(Updated 2016)


1.1. Country overview

Note: The content of this section, including Tables 1 and 2, has been removed by the IAEA to better focus the report on nuclear power.

1.2. Energy Information

Slovenia is importing more than 50% of its primary energy demands. In 2015, the energy dependency was 48 %. The country is entirely importing oil derivatives, hard coal, coke and natural gas.

Energy intensity, concerning total final consumption, has been decreasing during the period 2000 – 2014. In 2014, it reached 190 toe/million EUR BDP, with an annual decrease of 1.7 %. Compared to developed EU countries, Slovenia is still using more energy per GDP, which brings its economy in a less favorable competitive status.

1.2.1. Estimated available energy

Slovenia has rather limited energy reserves (Table 3). The proven and recoverable reserves of low quality brown coal and lignite amount to 199 million tons. Oil reserves are very scarce at 850 000 tons with annual exploitation of 2 500 tons. The estimated hydro reserves of Slovenia are up to 9.1 TWh per year, out which 4.3 TWh are already exploited. The country is connected to three gas pipelines from Algeria, Russian Federation and Austria respectively.


Estimated energy reserves
in (*) (Solid and Liquid in million tons, Uranium in metric tons, Gas in billion cubic metres, Hydro in TWhr per year)
Solid (1) Liquid (2) Gas (3) Uranium (4) Hydro (5)
Amount 223 .. .. 1 700 9 145

(*) Sources: WEC Survey of Energy Resources, 2013 Survey: Data for 2011

(1) Coal including Lignite: proved recoverable reserves, the tonnage within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology

(2) Crude oil and natural gas liquids (Oil Shale, Natural Bitumen and Extra-Heavy Oil are not included): proved recoverable reserves, the quantity within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology

(3) Natural gas: proved recoverable reserves, the volume within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology

(4) Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) under < USD 130/kgU

(5) Hydropower: technically exploitable capability, the amount of the gross theoretical capability that can be exploited within the limits of current technology

1.2.2. Energy Statistics

A significant share of Slovenian industrial production is very energy intensive, such as steel production, aluminum, chemicals, pulp and paper industry, and building material. However, its share in final energy demand is decreasing; in 2014, industrial energy demand accounted for 26.3%. The largest share was in transport, at 39.0 %. The high energy consumption in industry and transport is also reflected in high energy use per unit of GDP, compared to most western European countries. Energy use per capita is lower than the average for EU countries.


(Energy values are in Exajoule except where indicated) Annual Average Growth Rate (%)
2000 2005 2011 2014 2000 to 2014
Total Energy Requirements
Total 0.268 0.302 0.305 0.276 0.28
Solids 0.057 0.064 0.062 0.044 -1.56
Liquids 0.097 0.103 0.105 0.093 -0.04
Gases 0.035 0.039 0.031 0.026 -1.78
Hydro 0.014 0.012 0.013 0.022 4.86
Nuclear 0.052 0.064 0.068 0.069 2.46
Combustible Renewables and Waste 0.019 0.020 0.030 0.028 3.21
Other Renewables 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.003 15.33
Final Energy Consumption
Total 0.185 0.204 0.210 0.193 0.35
Solids 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 -2.34
Liquids 0.094 0.100 0.103 0.091 -0.03
Gases 0.024 0.028 0.024 0.022 -0.53
Combustible Renewables and Waste 0.018 0.019 0.026 0.025 2.84
Other Renewables 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.002 5.12
Electricity 0.038 0.046 0.045 0.045 1.32
Heat 0.008 0.008 0.008 0.006 -1.48
Net Import (Export-Import)
Total 0.137 0.156 0.144 0.122 -0.55
Solids 0.010 0.014 0.011 0.010 2.08
Liquids 0.098 0.105 0.105 0.093 -0.02
Gases 0.034 0.039 0.031 0.026 -1.76
Combustible Renewables and Waste 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 9.02
Electricity -0.005 -0.001 -0.005 -0.010 -22.97

Source: Slovenian Statistical Office

1.2.3. Energy Policy

The Government of Slovenia laid down its energy policy objectives and main priorities for the development of the energy system in its Resolution on the National Energy Plan (NEP) in 2004. The time horizon of NEP is 2003-2023. However, under the new Energy Act of 2014, a new Energy Concept of Slovenia is being prepared with the time horizon of 20 years with the view to additional 20 years – so the period 2015-2035-2055.

The discussions are on-going and the question of nuclear energy will be among those issues discussed. The strategy will focus on defining the path to low-carbon economy.

Additional info:

1.3. The electricity system

1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process

The following services are carried out within the public service obligations scope: electricity transmission, transmission system operator (TSO), electricity distribution, distribution system operator (DSO), and market operator. The transmission and distribution companies are required to ensure the access to the electricity network in a transparent and non-discriminatory manner following the principles of regulated third party access. The information on distribution and transmission networks traffic is public. The markets for electricity and gas in Slovenia have been open to all non-household customers since July 2004, representing a degree of market opening in terms of volume of 75% and 90%, respectively. Both markets were fully opened since 1 July 2007.

