1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. Country Overview
Note: The content of this section, including Tables 1 and 2, has been removed by the IAEA to better focus the report on nuclear power.
1.2. Energy Information
1.2.1. Estimated available energy
TABLE 3: ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Estimated Available Energy Sources|
|Million tons||Billion Barrel||TSCF||Metric tons||Metric tons||GW||GW||GW||GW|
|Total Amount in specific unit||157 065.8||7.37||149.3||59 200||1 500||75||29.48||22.5||56.17|
|Total Amount in Exajoule (EJ)||4 603.2||45.09||157.52||1 735.01||43.96||2.37||0.93||0.71||1.77|
Source: - Handbook of Energy and Economic Statistics of Indonesia 2015, Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources;
- National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan).
1.2.2. Energy statistics
TABLE 4: ENERGY STATISTICS (EJ)
|Average Annual Growth Rate (%)|
|Year||2005||2006||2007||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||2005 to 2014|
|Final Energy Consumption|
Source: Handbook of Energy and Economic Statistics of Indonesia 2015, Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources.
1.2.3. Energy policy
In October 2014, the government of Indonesia enacted the Government Regulation No. 79 of 2014 about the National Energy Policy (NEP). NEP is a comprehensive policy which covers both the supply and the demand side. It serves as the main guideline in the national energy management to achieve the security of domestic energy supply.
NEP 2014 would reduce gasoline dependency and increase the use of renewable energy. Figure 1 shows that NEP sets a clear target of the share of each type of primary energy from the year 2025 up to the year 2050, as follows:
The share/role of new and renewable energy is at least: 23% in 2025 and at least 31% in 2050 as long as their economics comply;
The share/role of oil is less than 25% in 2025 and less than 20% in 2050;
The share/role of coal is minimum 30% in 2025 and minimum 25% in 2050;
The share/role of gas is minimum 22% in 2015 and minimum 24% in 2050.
FIGURE 1 ENERGY MIX TARGET
In NEP 2014, nuclear is included in the new energy group, i.e. energy that comes from new technology.
Because utilization of nuclear energy requires high safety and security standards and also considering the impact of nuclear radiation hazards to the environment, nuclear energy utilization is regarded as the last option. However, in the case of in-depth studies which have been conducted regarding the technological development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, fulfilling the needs of the growing energy demand by supplying national energy in a large scale, reducing carbon emissions and the urgent national interest, nuclear energy can then be utilized.
1.3. The Electricity System
1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process
The Indonesian power sector is ruled and regulated by the following law and government regulations:
Law No. 15 /1985 regarding electricity;
Government Regulation No. 3/2005 regarding amendment of the Government Regulation No. 10/1985 regarding electricity;
Ministerial Decree of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) No. 9/2005;
Ministerial Decree of MEMR No.10/2005.
The Directorate General of Electricity (DGE) under the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources is primarily responsible for formulating electricity policies and regulations. One responsibility of DGE is to prepare general national electricity planning to meet electricity power demand in a reliable and sustainable way. The National Electricity General Planning (RUKN, Rencana Umum Kelistrikan Nasional) is an integrated policy in the electricity sector comprising projection of electricity demand and supply of power generation, investment and financing, utilization of primary energy resources, as well as new and renewable energy for power generation.
According to Act No. 15 on Electricity (1985) and the Government Regulation No. 26 on supply and utilization of power generation (2006), the electricity utility should undertake planning and have an Electricity Power Supply Business Plan (RUPTL, Rencana Umum Pengusahaan Tenaga Listrik).
1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector
The structure of the current Indonesian electricity supply industry is shown in Figure 2. According to the law No. 15/1985, Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN), which is a state-owned enterprise as well as a limited liability company, is the only authority in the country that provides electricity to all Indonesian people. In serving the national electricity demand, PLN produces electricity from its own power plants, including generator companies which are PLN’s subsidiaries. PLN also acts as the single buyer that purchases electricity from independent power producers (IPP). Other power producers apart from PLN and IPP are ’captive powers’, mostly industries that produce power for self uses, and some other smaller companies including co-operatives that sell their electricity directly to consumers.
FIGURE 2 THE STRUCTURE OF CURRENT ELECTRICITY SUPPLY INDUSTRY
PLN builds and owns most electricity infrastructure in the country. In terms of generation facilities, PLN owns almost every kind of power plants, such as coal-fired and oil-fired steam power plants, gas turbine, geothermal, hydroelectric, and diesel plants. Most of these generation facilities are under the management of two PLN’s subsidiaries, PT Indonesia Power and PT Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (PT. PJB).
FIGURE 3 CURRENT ELECTRICITY MARKET
In delivering electricity to its large, medium and small customers while maintaining the quality and reliability of its services, PT PLN has developed extensive transmission and distribution networks, including the large scale interconnection power grid in the Java-Bali system.
Furthermore, PT PLN established 10 subsidiaries and 2 joint ventures as the following:
PT. Indonesia Power, whose main business is electricity generation;
PT. Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (PT PJB), whose main business is electricity generation;
PT. National Electricity Service of Batam Island (PT. Pelayanan Listrik Nasional Batam - PLN Batam), that engaged in business of electricity provision for public purposes in the Region Batam Island;
PT. Indonesia Comnets Plus, whose main business is telecommunication;
PT. Prima Layanan Nasional Enjiniring (PT. PLN Enjiniring), a company on engineering, consultant and construction supervision;
PT. National Electricity Service Tarakan (PT PLN Tarakan), a provider of electricity for public purposes in Tarakan Island of East Kalimantan;
PT. Geo Dipa Energi, a joint venture between PT.PLN and PT. PERTAMINA, whose business is in electricity generation, especially geothermal power plant;
PT PLN Batubara, is a coal mine and coal supplier for coal power plants;
PT PLN Geothermal, is a generating company with geothermal energy;
Majapahit Holding BV, is a holding company in Amsterdam, Holland;
PT Haleyora Power is a company serving operation and maintenance of transmission and distribution system. It established a Joint Venture Company (JVC) in the field of energy provider called PT Energi Pelabuhan Indonesia (EPI), with PT PELINDO II.
1.3.3. Main indicators
Power systems in Indonesia are divided into two types: interconnected systems and isolated systems. The power systems which are well interconnected are the Java-Bali system and the Sumatra system, while the rest are still isolated. In the end of 2014 the capacity of Indonesia’s power system is 49,701 MW, consisting of both PLN’s plants and Non-PLN’s plants. Compared to last year’s 47,128 MW, the capacity of the power system increased by 2,573 MW or 5.5 %. Of this amount, 34,206 MW are PLN’s plants (details in Table 5) with 78.26 % capacity installed in the Java-Bali system.
TABLE 5: ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
|Average Annual Growth Rate (%)|
|2005||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||2005 to 2014|
|Capacity of Electrical Plants (GWe)|
|Mini Gas PP||0.012||0.026||0||0||0||0||0.17|
|Electricity Production (TWh)|
|Mini Gas PP||0||0.07||0.05||0.0551||0.381||1.09||72.32|
|Rent of Generator||3.1||8.2||13.9||18.07||19.74||22.44||26.87|
|Total Electricity Consumption (TWh)||107||147.3||158||173.99||187.54||189.30||6.79|
Source: PLN Statistics 2014, PT. PLN (Persero)
The system’s peak-load in 2013 was 30,834 MW. The peak load increased by 6.76% compared to the previous year. PT. PLN produced electricity of about 216,189 GWh in 2013 including those produced from power generation units rented from other companies. The total production (including purchase from utilities outside PLN or IPP) during 2013 was 268,412 GWh, with an increase of 52,223 GWh 24.16 % compared to the previous year. Of this energy production, the energy purchased from other utilities outside PLN amounted to 50.56 TWh (25.24%). This was increased by 9.9 TWh or 24.29 % compared to the previous year. From the total energy purchased, the greater part was 8,203 GWh (15.71%) from PT Paiton Energy Company and 8,062 GWh (15.44%) from PT Jawa Power.
