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology and the United States Department of Energy concerning Research And Development in Nuclear Material Control, Accountancy, Verification, Physical Protection, and Advanced Containment and Surveillance Technologies for International Safeguards Applications, in effect since September 1994.
Arrangement between the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), the Republic of Korea and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Regulatory and Safety Research Matters, in effect since June 1995.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the People's Republic of China for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since February 1995.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam for Cooperation in Research into the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since January 1997.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Argentine Republic for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since September 1997.
Exchange of Notes concerning on Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Australia concerning Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and Transfer of Nuclear Material Signed at Canberra on 2 May 1979, in effect since November 1997.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Russian Federation on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since October 1999.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since June 1999.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Czech Republic for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since June 2001.
Exchange of Notes between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Canada constituting an Agreement relating to the Transfer of Tritium Items for the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility, in effect since January 2001.
Exchange of Notes for the Amendment of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Canada for Cooperation in the Development and Application of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, in effect since July 2002.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since June 2002.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Romania for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy in the fields of Industry, Research and Development, in effect since September 2004.
Agreement on Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, signed in September 2004.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since July 2005.
Agreement for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the European Atomic Energy Community Represented by the Commission of the European Communities in the field of Fusion Energy Research, in effect since December 2006.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Republic of Chile for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since September 2006.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, signed in December 2006.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since June 2008.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since May 2009.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United Arab Emirates for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since January 2010.
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since August 2010
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Republic of South Africa for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, in effect since February 2011
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|National Nuclear Energy Authorities|
|Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)|
Central Government Complex, 77-6 Sejong-No,
Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-760, Republic of Korea
|Ministry of Science, ICT & future Planning (MSIP)|
Government Complex-Gwacheon, 47, Gwanmun-ro, Gwacheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 427-700, Republic of Korea
|Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE)|
Government Complex, 47 Gwanmunnro, Gwacheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 427-700
Republic of Korea
|National Nuclear Safety and Security Commission|
13F KT Bldg., 178 Sejong-daero, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-777, Republic of Korea
|Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)|
1045 Daeduk-daero (Dukjin-dong), Yusong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353, Republic of Korea
|Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS)|
34 Gwahak-ro (Kusong-dong), Yusong-gu,
Daejeon, 305-338, Republic of Korea
|Korea Cancer Centre Hospital (KCCH)|
75 Nowon-gil (Gongneung-dong), Nowon-gu
Seoul, 139-706, Republic of Korea
|Korea Radioisotope Association (KRIA)|
14-5, Gaepo-dong, Gangnam-gu,
Seoul, 135-988, Republic of Korea
|Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO)|
512 Yeongdong-daero (Samseong-dong), Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 135-791, Republic of Korea
|Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., LTD (KHNP)|
520 Yeongdong-daero (Samseong-dong), Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 135-881, Republic of Korea
|Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co.|
555, Guygok-dong, Changwon-si,
Kyungnam, 641-792, Republic of Korea
|KOPEC Engineering Construction Co., Inc. (KEPCO E&C)|
2354 Yongu-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si,
Geonggi-do, 446-713, Republic of Korea
|KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (KEPCO NF)|
989 Daeduk-daero (Deokjin-dong), Yuseong-gu,
Daejeon, 305-353, Republic of Korea
|KEPCO Plant Services and Engineering Co., Ltd. (KEPCO KPS)|
45 Jeongja-ilro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si,
Geonggi-do, 463-726, Republic of Korea
|Energy Research Institutes|
|Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI)||http://www.kbsi.re.kr|
|Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)||http://www.kier.re.kr|
|Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) ||http://www.kaist.ac.kr|
|Pohang University of Science and Technology||http://www.postech.ac.kr/e|
|Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL)||http://pal.postech.ac.kr|
|Korean Nuclear Society||http://www.nuclear.or.kr|
|Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency (KONEPA) ||http://www.konepa.or.kr|
|Korea Atomic Industrial Forum||http://www.kaif.or.kr|
|Korea Nuclear International Cooperation Foundation (KONICOF)||http://www.konicof.or.kr/|
Name of report coordinator
Mr. Won Pyo JEONG
Korea Nuclear International Cooperation Foundation
Fax. +81 3 3580 8447
1.2.1. Estimated available energy
Table 1 shows the energy reserves of Korea as of the end of 2014.
Table 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Estimated available energy sources|
|Total amount in specific units*||1 350||-||70||-||0.00629||0.00198|
* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons;
Hydro (supply capacity), Renewables (generating capacity): TW
Source: Korea Resources Corporation (http://www.kores.or.kr/),
Korea National Oil Corporation (http://www.knoc.co.kr/ENG),
Korea Electric Power Corporation (http://www.kepco.co.kr/eng),
New & Renewable Energy Statistics (Korea Energy Management Corporation, http://www.kemco.or.kr/new_eng)
1.2.2. Energy statistic
Table 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1980||1990||2000||2005||2010||2014||2000 to 2014|
|Energy consumption* (EJ)|
|- Other Renewables||0.11||0.03||0.09||0.17||0.25||0.46||12.41|
|- Other Renewables||0.11||0.03||0.09||0.17||0.25||0.46||12.41|
|Net import(Import - Export) (EJ)|
* Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy.
** Solid fuels include coal, lignite, etc.
Source: Korea Energy Statistics Information System (http://www.kesis.net/)