Electricity is being traded via bilateral contracts and on the market organized by Borzen, the market organizer. When dispatching generating installations, priority is given to qualified producers using renewable energy sources or waste and cogeneration units, and generating installations using indigenous primary energy fuel sources, to an extent not exceeding in any calendar year 15 % of the overall primary energy necessary to produce the electricity consumed in Slovenia, as laid down in the EU electricity directive.

Generating installations using renewable energy sources or waste and cogeneration units are eligible for qualified producer status. Producers have to meet environmental acceptability standards. Power plants are divided into four groups, depending on the installed power, as follows: micro power plants (up to and including 36 kW), small power plants (from 36 kW to including 1 MW), medium power plants (from 1 MW to 10 MW), and large power plants (above 10 MW).

The feed-in tariff scheme is set by the government to stimulate production of electricity from renewable sources (RES) and combined heat and electricity power plants (CHP). The national target, a 39.3 % share of renewable electricity in the gross final energy demand by 2020, is set in the National action plan for renewable energy for the period 2010-2020. Purchase of electricity from RES and CHP is guaranteed and organized by the Center for Support. The support scheme is financed via supplement to the electricity price.

The Energy Agency was established by the Energy Act with the purpose of providing transparent and non-discriminatory operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of all participants. The Agency is an independent organization that controls the activity of the electricity and natural gas markets, having the following duties and authority:

  1. Setting the use of the system charges (The Agency's duties will be broadened by amendments of the Energy Act in accordance with the Directive 2003/54/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, the Directive 2003/55/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and Regulation 2003/1228/EC on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity). Taking decisions about the justification of costs and other elements of the price for use of system charges on the basis of data and criteria for the evaluation of cost justification.

  2. Taking decisions in case of disputes, originating from:

    • denial of access to electric or gas system,

    • to charge for the use of the electric or gas system.

  3. Granting of licenses for performing energy activities in accordance with the provisions of the Energy Act and its decree.

In addition to the above listed tasks, the Agency also executes the following duties:

  1. cooperates with competent authorities and inspectorates,

  2. publishes annual reports and information for the public,

  3. performs other tasks connected with the control of the function of the electricity and natural gas markets.

The founding of the Market Operator has been one of the obligatory elements introduced by the Energy Act, and at the same time one of the fundamental conditions for opening up the electricity market. The organized electricity market is the meeting point of supply and demand of electricity.

The operation of the organized electricity market and the rights and duties of the Market Operator have been set forth in detail in the Rules on the Operation of the Electricity Market. Borzen d.o.o. was established in March 2001 and has the role of Market Operator.

The Market Operator is responsible for ensuring transparency of the organized electricity market by publishing special indices, price lists and quantities based on transactions concluded on the electricity market in different time periods. This provides market participants with the possibility to develop appropriate strategies for trading purposes and for forming their own bids. The Market Operator is also responsible for registering of all bilateral agreements and balancing group settlement.

1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector

In 2014, Slovenia had 3,453 MW of total electricity production capacity, 688 MW of which was provided by the only nuclear power plant in Krško, with the rest coming from hydro (1,295 MW) and thermal (1,242 MW) power plants. Total net production in 2014 amounted to 14,486 GWh, of which 6,061 GWh were produced in the nuclear power plant, 6,284 GWh in hydro and 3,880 GWh in thermal power plants. As it can be seen from presented data, Slovenia has fairly diversified primary sources for electricity production.

There are eight generating companies, each with one main power station. In the case of hydro-power, a company operates a chain of power plants on a single river system. Most of the major players in electricity production are owned by the two parent companies, Holding Sovenske Elektrarne (HSE) and Gen Energija. HSE also has the majority of ownership in the lignite mine in Velenje. NEK, on the other hand, is owned in equal shares by Slovenian and Croatian legal successors of the founders of the power plant. On the Slovenian side, this is the company Gen Energija, 100% owned by the state.

The transmission electricity network of Slovenia is operated by transmission system operator ELES d.o.o. (ELES), whose main responsibility is to ensure the best possible and transparent use of the existing transmission grid management, operational reliability and security (defined in the Energy Act). Slovenian electricity power system is interlinked with the synchronous transmission grids of neighbouring states and integrated into the European network. There are three voltage levels in the transmission grid – 400 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV, as well as corresponding transformer substations.

The transmission network of Slovenia is presented on the picture below, along with the above mentioned generating capacities.

FIG 1: Transmission Network of Slovenia

1.3.3. Main indicators

Final energy consumption for Slovenia in 2014 was 192,884 PJ, of which the share of industry was 26.3%, transport was 39.0% and others were 34.70%. Liquid fuels were contributed 47.4%, electricity 23.2%, natural gas 11.3%, renewable energy sources 13.8%, district heat 3.3% and coal 1.1%.