TABLE 6: ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy Consumption per Capita (GJ/Capita)||15.943||19.57||20.51||22.15||22.45||29.28|
|Electricity Consumption per capita (kWh/Capita)||489.02||619.83||655.23||712.45||753.7||787.5|
|Electricity Production/Energy Production (%)||4.03%||3.94%||3.74%||4.16%||4.21%||4.58%|
|Nuclear/Total Electricity (%)||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Ratio of External dependency (%)||-0.8||-0.9||-1||-0.25||-0.24||-1.23|
Source: PLN Statistics 2014, PT. PLN (Persero)
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical Development And Current Organizational Structure
Historical activities related to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) program in Indonesia is shown in Figure 4 below.
FIGURE 4 HISTORICAL ACTIVITIES RELATED TO NPP PROGRAM
In 2000-2002 the Indonesian Government performed an Energy Planning Study (Comprehensive Assessment of Different Energy Sources, CADES). This study involved related institutions and ministries, and was reviewed by IAEA. The result of this study was submitted to President Abdurrahman Wahid by Director General of IAEA, Mohammad El Baradei, in 2003. Based on the result of this study, NPP in Indonesia will operate in 2016.
In the National Electricity General Plan (2005-2025), nuclear sources shall contribute in the electricity generation. While, in Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 on National Energy Policy (2005-2025), the target of optimum energy mix in 2025, with the contribution of biomass, nuclear, hydro, solar, and wind was set up to be more than 5% of total national energy supply. Besides that, in accordance with Act No. 17 Year 2007 on National Long-Term Development Planning, nuclear energy should be implemented during 2015-2019.
In 2009, Indonesia prepared, developed and conducted a self-evaluation of the status of national nuclear infrastructure development. Furthermore, the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) Mission by IAEA to review the status of Indonesia’s national nuclear infrastructure was conducted on November 23-27, 2009. The conclusion of INIR mission showed that Indonesia had done extensive preparatory work on most infrastructure issues that would allow the country to make the decision to further consider introduction of nuclear power, i.e. to go from phase 1 to phase 2 in milestone methodology defined by the Agency.
The comprehensive feasibility study was carried out in three consecutive years from 2011-2013 in Bangka Island - Bangka Belitung Province, which was carried out by the Indonesian Government through BATAN and PLN that were assisted by both domestic and international consultants. In this study, there are two selected site candidates in Bangka Island, i.e. Bangka Barat Regency and Bangka Selatan Regency. Both selected candidate sites are very feasible for NPPs to be built.
The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources is preparing the White Paper of 5,000 MWe NPP in Indonesia. It is prepared to be able to be a source of information and reference for all stakeholders in the decision for the construction of NPPs in Indonesia.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)
In order to implement a nuclear energy program, Indonesia so far has not decided to establish a Nuclear Energy Program Implementing Organization (NEPIO). It should be noted that some available institutions, such as, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Research and Technology, Ministry of Industry, Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Universities and State Electricity Company have played essential roles similar to those of an NEPIO.
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources has the role in energy and electricity policy, Ministry of Research and Technology in science and technology policy, Ministry of Environment in site and environmental policy, while Ministry of Industry in national industry and technology transfer policy.
FIGURE 5 INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAM
FIGURE 6 RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR SCOPE OF WORK
BATAN collaborated with universities that have a role in doing research and development including technical consultancy, human resources and training, information and socialization and site preparation. BAPETEN has a role as regulatory body in nuclear regulation and licensing.
BATAN in co-operation with other relevant government institutions initiates to prepare, develop and conduct a self-evaluation on the national status of 19 basic infrastructures of NPP development, which has been started since 2009. Figure 6 shows the responsible institutions and their scope of work in infrastructure preparation of nuclear power program.
2.2. Nuclear Power Plants: Overview
2.2.1. Status and performance of Nuclear Power Plants
TABLE 7: STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station||Type||Net Capacity||Operator||Status||Reactor Supplier||Construction Date||Grid
|Commercial Date||Shutdown Date||UCF
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals
2.3. Future Development of Nuclear Power Sector
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
Although the Government of Indonesia has not taken Go Nuclear decision yet, Indonesia actively prepares the first NPP development program such as feasibility study, and other infrastructure issues.
Indonesia considers having NPP project through an open bid mechanism. Type of contract for first NPP is a turnkey approach. Regarding the nuclear fuel cycle, an open cycle is a preferred option. According to the BAPETEN Chairman Regulation No. 4/2009 on Nuclear Reactor Decommissioning, the Owner has responsibility for decommissioning of NPP including provision for financial guarantee.
Specific plans are needed for national strategy implementation. The nuclear infrastructure is being developed through many related institutions based on their tasks.
The scheduled activities for the first NPP was prepared in accordance with the Nuclear Act No. 10 Year 1997. The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources has developed The White Paper of Nuclear Power Plant 5000 MWe in Indonesia. The commercial operation of the first NPP is expected by 2027. Table 8 below shows the planned reactor to be built.
TABLE 8: PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/Project Name||Type||Capacity||Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|NPP Unit 1||PWR||1,000 MWe||2022||2027|
As a first step for the development and operation of a future commercial NPP, BATAN is currently preparing to develop an Experimental Power Reactor (EPR). The EPR is planned to be built in the National Centre for Research of Science and Technology (PUSPIPTEK) area at Serpong, South Tangerang, Banten Province. HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) with the power size of 10-15 MW that generates electricity (3-5 MWe) and heat for other experimental purposes (coal liquefaction and gasification, hydrogen production) was chosen for this purpose.
The development of EPR is one of the entry points in the utilization of nuclear energy. Based on nuclear legislation, BATAN has an authority to build and operate non- commercial NPP or EPR. The development of EPR is also a strategic effort for mastering the nuclear energy project management, engineering capacity building and human resource development to strengthen the role of the Technical Supporting Organization (TSO).
2.3.2. Project management
Construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear reactor shall be performed by State Company, co-operative, and/or private company, as mentioned in the Act No 10 of 1997 as well as Government Regulation No. 2 of 2014 on The Licensing of Nuclear Installation and Nuclear Fuel Utilization.
Regarding the operation of NPP, the operator should apply for license or permit from BAPETEN for site, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning.
The owner is responsible for the type of contract suitable to implement each NPP project. However, up to now, no organization has been established to be the owner of the first NPP. A study report on project management for NPP done by BATAN and KHNP shows that a turnkey contract approach is very appropriate for the first NPP project.
Local participation in the construction of a nuclear power plant should be maximized. The national industry capability shows that the local participation is about 35% for the first NPP and targeted to increase from 35% to 80% respectively from step 1 up to step 5.
FIGURE 7 RATE OF NATIONAL PARTICIPATION
To increase the local participation from 35% to 80% gradually, the nuclear capability should be improved in the following areas: project management and engineering, other mechanical plant, electrical system, instrumentation and control, turbine island equipment, waste management system, fuel handling system, reactor containment facilities and Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) auxiliary system.
Policies and requirements for purchasing nuclear equipment and services are not considered yet, but it should follow the existing regulations.
2.3.3. Project funding
Funding scheme for the NPP project in Indonesia is still under consideration. There are three kinds of NPP funding schemes, i.e. conventional scheme, built operate transfer (BOT) scheme including its variants (built own operate (BOO)/built lease transfer (BLT)), and counter trade scheme. A study undertaken by BATAN, PLN and Korea Nuclear and Hydro Power (KHNP) proposed a financing scheme and ownership structure for the first NPP in Indonesia. The funding for the construction of the first NPP may be a combination of a long-term loan and equity. The loan would be used mostly to finance procurement of foreign contents, most likely obtained from ECA (Export Credit Agency) and commercial bank through loan agreement with the ‘NPP company’ that could be owned by the government. Most of the equity portion would be used to finance local capital expenditure, such as land acquisition, professional fee, mobilization, certification, etc. The equity will be sourced partly from the public utility's own funds, which might be PLN or another state-owned enterprise/company, and from private investors who can become partners.
Funding for spent fuel handling, waste management and decommissioning and final disposal is the responsibility of the owner.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
Presently, an integrated system of electrical grid exists in Java-Bali-Madura and Sumatera. The Java-Bali-Madura system is interconnected with 500 kV and 150 kV lines, while Sumatera is interconnected with 275 kV and 150 kV lines. Power transmission in Jawa-Bali and Sumatera will be integrated. PT. PLN plans to expand the interconnection project through electricity transmission system of high voltage direct current/HVDC). The combining of the two-trusted interconnection is considered to have impact on cheap and efficient energy use. The interconnection system will be designed to distribute 3,000 MW from Sumatera to Jawa-Bali. It will consist of converter station from AC power to DC in Muara Enim, South Sumatera. DC power will then be converted to AC (inverter station) in Bogor, West Java. In case of Bangka NPP available, this power transmission integration will ease the electricity distribution from Sumatera to Java.
Currently, in Kalimantan Island, 150 kV line has interconnected the provinces of Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan. However, West Kalimantan province is still isolated from the other provinces.
There are several locations in Indonesia that have been identified as potential sites for NPPs. Figure 8 shows the location of each site and recent status regarding survey of the site, namely: Muria Peninsula, Banten, East Kalimantan, Bangka Island, West Kalimantan and Batam Island sites. Specifically for Batam Island, site pre-survey was started this year, 2015. All of the potential sites were located in a coastal line due to cooling water source availability.
In conducting the site survey and evaluation, IAEA guidance and BAPETEN regulation related to the safety and non-safety aspects and other considerations are used as the basis for safety and non-safety analysis.
FIGURE 8 CURRENT STATUS OF NPP SITE STUDY
Feasibility Study for the Muria Peninsula was completed in 1996, identifying three candidate sites i.e. Ujung Lemahabang (ULA), Ujung Watu (UW) and Ujung Grenggengan (UG). Two sites were preferred, namely ULA and UW. Site Evaluation of the ULA preferred site has already been done by NEWJEC in 1991-1996, while for UW preferred site, the evaluation is not done yet. Nonetheless, the development of whether in international guidance or national regulation, give rise to the necessity of further intensive investigation of ULA site mainly on volcanology, geotechnical and seismotectonic aspects. Figure 9 shows the transportation infrastructure of the Muria site.
FIGURE 9 TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE OF MURIA SITE
Based on a preliminary study from year 2008 until now, there are two potential sites in Banten, namely Pulo Panjang and Kramatwatu-Bojonegara. This study covers regional and near-regional analysis.
The characteristics of both sites are as following:
safe from external hazard (volcanic, surface faulting, seismicity, extreme meteorology, and coastal flooding),
does not located at Pyroclastic Density Current (PDC) of capable volcano,
the distance of supposed capable fault to the sites > 5 km,
Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) value < 0.4 g,
not an area that has a tornado events and tropical cyclone,
not flooded by tsunami waves caused by of historical tectonic earthquake and Krakatoa volcanic (1883),
not inundated by sea level rise due to global warming (eustacy) in 100 year projection,
not in urban and population centre area and have the distance to outer border of population centre > 1 km
safe from human activity that have potential safety threat as initiating events.
Figure 10 shows transport infrastructure of the Banten site.
FIGURE 10 TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE BANTEN SITE
The feasibility study carried out in Bangka Island consisted of three phases in three consecutive years from 2011 to 2013. Based on the study, there are two interest areas in Bangka site; Site-1: Teluk Manggris-Tanah Merah, Mentok, West Bangka Regency, and Site-2: Tj. Berani-Tj Krasak, Sebagian, Simpang Rimba, South Bangka Regency. A licensing document consisting of Site Data Report (SDR), Site Evaluation Report (SER), Site Data Information (SDI), concept of Environmental Impact Analysis Report (EIAR), and draft of NPP Master Plan was done in 2013.
The interest area 1 can be reached from Pangkal Pinang through Kelapa by paved road of approximately 140 km, then for about 4 to 6 km by unpaved road, of which only 3 km can be accessed by car and the rest by motorcycle or by four-wheel drive vehicle. The interest area 2 can be reached from Pangkal Pinang through Sungai Selan, Bangka Kota, Simpang Rimba, Permis Village, Rajik Village and Sebakin Village by paved road of 83.5 km. There are 5 major harbours and one medium airport. Bangka site transport infrastructure is provided in Figure 11.
FIGURE 11 BANGKA SITE TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURES
Based on the feasibility study performed, West and South Bangka are considered feasible to be the NPP site due to the site acceptance.
Ultimate capacity for West Bangka site is 6 x 1000 MWe and South Bangka site is 4 x 1000 MWe.
West Kalimantan Site
FIGURE 12 NPP POTENSIAL SITE AT KETAPANG REGENCY
Based on the conformity analysis of Ketapang and Kayong Utara Regency, there are three areas of interest located in Ketapang Regency and another area of interest located in Kayong Utara Regency. By using a weighting approach, levelling of those area of interests are namely Kendawung district (Ketapang Regency) as first rank, Sukadana district (Kayong Utara Regency) as second rank, Matan Hilir Selatan district (Ketapang Regency) as last rank.
From a geological aspect, each of the potential sites has a relatively stable formation, with the reasonably similar lithology condition and a safe distance from volcanic hazard. More specifically, in Kendawangan sub-district granite and volcanic rock was found. The land cover of Ketapang regency is dominated by peat with a depth of more than 3 meters.
East Kalimantan Site
Pre-survey activities in 2007-2008 acquired 8 potential sites, namely (1) Tanjung Prapat and Tanjung Saban, Paser regency; (2) Babulu Laut, Penajam Paser Utara regency; (3) Industrial area of Kariangau, Balikpapan; (4) Sandaran sub-district, Kutai Timur regency; (5) Sanggata sub-district, Kutai Timur regency; (6) Pulau Derawan sub-district, Berau regency; (7) Talisayan, Berau regency and (8) Biduk-biduk, Berau regency. In 2009, pre-survey activities only covered Balikpapan, Kutai Timur Regency and Berau regency which yielded four interest areas, namely: (1) Tanjung Batu, Berau regency; (2) Talisayan, Berau regency; (3)Tanjungpagar, Kutai Timur regency and (4) Kariangau, Balikpapan.
FIGURE 13 POTENTIAL SITES AT EAST KALIMANTAN
Generally, all the potential sites located in east Kalimantan are safe from volcanic and seismic hazard. From a lithological point of view, Balikpapan is composed of Miocene-Pliocene and Holocene rocks. Meanwhile, Kutai Timur regency is constituted by Eocene-Pliocene rocks. A compact bed rock has been found in Berau regency that consists of Domaring Formation and Sajau Formation. Alluvial sedimentation has dispersed along the coastal line of each potential site. Berau regency has several major rivers namely Berau, Kelay and Segah River. These rivers have a potential to cause river flooding at the estuary due to the slope morphology.
Balikpapan is a city with a well-developed infrastructure. Road infrastructure is mostly well interconnected within the region. There is an airport, Sepinggan airport, which up to now was the main access point to enter East Kalimantan Province.
Land transportation at Kutai Timur Regency consists of several routes. The road condition along Samarinda Sangatta is fairly good as a main route. For air transportation, there are two airports; Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC) airport at Tanjung Bara and Pertamina airport at Sangkimah. There is also an existing seaport and harbour in the area.