Gross electricity generation (TWh) Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
2000 2005 2011 2014 2000 to 2014
Electricity Generation
Total 13.62 15.12 16.06 17.44 1.88
Nuclear 4.76 5.88 6.22 6.37 2.46
Hydro 3.83 3.46 3.70 6.37 5.16
Geothermal, solar 0.00 0,00 0.07 0.26 59.09
Thermal 5.03 5.77 6.07 4.44 -0.64
Installed Capacity net (GW)
Total (including hydro pumping) 2.63 2.99 3.27 3.45 2.00
Nuclear 0.66 0.66 0.69 0.69 0.34
Hydro (excluding hydro pumping) 0.86 0.98 1.25 1.30 3.05
Geothermal, solar 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.22 56.70
Thermal 1.12 1.36 1.27 1.24 0.91

Source: Slovenian Statistical Office


Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
2000 2005 2011 2014 2000 to 2014
Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita) 93.13 101.90 102.51 93.56 0.10
Electricity consumption per capita (KW.h/capita) 5.413 6.425 6.151 6.094 0.96
Nuclear/Total electricity (%) 34.9% 38.9% 38.7% 36.5% 0.55
Annual capacity factor - Total (%) 55.5% 54.0% 52.4% 54.5% 0.02
Annual capacity factor - Thermal (%) 45.8% 43.2% 48.4% 35.7% -1.50
Annual capacity factor - Hydro (%) 50.1% 39.7% 33.2% 55.4% 2.34
Annual capacity factor - Nuclear (%) 79.2% 97.7% 97.9% 100.0% 2.08

Source: Slovenian Statistical Office


2.1. Historical Development and current nuclear power organizational structure

2.1.1. Overview

Slovenia has one nuclear power plant in commercial operation since 1983, the NEK (Nuklearna Elektrarna Krško). Construction started in 1975 and it was connected to the grid in 1981, entering commercial operation in 1983. In 2001, its steam generators were replaced and the plant was uprated by 6% and an additional 3% subsequently. Its operational life was designed to be 40 years, and in 2012 was extended to 60 years. The Krško NPP is a pressurized water reactor plant of 696 MWe, delivered and constructed by Westinghouse, and is jointly owned with the Republic of Croatia. The operational and safety record of Krško NPP is good and complies with all international standards and highest safety requirements. The safety status of the plant has been supervised by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration as well as by international expert missions organized by IAEA, EU, WANO, etc.

After modernization and the transition to the 18-month fuel cycle, it can produce over 5.8 TWh in a year without outage, and around 5.4 TWh in a year with outage, which means that, in accordance with the bilateral treaty on the Krško NPP, between 2.7 and 2.9 TWh of electricity are available for the Slovenian market annually. In addition to the important share of the electricity produced, the Krško NPP is also characterized by extremely high reliability of production, and by achieving its ambitiously set goals it is classified in the top quarter of the best functioning NPPs in the world. At the same time, it is placed among the ten power plants in the world, which can function for 510 days without shutdown, which has an important effect on ensuring the stability of the electric power system and reliable supply to customers.

The Contract between the Government of the Republic of Slovenia and the Government of the Republic of Croatia on the regulation of status and other legal relations connected to investment in the Krško NPP, its exploitation and decommissioning, and the Memorandum of Association, were both entered into force on 11 March 2003. The basic capital of the Krško NPP is divided into two equal shares owned by the partners GEN Energija and HEP (Hrvatska Elektropriveda). The Krško NPP produces and supplies electricity exclusively in favour of the two partners, who each have the right and obligation to use 50% of its total output.

2.1.2. Current Organizational Chart(s)

The organizational structure of The Krško NPP is shown in Figures 2 and 3 bellow.

FIG 2: External Organization Structure

FIG 3: Organization Structure of the Krško NPP

2.2. Nuclear Power Plants: Status and Operations

Slovenia has one nuclear power plant in commercial operation since 1983, the Krško NPP. Construction started in 1975 and it was connected to the grid in 1981, entering commercial operation in 1983.

2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plant


Reactor Unit Type Net
Status Operator Reactor
First Grid
KRSKO PWR 688 Operational NEK WH 1975-03-30 1981-09-11 1981-10-02 1983-01-01 88.8
Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
Note: Table 7 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.

Source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).

Note: Table 7 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.

More data can be found on Krško NPP home page (

FIG 4: Location of the Nuclear Power Plant Krško.

The Krško NPP is the only facility in Slovenia using nuclear energy for the commercial production of electric energy. After modernization and the transition to the 18-month fuel cycle, it can produce over 5.8 TWh in a year without outage, and around 5.4 TWh in a year with outage, which means that, in accordance with the bilateral treaty on the Krško NPP, between 2.7 and potentially over 2.9 TWh of electric energy is available for the Slovenian market annually.

The most important performance indicators:

Safety and performance indicators
year 2014
average (1983 to 2014)
Availability [%]
Capacity factor [%]
Gross production [GWh]
Fast shutdowns – automatic [number of shutdowns]
Fast shutdowns – manual [number of shutdowns]
Unplanned normal shutdowns [number of shutdowns]
Planned normal shutdowns [number of shutdowns]
Event reports [number of reports]
Duration of the refuelling outage [days]

2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals

Krško NPP’s operational life was originally designed for 40 years, which means that it would be in operation until 2023. However, thanks to very good maintenance and the replacement of major vital components, the Krško NPP is in very good condition. Krško NPP completed its ageing program in 2008, which is a basis for plant life extension. On 20 June 2012, the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration issued a decision approving the modifications, which will enable long-term operation of the Krško NPP. Approved aging management programme of the NPP is a precondition for the extension of its operation beyond 2023. In addition, before that, until mid-2013, the NPP has to complete a comprehensive second Periodic Safety Review, and then in 2022 and 2023, the third one. Besides that, in the next few years the NPP has to carry out a series of safety improvements resulting from lessons learned after the accident in Fukushima. In addition, the basic precondition for potential operation after 2023 is regular maintenance of operating equipment, well trained operators and a good safety culture of all employees. All above mentioned conditions should be fulfilled if the owners of the NPP want to extend its operation beyond 2023.

2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power

Not applicable.

2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs

There are no suppliers of NPPs in Slovenia. The only plant is the Krsko NPP unit and which was imported from the USA.

2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs

The Krško NPP is owned in equal share by the members GEN Energija, d. o. o. and HEP. NEK generates for and supplies electricity exclusively to the members. Krško NPP itself is responsible for safe and stable operation through a permanent commitment to nuclear safety and in line with state-of-the-art standards. Maintenance is covered by Krško NPP staff, while for some major activities and outages also external companies (domestic and foreign) are hired. Everybody who operates the NPP has to pass an extensive training program. Training consists of four phases and takes about two years. The first phase includes theoretical basis, the second one includes systems of Krško NPP, the third one full scope simulator training and the last one qualifying of newcomers for independent work in the control room. After candidates complete all phases, they still have to pass the exam in front of the expert committee of The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration.

2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs

The decommissioning program for Krško NPP and radioactive waste and spent fuel management assures the basis for implementation of the contract between the Government of the Republic of Slovenia and the Government of the Republic of Croatia on regulation of status and other relations relating to investments, exploitation and decommissioning of the joint NPP. It also provides a joint expert and organizational approach to the decommissioning of NPP, LILW and SF management. While the new revision was elaborated in 2009, in the past year new Terms of references (ToR) have been elaborated for the most urgent and time consuming parts of the project. In preparation of the new ToR, which included all recommendations provided by the IAEA expert mission in 2005, members of APO, ARAO, NPP and SCK.CEN were involved. The new ToR proposes elaboration and calculation of the inventory from decommissioning of NPP - which presents the highest uncertainty in the project - as well as data base preparation. The project also presented the regional IAEA program devoted to decommissioning of nuclear plants, in which additional possibilities for expert missions will be granted.

2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management

In Slovenia, the high level radioactive waste (HLW) is the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Krško NPP. The greatest amount of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (over 95%) is generated due to the operation of the Krško NPP. The rest is produced in medicine, industry and research activities. A special category of waste is spent sealed radioactive sources, which are in the possession of small holders or are stored in the Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste at Brinje, near Ljubljana. The Krško NPP is the main producer of all waste categories in Slovenia. The contribution of other producers is relatively small. The amounts of different waste categories of radioactive waste in Slovenia at the end of 2014 are given in following table:

Volume / FA*
Low and intermediate level
In the Krško NPP
2258 m3
Central Interim Storage Facility
92.3 m3
Spent Fuel
In the Krško NPP
1098 FA
In the TRIGA reactor
0 (none)

*FA – Fuel assemblies

Figure 5 shows the accumulation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the Krško NPP storage. Periodical volume reductions with compression, super-compaction, incineration, and melting are shown. The lower waste volume accumulation rate after 1995 is a result of a new in-drum drying system (IDDS) for drying of evaporators concentrate and spent ion exchange resins. In 2006, the Krško NPP started continuous compression of radioactive waste with their own super-compactor installed in the storage facility.

FIG 5: Accumulation of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in the Krško NPP storage

All spent fuel in the Krško NPP is stored in the spent fuel pool with 1,694 cells. There was no outage in 2014. In November 2014, a shipment of fresh fuel arrived at the NPP. The number of annually spent fuel assemblies and the total number of such elements in the pool are shown in Figure 6.

FIG 6: The annual spent fuel assemblies increase and the total number of such elements in the spent fuel pool

2.8. Research and development

2.8.1. R&D organizations and institutes

The Institute “Jožef Stefan” (IJS) is the leading Slovenian research organization. It is responsible for a broad spectrum of basic and applied research in the fields of natural sciences and technology. The staff of around 800 are specialized in physics, chemistry and biochemistry, electronics and information science, nuclear technology, energy utilization and environmental science.

From the beginning, the research activity of the Institute has also been oriented towards research in the field of nuclear physics and the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. At the Reactor Centre in Podgorica, four Institute research departments and several centers were established.

The Department of the Low and Medium Energy Physics performs research on atomic and nuclear physics and is also engaged in radiological environmental protection, namely the regulation of nuclear facilities and the control of the level of radioactive substances in food and the environment. It was for this reason that the Ecological Laboratory, with its mobile unit, was established. The main research areas of the Reactor Physics Department are theoretical, experimental and applied reactor physics, plasma physics, nuclear fragmentation, neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, the physics of semiconductor devices and oncology. The Reactor Engineering Division performs nuclear engineering and safety research covering the modeling of basic thermal-hydraulic processes, thermal-hydraulic safety analyses of the project and severe accidents, structural safety analyses and probabilistic safety analyses. The multidisciplinary research of the Department of Environmental Sciences focuses on the combination of reciprocal physical, chemical and biological processes that influence the environment.