Meanwhile, at the Berau Regency, land transportation path from Kutai Timur Regency is in a fairly good condition and used as the province’s main route. Sea transportation is used to connect to other region such as from Kota Tanjung Batu to Batu Putih. This pathway is relatively more comfortable and economical. Air transportation at the Berau Regency serves regional movement from Berau to Balikpapan, Tarakan, Tanjung Selor and Samarinda through Kalimarau airport (4 km from Tanjung Redeb).
With the intention of developing alternative energy infrastructure as an effort to increase investment opportunity, Batam Indonesia Free Zone Authority (BIFZA) in cooperation with National Nuclear Energy Agency (Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional, BATAN) plan to develop nuclear technology especially in the energy sector. Following up the plan, a series of preliminary study on nuclear power plant development has been carried out which include siting. In order to identify potential sites, pre-survey activities has been performed in 2015 covering Batam, Rempang and Galang islands or called as BARELANG islands. BARELANG islands was located on 0°.25'29” - 1°15'00” N and 103°.34'35” - 104°26'04”E as shown in Figure 14. Area covered by BARELANG islands is 715 km2 which consist of Batam Island of 415 km2, Rempang islands of 165.83 km2, Galang Island of 80 km2 and Galang Baru Island of 32 km2.
The pre-survey activities were carried out using secondary data which include DEM satellite imagery of BARELANG islands, morphological map, geological map, hydrogeological map, etc. At first, general criteria were applied as follow:
Maximum distance to the shoreline is 3 km
Not a permanent swamps
Not a protected/conservation forest
Minimum distance to the outside boundary of dense population area (> 25.000 people) is 1 km
Maximum distance to the airport is 8 km
Afterward, in accordance with IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-3.3, specific criteria were then applied which includes capable fault and pyroclastic flow identification. In terms of tectonic and seismicity, BARELANG islands is considered as a non-active tectonic area. There is no existence of active fault identified. Nevertheless, based on geological map published by Indonesia Geological Agency, faulting exist on Tanjungkerotang Formation (Tmpt) in Rempang island and north part of Galang island (Fig. 15).
Based on the pre-survey activities, it yields five interest areas namely Kelurahan Rempang (Tanjung Kelingking)- Rempang island, and Kelurahan Sijantung-western coast of Galang island, Tanjung Batu and Tanjung Ramai (Desa Karas)-eastern coast of Galang island.
FIGURE 14 POTENTIAL SITES AT EAST KALIMANTAN
FIGURE 15 POTENTIAL SITES AT EAST KALIMANTAN
2.3.6. Public acceptance
In order to survey public perception concerning utilization of NPP in Indonesia, on November 2010, a poll was conducted for 3,000 respondents, resulting in 59.7% agreeing, 26.1% not agreeing and 14.2% abstaining. After Fukushima’s NPP accident in 2011, a poll was conducted for the same amount of respondents and the result decreased to 49.5% agreeing. In 2012 a poll involving 5.000 respondents was conducted and it showed that public acceptance increased to 52%. A poll in 2013 showed that public acceptance for utilization of NPP in Indonesia increased to 60.4%. The poll in 2014, public acceptance for utilization of NPP in Indonesia significantly increased and 72% were found to be agreeing. The newest poll in 2015 indicates that 75.3 percent of Indonesia's population support the construction of Nuclear Power Plant.
2.4. Organizations Involved in Construction of NPPs
2.5. Organizations Involved in Operation of NPPs
2.6. Organizations Involved in Decommissioning of NPPs
2.7. Fuel Cycle Including Waste Management
Based on the Act No 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy, general surveys, explorations and exploitations of nuclear material ore as well as the production and/or procurement of raw materials for manufacturing nuclear fuel shall only be performed by BATAN or may be done in co-operation with state company, co-operative or private company. BATAN shall also perform non-commercial production of nuclear fuel and radioisotopes, while the commercial production shall be performed by state company, co-operative and/or private company.
Act 10 from 1997 stipulated that the radioactive waste management shall be performed by BATAN. Low level and intermediate level radioactive waste generated shall be collected, segregated, treated and temporarily stored before being transferred to BATAN. High level radioactive waste (i.e. spent fuel) generated shall temporarily be stored for a period not less than the life time of nuclear reactor. A final repository for high level radioactive wastes shall be provided by BATAN.
2.8. Research and Development
2.8.1. R&D organizations
Research and development (R&D) of nuclear science and technology are mainly implemented by BATAN. Nuclear R&D activities are classified into reactor safety, radiation safety, environmental safety, radiation and radioisotope application, and radioactive waste-management. R&D activities are implemented in several nuclear complexes as described in the following paragraphs.
SERPONG NUCLEAR COMPLEX
There are many centres in the Serpong Nuclear Complex for research and development and engineering of nuclear science and technology that have been built with the objectives to support development of the nuclear industry and for preparation, development as well as operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia.
The development of installations and laboratories of the Serpong Nuclear Complex had been conducted in three phases beginning in 1983 and fully completed in 1992. The area is about 25 hectares and is located in the National Centre for Research of Science and Technology (PUSPIPTEK), Serpong.
The main facility in the area is the GA. Siwabessy Multipurpose Research Reactor with a power of 30 MW. The Installation is used for Production of Research Reactor Fuel Element, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Installation, Experimental Fuel Element Installation, Radioactive Waste Processing Installation, Radiometallurgy Installation, Reactor Safety and Engineering Installation, Facility for Development of Informatics and Computation, Nuclear Mechanic-Electronic Installation, Neutron Spectrometry Installation, as well as Storage for Spent Fuel Elements and Contaminated Materials Installation.
BANDUNG NUCLEAR COMPLEX
The Bandung Nuclear Complex was initially constructed in the early 1960s on an area of 3 hectares and where the first research reactor was built in Indonesia. The activities conducted covered the utilization of the reactor for research and fostering of expertise, R&D of basic materials, radioisotopes and labelled compounds, instrumentation and radiometry analysis techniques and supervision of occupational radiation safety and environment.
In addition, nuclear medicine in Indonesia was first developed in Bandung nuclear complex. The activities of nuclear medicine have since then further developed in several hospitals in Indonesia.
In order to support the R&D activities, the Bandung Nuclear Complex utilizes various facilities, among others, the Triga Mark II Reactor which started with a power of 250 kW in 1965. The power of this reactor was increased to 1000 kW in 1971 and further to 2000 kW in 2000.
Other facilities in this area are the laboratory for physics, chemistry and biology, production of isotopes and labelled compounds.
YOGYAKARTA NUCLEAR COMPLEX
The Yogyakarta Nuclear Complex was established in 1974 on a land of 8.5 hectares. The Centre for Science and Technology of Accelerator and the Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology are located within this area.
The activities conducted covers R&D in nuclear physics, chemistry, technology of low and medium energy particle accelerator, process technology, analysis of nuclear materials and reactor, as well as the use of the reactor for research and fostering of expertise.
In addition, supervision of occupational radiation safety and of environmental radioactivity is also conducted. Meanwhile the Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology conducts programs of education in the field of nuclear science and technology.
The facilities in this area are the Kartini Research with a power of 100 kW, complemented with a subcritical assembly, a laboratory for pure materials research, accelerators, laboratories for nuclear physics and chemistry, a work health and safety facility, library facilities, as well as laboratory facilities for education.
PASAR JUM'AT NUCLEAR COMPLEX
The Pasar Jum'at Nuclear Complex was built in 1966 in an area of about 20 hectares. In this area, Centre for Application of Isotope and Radiation, Centre for Technology of Radiation Safety and Metrology, Centre for Technology of Nuclear Geology, Centre for Education and Training and Centre for Dissemination and Partnerships are located.
In this area, among others are the following facilities: three units of Co-60 Gamma Irradiators, two electron beam machines, laboratory for uranium processing, radiation measuring equipment, chemistry, biology, process and hydrology, education and training facility as well as a permanent exhibition for nuclear science and technology.
MONITORING STATIONS FOR MICRO-EARTHQUAKES AND METEOROLOGY JEPARA - CENTRAL JAVA AND BANGKA ISLAND
Since 1982 a monitoring station for Micro-Earthquakes and Meteorology has been built and operated in the Ujung Watu village in Jepara - Central Java. The micro-earthquakes monitoring station records the earthquakes data originating from volcanic as well as tectonic earthquakes, whereas the meteorology station records air pressure, wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity and solar radiation.
In addition, since 2011 an identical facility has been built on Bangka Island to record the data of micro-earthquakes and meteorology on the Bangka site. There are 10 micro-earthquakes monitoring stations and two meteorology monitoring stations.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
Indonesia is willing to participate in the development of nuclear reactor system through INPRO project. There is also a plan to develop HTR design with co-generation purposes.
2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives
Indonesia has signed a number of international agreements as well as conducted bilateral and multilateral co-operations in the field of nuclear power development. A complete list of international agreements and co-operations is provided in Appendix 1.
2.9. Human Resources Development
A human resource development (HRD) plan identifying the human resources needed by organization implementing nuclear energy program has been addressed in the study on HRD Program and HRD Blue Print carried out in 2008.
TRS 200 IAEA has been used to identify competences and human resources needed by future organization of NPP. More detailed reviews and analyses in competences and human resources needed for future organization and blue print of Human Resources Development (HRD) program and concept of Nuclear Training Centre (NTC) facilities are being conducted by interdepartmental organizations, including MEMR, BATAN, Department of Labour and Transmigration, BAPETEN, and Ministry of Research & Technology, as indicated by the Decree of ETC-MEMR Chairman No. 105K Year 2008 and Decree of BATAN Chairman No. 071 Year 2009. The stakeholders involved are BATAN, BAPETEN, MEMR, Ministry of Research and Technology, Department of Labour and Transmigration, and universities.
For the human resources development program, BATAN and related institutions have sent personnel to Universities (in Indonesia or abroad) to obtain Master/Doctoral Degrees and sent personnel abroad to notable NPP Companies such as General Electric, Westinghouse Companies, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mitsubishi, Korea Nuclear and Hydro Power (KHNP), Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) etc. to participate in their NPP design activities.
BATAN has established the Education and Training Centre (PUSDIKLAT), which is responsible for the implementation of education and training programs, especially in the nuclear science and technology related to BATAN’s competency. The development program is oriented to provide well educated and well trained personnel in the fields of research, development and application of nuclear technology, as well as to promote nuclear science and technology to the public, especially industrial society, through education and training program.
Moreover, BATAN has also established a higher education institute called College of Nuclear Technology (STTN) based on Presidential Decree No. 71 Year 2001. STTN is an official education institute carrying out nuclear science and technology man-power development program through carefully crafted four year education. STTN has two majors study programs namely, Nuclear Techno-Chemistry and Nuclear Techno-Physics.
In addition, for human resources development, BATAN has established co-operation with Gadjah Mada University, University of Indonesia, and Bandung Technology Institute in various fields of study.
Indonesian human resources have had many experiences in construction and operation of non-nuclear power plants, such as coal power plant with capacities from 35 MWe to 600 MWe. BATAN human resources also have had experiences in construction and operation of research nuclear reactors, i.e. Kartini Reactor in Yogyakarta (100 kWe), Triga Mark Reactor in Bandung (2 MWe) and GA. Siwabessy Reactor in Serpong (30 MWe).
2.10. Stakeholder Communication
Within the framework of public information and communication, BATAN and the Ministry of Research and Technology have undertaken several activities in public information and education.
Public information and education are carried out for disseminating information on nuclear power program to various target audiences, which include parliamentary representatives, government executives, politicians, journalist and editors, social organizations (including women associations), local representatives and religious leaders, professional groups (engineers, ecologists, sociologist, culture researchers, artists etc.), schools/universities (schools/universities/colleges, students, teachers, lectures) and the armed forces.
The means of disseminating public information and education are through several periodic events including exhibitions, opening events of any nuclear facility of information centre involving high ranking officials, visit to nuclear research or power plants for decision makers (parliamentary representatives, civil servant), and for opinion leaders (newspapers, radio, TV), national seminar on nuclear technology and energy, inviting speakers from various domestic and overseas institutions.
2.11. Emergency Preparedness
The operation of the Nuclear Power Plant in the region in which a nuclear power plant is located will be impact to the workers and public. The potential sources of radiological exposure from the plant are identified and the severities of the possible resulting hazards phenomena are evaluated to derive the appropriate design bases for the plant. They are to be monitored and periodically assessed over the lifetime of the plant to ensure that consistency with the design assumptions is maintained.
For such purposes the recommendations and guidelines from BAPETEN Chairman Decree No. 1 Year 2010 on Emergency Preparedness and Response; and the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 on Preparedness and Response for a nuclear emergency Safety Requirements are being applied.
Referring to the BAPETEN Chairman Decree No. 1 Year 2010, West & South Bangka is included in the Radiological threat category 1, namely, installation or facility with very high potential risk of generating radioactive releases causing severe deterministic effects offsite. Emergency Zones and Radius Radiological Threat Category 1 is specified below:
|Installation/Facility with Radiological Threat Category I|
|Installation/Facility||Radius of Precautionary Action zone||Radius of Urgent Protective Action Planning Zone||Radius of Food Restriction Planning|
|Reactor > 1000 MWt||3-5 km||25 km ||300 km|
In order to protect both of NPP workers and the public surrounding the NPP site in the event of an NPP accident, emergency preparedness program and response shall be performed before NPP operation. The emergency preparedness program will cover: Introduction, Infrastructure, Control Function, References and Abbreviations. Detail of the emergency preparedness program should follow the BAPETEN regulation.
The organization will cover three levels of emergency response as follows:
Installation level. The responsible organization for the emergency response is the NPP operator. ;
Province level. The responsible organization for the emergency response is the head of province disaster management agency (BPBD);
National level. If the accident affects the large area and its levels shall be notified as national disaster, the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) will be responsible for the emergency response.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory framework
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
Profile of the Regulatory Body
Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is a non-Department Government Institution which is under and responsible to the President. BAPETEN has the tasks of implementing the surveillance of all activities of the use of nuclear energy in Indonesia through regulation, licensing and inspection in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. BAPETEN was founded on May 8, 1998 and began actively working on January 4, 1999.
The main task of BAPETEN is to conduct surveillance of all activities that use nuclear energy by managing the regulation, licensing and inspections.
The functions of BAPETEN are:
Formulation of national policies in the field of supervision of the use of nuclear energy; preparation and creation of national plans and programs in the field of supervision of nuclear energy utilization;
The management and preparation of regulations and the review of the implementation of nuclear safety, radiation safety, and security of nuclear materials;
Implementation of licensing and inspection of construction and operation of nuclear reactors, nuclear installations, nuclear materials facilities, and sources of radiation as well as the development of nuclear preparedness; implementation of co-operation in the field of monitoring of the use of nuclear energy by government agencies or other organizations both inside and outside of the territory of Indonesia;
Implementation of surveillance and control of nuclear materials; implementation of guidance and information concerning the efforts to ensure the safety and health of the workers, the members of the public as well as environmental protection;
Implementation of the improvement of human resources development and quality in the BAPETEN; implementation of administrative guidance, control and supervision within BAPETEN environment;
Implementation of other tasks given by the President.