The Institute also operates a Nuclear Training Centre on its premises, completed in 1988. It provides training for Krško NPP personnel, organizes radiological protection courses and carries out public information activities. The Centre also regularly organizes and hosts training activities and workshops for the IAEA. Their main activity is promotion of knowledge about the use of nuclear energy.

The Reactor Infrastructure Centre (RIC) is also part of IJS. The main purpose of the centre is operation of a TRIGA Mark II research reactor for the needs of IJS and other research groups. The research reactor was built by IJS in 1966. The reactor was delivered by General Atomics, while the reactor tank and body were built by Slovenian companies. In 1991, it was reconstructed and equipped for pulse operation. Practically all nuclear professionals in Slovenia started their career or attended practical training courses at the TRIGA reactor (including all professors of nuclear engineering and reactor physics at Ljubljana and Maribor University, as well as directors and key personnel of Krško NPP, Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration and Agency for Radioactive Waste). The reactor has accumulated more than 40 years of continuous operation without any failure of major equipment or any event violating safety standards. It is planed that the reactor will operate at least until 2026.

2.8.2. Development of advanced and new generation nuclear reactor systems

IJS has a long tradition in research programmes in the field of fission technology. The main effort is given to reactor physics and reactor technology. The reactor physics is directed mostly towards development of new methods for research and power reactor calculations. Work is done on neutron, photon and electron Monte Carlo transport, nuclear data evaluation, advanced nodal methods, pin cell and fuel element homogenization and on methods aimed at precise power distribution reconstruction. Also studied are advanced fourth generation reactors, advanced neutron sources and data, and materials for fusion technology. The reactor technology research activities belong to the wider field of nuclear engineering and safety. This interdisciplinary research integrates thermal-hydraulic, structural and probabilistic safety analyses. Advanced reactor technology is also studied, mainly by developing computer models for different physical phenomena. Both reactor physics and technology divisions are very strongly involved in many research projects within the European Framework Programes, as well as other programes.

Slovenia is also very strongly involved in fusion research, mainly for the purpose of ITER project. Different research departments are dealing with fusion and all of them are associated in the Slovenian Fusion Association. The contributions of the institutions in the Association to the several areas of the fusion programme are based on R&D experiences of the researchers in the fields of nuclear, atomic and plasma physics, ceramic materials development, mechanical engineering and computer aided design. The major equipment available in the institutions include the following: an ion beam accelerator with materials diagnostic installations, a TRIGA reactor, an advanced dedicated fully-integrated high resolution microscope facility for nanostructural materials, computer systems for simulations, structural mechanical analyses and CAD, among others.

2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives

Slovenia was admitted to full membership of the IAEA in 1992. Co-operation with the IAEA covers a wide range of activities, of which the most important are:

  1. Preparation of International Conventions;

  2. IAEA missions to Slovenia;

  3. Technical co-operation, including attendance of Slovenian experts on Agency’s sponsored seminars and training courses, scholarship, scientific visits, research contracts;

Slovenia furthermore co-operates with other international organizations, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA – observers) and the European Union. The co-operation is also institutionalized through the membership in associations, such as the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA), the Network for Regulators with Small Nuclear Programs (NERS) and International Nuclear Law Association (INLA).

There is also co-operation through multilateral and bilateral international agreements. The Krsko NPP is a member of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO).

2.9. Human Resources Development

Until 2008, Slovenia did not have any special undergraduate nuclear program at its universities. There were few subjects related to the nuclear field at some of the universities, but no specific nuclear engineering program. Those who were interested attended graduate study at University of Ljubljana (IJS and Faculty for Mathematics and Physics) or at University of Maribor (Faculty for Civil Engineering). Both graduate programs are still ongoing and many highly educated nuclear experts have been graduating. The nuclear graduate programme of the University of Ljubljana is also a member of the ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Education Network) Association.

In 2007, the Faculty of Energy Technology was established, while the educational process started in academic year 2008/2009. Altogether, more than 180 students decided to sign up in the first academic year. The faculty offers both undergraduate as well as graduate degrees.

Besides academic institutions, there are also some other expert institutions which offer their educational services in the field of nuclear technology. The most prominent one is The Nuclear Training Centre (ICJT) that is part of the IJS. Its basic activities are training of Krško NPP staff, radiation protection training, organization of international seminars and public information about nuclear technology.

2.10. Stakeholder Communication

One of the fundamental safety principles of the Ionizing Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act is the publicity principle. The SNSA issues information on its activities to the public, which includes regulatory decisions and newsletters on safety matters relevant to industry. The SNSA publishes a complete list of modifications implemented at the Krško NPP, which contains the date and the description of the modification. The SNSA implements stakeholder communication as a process to ensure the public are routinely informed on its decisions.