Role & Responsibility of the Regulatory Body
BAPETEN, as an independent regulatory body, has responsibility to ensure that any activity related to the use of any nuclear energy is performed to maintain the safety, security, and peace, as well as the health of the workers and the public, and also the protection of the environment. These are administered by:
Drafting and establishing nuclear safety regulations;
Controlling nuclear installations and nuclear materials through licensing and inspection systems that covered all stages of NPP establishment (from site evaluation to decommissioning stages);
Controlling the use of radioactive materials and other radiation sources through licensing and inspection systems.
Scope of Activities
Nuclear Energy Act UU No. 10 of 1997 explains the important supervisory function in protecting public health and the health of the environment: the creation of regulations, licensing and inspections. This supervisory function is the main activity carried out by BAPETEN.
Making Rules: BAPETEN is responsible for the creation of rules and safety regulations. Representing the government, BAPETEN co-operates with the House of Representatives in making government regulations in relation to the safe use of radiation sources. BAPETEN also assists the President of the Republic of Indonesia in making a Presidential Decree.
As a regulatory agency, BAPETEN has issued more than 30 recommendations and safety instructions in the use of nuclear energy. All regulations and instructions can be found on the website of BAPETEN.
Licensing: Uses of nuclear energy without prior permission of BAPETEN is prohibited. Until June 2005, BAPETEN has issued 3162 permits for industrial activities, 2958 permits for medical activities and 3383 working licenses working for Radiation Protection Officer.
BAPETEN continuous to try to raise awareness of radiation safety, which is important since many users of nuclear energy have not reported to BAPETEN of their ownership and uses of radioactive materials and their radiation emitting devices.
Inspection: BAPETEN conducts supervisory inspections to ensure compliance of the users with the safety regulations and provisions relevant to the permit conditions.
Organization of the Regulatory Body
BAPETEN is headed by a chairman assisted by two deputies and one executive secretary. It has seven directorates, two centres for assessment, three bureaus, and one internal affair and one education and training centre respectively, as shown in Figure 16 below. According to the regulation, the Chairman of BAPETEN is directly responsible to the President.
FIGURE 16 ORGANIZATION CHART OF THE REGULATORY BODY
3.1.2. Licensing process
Based on the Government Regulation (GR) No. 2 in 2014 on the Licensing of Nuclear Installation and Nuclear Fuel Utilization, instead of Government Regulation No. 43 in 2006, the construction and operation of a nuclear reactor can be performed after obtaining a license from BAPETEN. The license will be issued in the following stages: Site Permit, Construction Permit, Operating License and Decommissioning Permit.
FIGURE 17 DIAGRAM OF THE ENTIRE LICENSING PROCESS
There are two procedures for obtaining a license, which are as follows:
Five stages licensing procedure and evaluation period:
Site Permit/License (maximum 2 years);
Construction Permit/License (maximum 2 years);
Commissioning Permit/License (maximum 1 year);
Operating License (maximum 2 years);
Decommissioning Permit (maximum 1 year).
The diagram of the Entire Licensing Process is shown in Figure 17.
3.2. National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power
The highest regulation level in the hierarchy of regulation in Indonesia is the 1945 Constitution followed by Act, Government Regulation and Presidential Decree, and Ministry/Chairman of BAPETEN. In the lowest level is guide and standard.
A number of regulations regarding the NPP establishment have been prepared as follows:
Act No. 10 Year 2014 on Ratification of International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism;
Act No. 1 Year 2012 on Ratification of Comprehensive Nuclear Test ban Treaty;
Act No. 12 Year 2011 on The Establishment of Legislations;
Act No. 30 Year 2007 on Energy;
Act No. 25 Year 2007 on Investment;
Act No. 17 Year 2007 on National Long Term Development Planning;
Act No. 3 Year 2002 on National Defence;
Act No. 10 Year 1997 on Nuclear Energy;
Act No. 9 Year 1997 on Treaty on South East Asia Nuclear Weapon Free Zone;
Act No. 8 Year 1978 on Ratification of NPT.
Government Regulation (GR):
GR No. 2 Year 2014 on The Licensing of Nuclear Installation and Nuclear Fuel Utilization;
GR No. 61 Year 2013 on Radioactive Waste Management;
GR No. 54 Year 2012 on The Safety and Security of Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Material;
GR No. 46 Year 2009 on Limit of Liability for Nuclear Damages;
GR No. 29 Year 2009 on The Procedures for Determining the Amount, Payment, and Remittance of Payable Non-Tax State Revenues;
GR No. 27 Year 2009 on the Classification and Tariff of Non-Tax State Revenues for the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency;
GR No. 29 Year 2008 on the Licensing on the Utilization of Ionizing Radiation Source and Nuclear Material;
GR No. 33 Year 2007 on the Safety of Ionizing Radiation and the Security of Radioactive Source;
GR No. 43 Year 2006 on Nuclear Reactor Licensing;
GR No. 27 Year 2002 on Radioactive Waste Management;
GR No. 26 Year 2002 on Safety of Radioactive Material Transport;
GR No. 63 Year 2000 on Safety and Health concerning Utilization of Ionizing Radiation;
GR No. 64 Year 2000 on Licensing for Utilizing of Nuclear Energy;
GR No. 20 Year 1994 on Investment.
Presidential Decree No. 74 Year 2012 on Nuclear Damage Liability;
Presidential Decree No. 85 Year 2010 on the Ratification to the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management;
Presidential Decree No. 106 Year 2001 on Ratification of Convention on Nuclear Safety;
Presidential Decree No. 66 Year 1999 on Radiation Risk and Subvention;
Presidential Decree No. 187 Year 1998 on BATAN and BAPETEN Establishment;
Presidential Decree No. 82 Year 1993 on Ratification of Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency
Presidential Decree No. 81 Year 1993 on Ratification of Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident;
Presidential Decree No. 80 Year 1993 on the Ratification to the Amendment of Article VI of the Statue of the International Atomic Energy Agency;
Presidential Decree No. 49 Year 1986 on Ratification of Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.