3.1. Regulatory framework

3.1.1. Regulatory authority

The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) performs specialized technical and developmental administrative tasks and tasks of inspection supervision related to:

  1. nuclear and radiation safety,

  2. radioactive waste management,

  3. carrying out practices involving radiation and use of radiation sources, except in medicine or veterinary medicine,

  4. protection of people and environment against ionizing radiation,

  5. physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities,

  6. non-proliferation of nuclear materials and safeguards,

  7. import, export and transit of nuclear and radioactive materials and radioactive waste,

  8. radiation monitoring and

  9. liability for nuclear damage.

The SNSA is a part of the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning. The major nuclear facility supervised by the SNSA is the Krško NPP and the TRIGA research reactor at IJS. There is an interim storage of low and medium radioactive waste at the Reactor Centre site operated by the Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. The closed uranium mine Žirovski Vrh is also supervised by the SNSA.

Activity of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration

The activities of the SNSA are organized in six units:

  1. nuclear safety,

  2. radiological safety, nuclear and radioactive materials,

  3. inspection control,

  4. general affairs,

  5. international co-operation and

  6. emergency preparedness.

The Division of Nuclear Safety deals with licenses and with analyses, which are used to support the licensing by performing and/or reviewing the safety analysis.

The Division of Radiation Safety and Materials verifies radiation safety (except in medicine or veterinary medicine) and is responsible for radiation dosimetry control and radiation monitoring. It also deals with trade, transport and treatment of nuclear and radioactive materials. It shares responsibility in the field of physical protection of NPPs and nuclear materials with the Ministry of the Interior. It also deals with the treatment, temporary storage and disposal of radioactive waste and participates in the selection of sites for nuclear facilities, especially those destined for radioactive waste. Finally, it is responsible for safeguards and illicit trafficking issues.

The Office of General Affairs is involved with licensing procedures and the preparation of legislation on nuclear and radiation safety and on nuclear third party liability.

The Office of International Co-operation co-ordinates the co-operation with international organizations (IAEA, OECD/NEA, EU, WENRA, etc.) and with foreign regulatory authorities for nuclear and radiation safety within bilateral agreements.

The Division of Inspection Control supervises license-holders in fulfilling the safety requirements contained in the laws, regulations and in their licenses. Inspections may be done one at a time, or may form part of an overall plan of inspections. To increase their efficiency, inspections may be unannounced. Inspections at Krsko NPP are carried out on a weekly basis.

The Emergency Preparedness Division is primarily responsible for planning, training, conducting drills and exercises in the area of emergency preparedness and response within the SNSA, as well as for coordination of these activities with other stakeholders in Slovenia and abroad.

3.1.2. Licensing Process

The licensing process is governed by the provisions of the Act on Nuclear Safety and Protection against Ionizing Radiation (Off. Gaz. RS, 67/2002, 24/2003, 50/2003, 46/2004, 102/2004, 60/2011 and 74/2015).

The licensing system can be divided into four steps after preliminary condition (the planning of the location of nuclear facilities in the national site development plan) is fulfilled:

application for the license for the use of land – the competent body is the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, with preliminary approval of radiation and nuclear safety - the competent body is SNSA,

  • application for the license to construct a facility – the competent body is the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, with an approval from the SNSA,

  • application for the license for trial operation – the competent body is SNSA,

  • application for the operation and the decommissioning – the competent body is the SNSA.

In the Act on Nuclear Safety and Protection against Ionizing Radiation there are provisions on:

  • Use of land: The planning of the site of nuclear facilities and the conditions for their siting in a spatially and functionally contained area must be carried out with the national site development plan. An investor must obtain a license for the use of land.

  • Construction: An investor intending to construct or decommission a nuclear facility, must obtain a construction license for the construction, reconstruction or decommissioning of a nuclear facility. The same applies to the investor intending to carry out construction work in an area of limited use due in a vicinity of a nuclear facility, which affects nuclear safety.

  • Trial operation: After the construction work is completed, every nuclear facility must first undergo a period of trial operation. It is necessary to obtain approval from the SNSA prior to the commencement of a period of trial operation of a nuclear facility.

  • Operation and decommissioning: An investor or operator, who intends to commence or cease operation of a nuclear facility, commence the disposal of spent fuel in a repository of spent fuel or of radioactive waste in a repository of radioactive waste, close a repository of spent fuel or radioactive waste or commence or complete the decommissioning of a nuclear facility, must obtain a license from the SNSA.

  • Periodic safety review (PSR): The Act requires, that the operator of a nuclear facility ensures regular, full and systematic assessment and examination of radiation or nuclear safety of a facility by a PSR. The PSR must be approved by the SNSA. The approved report on PSR is the condition for renewing an operation license.

  • Modifications: With regard to every intended modification in the facility or to the management method used or to the operation of the facility, including maintenance work, inspection, testing or the introduction of a technical, organizational or any other modification which affects or could indirectly affect the content of the safety analysis report, the operator must evaluate the intended modification in relation to its significance for radiation or nuclear safety. With respect to their significance for radiation or nuclear safety, changes may be:

    • such that it shall be necessary only to notify the SNSA,

    • such that the intention of their implementation must be reported to the SNSA,

    • of such a significance for radiation or nuclear safety that for its implementation a license from the SNSA must be obtained.

The Act on Nuclear Safety and Protection against Ionizing Radiation contains provisions on issuing, renewal, amendment and expiration of the license. The Act determines the content of a license (details about the operator, a detailed description of the type, scope and the purpose of the use of the facility, the duration of the validity of the license, the operational conditions and limitations relating to the safety analysis report, obligations relating to periodic safety review, the steps the licensee must take after the license expires, the financial warranties, the deadlines and conditions for a repeated review of the evaluation of the radiation protection of exposed workers and the protection and emergency plan), the duration of a license (a license may be issued for a maximum of ten years, except in the case of a license for the completion of a decommissioning of a facility or the closure of a facility) and the conditions for the renewal of the license (the same conditions and procedure as for the issuing of a license). A license may be amended on the request of the licensee or ex officio. A license can be amended ex officio when the conditions related to the nuclear or radiation safety have changed, when this is required for the protection of the environment or the life or health of the population, for public benefit or when due to external influences or natural phenomena a radiation source is under threat so that nuclear or radiation safety is considerably reduced. The provisions applying to the issue of a license also apply to the procedure for amending a license.

The Act on Nuclear Safety and Protection against Ionizing Radiation has only few provisions on licensing procedure since there is the General Administrative Procedure Act (Official Gazette 24/06 – UPB2, 126/07, 65/08, 08/10 and 82/13) stipulating all the general principles of licensing procedure, which are to be followed also by SNSA. The rules of the General Administrative Procedure Act must be followed with regard to all procedure issues, unless in case, when the special acts provide for a different solution. For example, based on the provisions of the General Administrative Procedure Act, the licensee can appeal any decision issued by any regulatory body. But the Act on Nuclear Safety and Protection against Ionizing Radiation determines the cases, for which no right to appeal against the SNSA’s decision is allowed. In these cases the licensee will have only the right for judicial review of the decision.

Furthermore, there are two regulations issued by the minister for the environment, which deal in detail with specific licensing aspects.

The Rules on operational safety of radiation and nuclear facilities, which determines:

  • the method of using the operating conditions and limits,

  • the method and frequency of reporting on the implementation of programs on collection and analysis of operating experience,

  • the manner and extent of control of aging and

  • the way of maintenance, testing and inspection of SSC.

The rules also have provisions on:

  • content, scope and frequency of regular and emergency reporting,

  • frequency, content, scope, duration and method of conducting periodic safety reviews and the manner of reporting on these reviews,

  • cases when the SNSA may order a periodic safety review,

  • content, quality and method of probabilistic safety analysis for checking the safety of nuclear facilities and on evaluation methodology and classification of modifications and the manner and form of information and notification of changes in radiation or nuclear facilities.

With respect of emergency the rules also determine detailed requirements on emergency response plan and emergency management in radiation or nuclear facilities, on emergency procedures in radiation or nuclear facilities and on ways of informing about the incident.

Rules on radiation and nuclear safety factors, which determines the conceptual basis for radiation and nuclear facilities and the content of application and content of documents to obtain approvals and licenses for nuclear and radiation facilities under the act governing protection against ionizing radiation and nuclear safety. It also determines the contents of safety reports and other documentation necessary to demonstrate and ensure the safety of radiation and nuclear facilities as well as additional requirements regarding organisation of a radiation or nuclear facility and regarding the content and format of the quality assurance program and its implementation in radiation and nuclear facilities.

3.2. Main National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power

The Act on Protection against Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Safety was adopted by the Parliament of the Republic of Slovenia on 11 July 2002. The act was published in the Official Gazette, Nr. 67/2002 and entered into force on 1 October 2002. The new act is adjusted to the EU legislation in the field of radiation and nuclear safety and to international agreements succeeded, ratified or signed by the Republic of Slovenia.

The act includes the main principles in the field of nuclear and radiation safety and the provisions on:

  1. practices involving ionizing radiation (reporting an intention, a permit to carry out practices involving radiation, a permit to use a radiation source),

  2. protection of people against ionizing radiation (principles, justification, dose limits, protection of exposed workers, medical exposure),

  3. radiation and nuclear safety (the classification of facilities, use of land, construction and carrying out of construction and mining activities, trial and actual operation of radiation and nuclear facilities, radioactive contamination, radioactive waste and spent fuel management, import, export and transit of nuclear and radioactive substances and radioactive waste, intervention measures),

  4. issue, renewal, modification, withdrawal or expiration of a license,

  5. physical protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear substances,

  6. non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and safeguards,

  7. monitoring radioactivity in the environment,

  8. the removal of the consequences of an emergency event,

  9. report on protection against radiation and on nuclear safety, records containing information on radiation sources and practices involving radiation,

  10. financing of protection against ionizing radiation and of nuclear safety (costs incurred by the users and public expenses) and compensation for the limited use of land due to a nuclear facility,

  11. inspection, penal provisions and transitional and final provisions.

In its transitional provisions the act provides for the issuing of several regulations of Government and competent ministries.

Act on Protection against Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Safety was amended in 2003, 2004, 2011 and 2015.

Based on the 2002 Act nine Governmental decrees and twenty-two Ministerial Rules have been adopted up to the end of March 2016.