BAPETEN Chairman Regulation (BCR):
BCR No. 6 Year 2014 on Nuclear Installation Site Evaluation for Meteorology and Hidrology Aspect;
BCR No. 3 Year 2014 on the Preparation of Document of Environmental Impact Assessment in Nuclear Field;
BCR No. 8 Year 2013 on Nuclear Installation Site Evaluation for Seismicity Aspect;
BCR No. 16 Year 2012 on the Clearance Level;
BCR No. 12 Year 2012 on the Implementation of Electronic System in Respect to the Framework of Indonesia National Single Window in the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency;
BCR No. 6 Year 2012 on the Essential System Design for Computer Based Safety in Power Reactor;
BCR No. 3 Year 2012 on the Management of Non-Tax Revenues in the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency;
BCR No. 2 Year 2012 on the Protection Against Internal Hazard other than Fires and Explosions in the Design of Nuclear Power Plants;
BCR No. 1 Year 2012 on the Provision Against Internal Fires and Explosion in the Design of Nuclear Power Plants;
BCR No. 10 Year 2011 on the Management System for Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency;
BCR No. 9 Year 2011 on the Compliance Test for the X-Ray Radiology Diagnostic;
BCR No. 8 Year 2011 on the Radiation Safety in the Uses of X-Ray Radiology Diagnostic and Intervention;
BCR No. 7 Year 2011 on the Design of Emergency Power Supply System for Power Reactor;
BCR No. 4 Year 2011 on the Safeguard System;
BCR No. 3 Year 2011 on the Safety Design of Power Reactor;
BCR No. 6 Year 2010 on the Health Monitoring for Radiological Workers;
BCR No. 4 Year 2010 on the Nuclear Energy Facility and Utilization Activity Management System;
BCR No. 3 Year 2010 on the Design of Handling and Storage System of Nuclear Fuel for Power Reactors;
BCR No. 1 Year 2010 on Nuclear Emergency Responses and Preparedness;
BCR No. 9 Year 2009 on Intervention Exposure from Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material;
BCR No. 7 Year 2009 on Radiation Safety in the Use of Radiography Industry Equipment;
BCR No. 6 Year 2009 on Radiation Safety in the Utilization of Radioactive Materials and X-Ray and X-Ray for Gauging Equipment;
BCR No. 5 Year 2009 on Radiation Safety in the Use of Radioactive Materials for Well Logging;
BCR No 4 Year 2009 on Decommissioning of Nuclear Reactors;
BCR No 3 Year 2009 on Limiting Condition of Operation for Nuclear Power Plants;
BCR No 2 Year 2009 on Design Information Questionnaire for Nuclear Installations;
BCR No 1 Year 2009 on Physical Protection for Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Material;
BCR No 10 Year 2008 on Certification for Personnel of Nuclear Installations;
BCR No 9 Year 2008 on Additional Protocol to State System on Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material;
BCR No 6 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for External Human Induced Events Aspect;
BCR No 5 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Meteorology Aspect;
BCR No 4 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Aspects of Geotechnics and Power Reactor Foundation;
BCR No 3 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Aspects of Determination of Radioactive Material Dispersion in Atmosphere and Aquatic, and Consideration of Population Distribution surrounding the Power Reactor Site vicinity;
BCR No 2 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Volcanic Aspect;
BCR No 1 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Seismicity Aspect;
BCR No 5 Year 2007 on Safety Guidance on Evaluation of Nuclear Reactor Site;
BCR No 2 Year 2005 on System on Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material;
BCR No 05-P /Ka-BAPETEN/I-03 Year 2003 on Guidance for Emergency Preparedness Planning;
BCR No. 04-P/Ka-BAPETEN/I-03 Year 2003 on Guide for Training for Supervisors and Operator of Nuclear Reactors;
BCR No.01-P/Ka-BAPETEN/VI-99 Year 1999 on Guide for Selection of Nuclear Reactor Site;
BCR No.07/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year 1999 on Quality Assurance for Nuclear Installation;
BCR No.04/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year 1999 on Safety Requirements for Transport of Radioactive Material;
BCR No.03/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year 1999 on Safety Provisions for Radioactive Waste Management;
BCR No.02/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year 1999 on Limit Values for Radioactivity in Environment;
BCR No.01/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year 1999 on Working Safety Provision against Radiation.
|||Handbook of Energy and Economic Statistics of Indonesia 2015, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, www.esdm.go.id |
|||Statistic of Indonesia, BPS-Statistics Indonesia, www.bps.go.id |
|||Statistic of Electricity 2014, National Electricity Company, PT PLN, www.pln.co.id|
|||Statistics of Electricity, Directorate General of Electricity, www.djlpe.esdm.go.id |
|||Nuclear Regulations and Legislations, www.bapeten.go.id |
|||About Batan, http://www.batan.go.id/index.php/id/|
|||Self-Evaluation of The Status of Indonesia Nuclear Infrastructure Development Report, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan), Jakarta, October 2009|
|||Blueprint of Human Resources Development for Nuclear Power Program 2012-2025, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta, December 2010 (in Bahasa).|
|||Blueprint of Experimental Power Reactor 2014-2020 rev0, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan), Jakarta, March 2014 (in Bahasa).|
|||White Paper of Nuclear Power Plant 5000 MW in Indonesia – Draft, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta, 2015 (in Bahasa).|
|||Feasibility Study Report of Bangka NPP, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan), Jakarta, December 2013.|
Appendix 1: International, Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements
Convention and Treaty
|ADOPTED /ENTRY INTO FORCE||SIGNED /RATIFIED|
|1.||Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency||Open Signature: 26 October 1956||Ratified through Act No. 25 year 1957 on July 22, 1957||Act No. 25 year 1957 on the Agreement of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia on the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency|
|2.||Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nation, 1946|| ||Ratified through Presidential Decree No. 51 year 1969 on July 24, 1969||Presidential Decree No. 51 year 1969 on the Ratification on the Convention on Privileges and Immunities|
| ||Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies, 1947|| || || |
| ||Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency|| || || |
|3.||An Amendment of Article VI of the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency|| ||Ratified through Act No. 2 year 1973 on January 12, 1973||Act No. 2 year 1973 on The Agreement of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia to the Amendment of Article VI of the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency|
|Non –proliferation |
|4.||Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||Adopted: 12 June 1968 Entered into force: 5 March 1970||Ratified through Act No. 8 year 1978 on December 18, 1978||Act No. 8 year 1978 on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons|
|4.a.||Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of the Safeguards on Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.|| || || |
|4.b. ||Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons|| ||Ratified on October 29, 1999|| |
|5. ||Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty Bangkok)||Adopted: 15 December 1995 Entered into force: 27 March 1997||Ratified through Act No. 9 year 1997|| |
|Nuclear Security |
|6.||Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||Adopted: 3 March 1980 Entered into force: 8 February 1987||Ratified through Presidential Decree No.49 year 1986|| |
|6.a.||Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||Adopted: 8 July 2005. Entered into force: not yet|| ||Currently in an inter-departmental review process|
|7.||Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty||Adopted: 10 September 1996. Entered into force: not yet||Signature : 10 September 1996||In order for this treaty to be effective, Indonesia as one of the 44 countries has to ratify this treaty. However, until recently it has not been ratified.|
|Nuclear Safety and Emergency Response |
|8.||Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||Adopted: 26 September 1986 Entered into force: 27 October 1986||Ratified through Presidential Decree No. 81 year 1993|| |
|9.||Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||Adopted: September 26, 1986. Entered into force: February 26, 1987||Ratified through Presidential Decree No. 82 year 1993|| |
|10.||Convention on Nuclear Safety||Adopted: June 17, 1994 Entered into force: February 26, 1987||Ratified through Presidential Decree No. 106 year 2001|| |
|11.||Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radio Active Waste Management||Adopted: 5 September 1997 Entered into force: June 18, 2001||Signature : 6 October 1997|| |
|Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage|
|12.||Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||Adopted: 21 May 1963 Entered into force: November 12, 1977|| || |
|13.||Protocol to amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||Adopted: September 12, 1997. Entered into force: 4 October 2003||Signature : 6 October 1997|| |
|14.||Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage||Adopted: September 12, 1997. Entered into force: not yet||Signature : 6 October 1997|| |
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Agreement for Co-operation between The United States of America and The Republic of Indonesia Concerning Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy, a G to G co-operation signed on June 30, 1980.
Protocol Amending the Agreement for Co-operation Between The Government of The United States of America concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed in Jakarta, February 20, 2004 effective until December 31, 2031.
Memorandum of Understanding between BATAN and Westinghouse Electric Corporation on The AP600, signed on October 27, 1989.
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) BATAN-GE Nuclear Energy, USA and Mitsui & Company Limited, signed on November 8, 1990.
Letter of Understanding Batan Participation in SBWR Program, signed on March 27, 1991.
Arrangement between The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and The Indonesian National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) for Co-operation in Nuclear Safety Matters, signed on October 28, 1992.
Arrangement between The Government of The Republic of Indonesia and Government of The United States of America and The IAEA for The Transfer of Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor in Indonesia (Fourth Supply Agreement), signed on January 15, 1993.
Arrangement between The International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning The Transfer of Enriched Uranium for the Fabrication of Targets to the Production of Radioisotopes for Medical Purpose (Project and Supply Agreement), signed on January 15, 1993.
Program Participant Agreement between Westinghouse Electric Corporation and National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN), signed on November 24, 1994.
Program Participant Agreement BATAN-Westinghouse Electric Company signed on November 24, 1994.
Nuclear Power Plant Technology Development Agreement between Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional and General Electric Company, signed on March 24, 1995.
Agreement between General Electric Company and National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia for the on-the-job-Training (OJT) Under the ABWR First-of-a-Kind Engineering (FOAKE) Program, signed on April 11, 1995.