The new Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage (hereinafter “the Act”) was published in the Official Gazette No. 77 on 4 October 2010. The Act governs the liability for nuclear damage resulting from the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, insurance of liability for nuclear damage and the procedure for claiming compensation for nuclear damage. The Act on one hand follows the provisions of the revised Paris Convention (Protocol of 2004 to Amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended.) regarding, for example, the extended heads of damages, which are covered, raised liability amounts for compensation, extended prescription and extinction periods for nuclear damage claims, etc. On the other hand, the Act clearly sets only one court which shall be competent to rule on compensation for nuclear damage and include a number of provisions regarding rules of procedure of claiming compensation and the distribution of compensation. Public funds, which have to be provided by the State, shall be provided in the budget; the amount, manner and dynamics of the drawings of such public funds shall be determined by the interventional law, which would follow any eventual significant accident. Regarding those risks which nuclear insurers are unwilling or unable to cover, the Act provides for conclusion of a premium based insurance agreement between the Government and the operator, but such an arrangement is limited in time (until the situation on the domestic and international insurance market has changed, but no longer than four years). The Act also prescribes all necessary provisions which ensure its compliance with the 2004 Protocol to Brussels Supplementary Convention.

It should be mentioned that Slovenia is a party to all relevant international treaties/conventions in the area of nuclear and radiation safety (see Appendix 1).

For the current legislation in the area of nuclear and radiation safety, see the SNSA webpage:



  1. Energy Act, Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Energy, Ljubljana (1999).

  2. Energy Data Profile by World Energy Council, Slovenian National Committee, Ljubljana, (April 1993).

  3. IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB).

  4. IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).

  5. Operation of Nuclear Facilities in Slovenia, Annual Report 1993, Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration, Ljubljana, (1994).

  6. Strategy of Efficient Energy Use and Supply of Slovenia, Ministry for Economic Activities, Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, (May 1994).

  7. The Agency for Radwaste management,

  8. The World Bank,


The Republic of Slovenia is part of the following treaties:

Amendments of Article VI & XIV.A of the IAEA Statute
3 April 2000
NPT related agreement INFCIRC No:538
Entry into force:
1 August 1997
  • Additional Protocol

Entry into force:
22 August 2000
  • Improved procedures for designation of safeguards inspectors


  • Supplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA

10 May 2006
  • Agreement on privileges and immunities

21 September 1992
  • NPT

7 April 1992
  • Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil

7 April 1992
  • Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water

7 April 1992


  • Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

25 June 1991
  • Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident

25 June 1991
  • Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

25 June 1991
  • Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

16 October 2001
  • Brussels Supplementary Convention to the Paris Convention

Entry into force:
5 June 2003
  • Joint protocol

Entry into force:
27 April 1995
  • Protocol to amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage

Not signed

  • Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

Not signed

  • Convention on Nuclear Safety

Entry into force:
18 February 1997
  • Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

Entry into force:
18 June 2001
  • ZANGGER Committee


  • Nuclear Suppliers Group


  • Nuclear Export Guidelines


  • Acceptance of NUSS Codes


  • Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty

31 August 1999


Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration
Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning
Litostrojska cesta 54
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tel: +386-1-472 1100
Fax: +386-1-472 1199
Agency for Radioactive Waste Management
Celovška cesta 182
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tel: + 386 1 236 32 00
Fax: + 386 1 236 32 30
Jozef Stefan Institute
Jamova 39
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tel: +386 1 477 39 00
Fax: +386 1 251 93 85
Jozef Stefan Institute
Reactor Centre Podgorica
Brinje 40
1262 Dol pri Ljubljani, Slovenia
Tel: +386 1 588 5450
Fax: +386 1 588 5377
Milan Vidmar Institute for Power Economy and Electrical Industry
Hajdrihova 2
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tel: +386 1 474 36 01
Fax: +386 1 425 33 26
NPP Krsko
Vrbina 12
8270 Krsko, Slovenia
Tel: +386 7 48 02 000
Fax: +386 7 4921 006
Slovenian Electric Utilities - ELES
Hajdrihova 2
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Tel: +386 1 474 3000
Fax: +386 1 474 2502
Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre
Brinje 40
1262 Dol pri Ljubljani, Slovenia
tel: +386 1 588 52 98
fax: +386 1 588 53 76
Nuclear Society of Slovenia (NSS)
Jamova 39
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
tel: +386 1 5885 450
fax: +386 1 5885 377
University of Ljubljana
Kongresni trg 12
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
tel.: +386 1 241 85 00
fax.: +386 1 241 86 60
University of Maribor
Slomškov trg 15
2000 Maribor, Slovenia
tel.: +386 2 23 55 280
IJS Science Information Centre
Jamova 39
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
tel.: +386 1 47 73 304
fax.: +386 1 47 73 152
Ljubljana Technology Park
Tehnološki park 19
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
tel.: +386 1 620 34 00
fax.: +386 1 620 34 09

Report coordinators:

Urška Dolinšek

Ministry of Infrastructure

Langusova 4

1000 Ljubljana



Anja Grabner

Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration

Litostrojska cesta 54

1000 Ljubljana