Nuclear Power Plant Technology Development Agreement between Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional and General Electric Company, signed on April 13, 1995.
Agreement for Joint Study on the Application of an Advance Boiling Water Reactor in The Republic of Indonesia between BATAN (National Atomic Energy Agency) and The General Electric Company in Co-operation with Hitachi, Ltd, Mitsui & Co., Ltd and Toshiba Corporation, signed on Augusts 16, 1996.
Contract No. DE-G109-99-Sr18920 between the United States Departement of Energy Savannah River Operation Office and National Atomic Energy Agency Centre for Multipurpose Reactor Republic of Indonesia Terms and Conditions for the Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Savannah River Site. signed on December 14, 1998
Agreement between Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of Australia Concerning Co-operation in Nuclear Science and Technology, signed on November 11, 1997.
Memorandum of Understanding between The Government of The Republic Indonesia and The Government of Australia relating to the Nuclear Technical Assistance Project in Indonesia, signed on February 19, 1988.
Safeguards-in-Confidence Proposed Collaboration on the Further Development of Remote Monitoring Techniques in Support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), signed on Augusts 4, 1998.
Agreement between The Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of Australia for Co-operation in Science Research and Technological Development, signed on July 11, 2005.
MOU by and between National Nuclear Energy Agency (Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional) and PT. Jawa Energy and Resources regarding Uranium Exsploration in Kotabaru – Ransa, Kalimantan, signed on May 15, 2006
“Memorandum of Understanding Between The National Nuclear Energy agency and The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization on Co-operative Program in Nuclear Science and Technology, signed on December 15, 2010
Agreement between The Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of Canada Concerning the Peaceful Uses of The Nuclear Energy, a G to G co-operation signed on July 12, 1982.
Memorandum of Agreement between National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) and The Atomic Control Board of Canada, signed on November 14, 1994.
Memorandum of Agreement between Atomic of Canada Limited (AECL) and National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN), signed on November 21, 1995.
Technical Co-operation Agreement between National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) and Atomic Energy Agency of Canada Limited/Energie Atomique Du Canada Limitee, signed on January 17, 1996.
Administrative Arrangement between The Indonesia Atomic Energy Agency and Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada for Technical Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters, signed on January 17, 1996.
Design Attachment Letter of Understanding BATAN-AECL for the Purposes of Familiarization with the Design of Canada, signed on December 7, 1998.
“Computer Code Licensing Agreement between AECL and BATAN ” Transfer of Cathena Code to BATAN, signed on June 11, 1999.
Agreement between The Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of The Federal Republic of Germany on Co-operation Regarding the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, a G to G co-operation signed on July 14, 1976.
Agreement between Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional and Kernforschungsanlage Julich Gmbh, signed on January 22, 1987.
Memorandum of Understanding BATAN-Siemens AG, signed on Augusts 18, 1992.
Agreement between The Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional and Rhecommisariat a L’energie Atomique Concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in the Field of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes, a G to G co-operation signed on April 2, 1980.
Memorandum of Understanding BATAN/SGN, signed on April 4, 1996. Memorandum of Understanding Between the National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia and La Socite Generale Pour Les Techniques Nouvelles (Identify Issues and the Creation of the Joint Venture), signed on April 4, 1996
Memorandum of Understanding between The National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) and DCNS on Strengthening Co-operative Relationship in Order to Support Introduction of Indonesian NPP Program and Summer Flexblue System, signed on Pebruary 12, 2014
Agreement between The Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of The Republic of Italy on Co-operation Regarding the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, a G to G co-operation signed on March 17, 1980.
First Arrangement between Batan and CNEN on Implementation of the Agreement between the Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of The Republic of Italy on Co-operation Regarding The Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed on October 9, 1980
Memorandum Of Understanding Between Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional and Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA), signed on July 3, 1987
Agreement between The Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of The Italian Republic on Scientific and Technological Co-operation”, signed on October 20, 1997
Agreement between The Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of Japan on Scientific and Technological Co-operation, signed on January 12, 1980.
Agreement between MITSUI & Co. Ltd., Japan and National Atomic Energy of Indonesia regarding the Participation of BATAN on the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Program, signed on March 27, 1991.
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) Muria Consortium (MURIA) and PT. Citacinas, signed on March 13, 2000 in Jakarta.
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Batan and Mitsubishi for a Joint Study On 1000 MWe Class PWR, signed on November 21, 1997.
Arrangement on Collaborative Research in Neutron Science and Technology between the Centre for Research and Development of Materials Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (P3IB-BATAN) Indonesia and the Neutron Science Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KENS-KEK), Japan, signed on June 12, 2003
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between BATAN and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. on Strengthening Co-operation Relationship through Exchange of Information for the Successful Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, signed on July 14, 2006.
Arrangement between the National Nuclear Energy Agency, Indonesia and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed on May 25, 2007
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan on Co-operation in the Promotion of Nuclear Power Development, signed on November 22, 2007
Memorandum of Understanding between Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional and Mitshubishi Heavy Industries, ltd on Strengthening Co-operation Relationship through Exchange of Information for the Successful Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, signed on November 11, 2010 in Jakarta
Amendment to Arrangement between the National Nuclear Energy Agency, Indonesia and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy”, signed on Japan April 11, 2012 & on Indonesia April 17, 2012
Annex IV. Co-operation on Research and Development Regarding High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), signed on July 12, 2014
Memorandum of Understanding between The Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Japan and The Centre of Science and Technology Accelerator, the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Yogyakarta, Indonesia on The Health Applications of Accelerator and Research Reactors, signed on Nopember 10, 2014
Agreement between The Government of The Republic Indonesia and The Government of The Republic of Korea for The Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, a G to G co-operation signed on December 4, 2006 in Jakarta and in the process of ratification by the Government of Indonesia.
Agreement between the National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed on April 7, 1995 in Taejon, Republic of Korea.
Co-operation for 1997/1998 between National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) and Korea Electric Power Corporation, signed on July 11, 1997.
Memorandum of Understanding between the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) of the Republic of Indonesia and the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) of the Republic Korea for the Co-operation on the Nuclear Power Development in Indonesia, signed on February 6, 2004.
“Agreement for Technical Co-operation on Neutron Scattering by Utilization of research Reactors between Centre for Technology of Nuclear Industrial Materials of The National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN) and Neutron Science Division, Basic Science and Technology Department of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)”, signed on 2008
Memorandum of Understanding between the Centre for Accelerator and Material Process Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (PTAPB-BATAN), Indonesia and Research Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (RIRAMS-KIRAMS), Korea on Co-operation on the Development of Cyclotron Technology for Positron Emission Tomography (PET)”, signed on January 2011
“Memorandum of Understanding the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) of the Republic of Indonesia and the Korea Electric Power Co-operation (KEPCO) of the Republic of Korea for Co-operation on the Development of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy”, signed on March 22, 2012
Agreement between The Government of The Republic Indonesia and The Government of The Russian Federation on the Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, a G to G co-operation, signed on December 1, 2006 in Moscow, Russia, and ratified by the Government of Indonesia in 2011
“Memorandum of Understanding between the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) of the Republic of Indonesia and the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan concerning the Development of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy”, signed on 1 November 2012
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of Argentina for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, signed on May 17, 1990
Memorandum of Understanding between The National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia and The Institute of Isotopes Co., Ltd on Co-operation in Gamma Irradiator Development, signed on September 20, 2014
Technical Co-operation with IAEA in the Field of Nuclear Power Development
| Project Number||Title||1st Year of Approval|
|INS/9/012||Nuclear Power Plant Siting||1988|
|INS/9/013||Strengthening Nuclear Safety Infrastructure||1989|
|INS/4/028||Support for the First Nuclear Power Plant||1993|
|INS/9/021||NPP Site Confirmation and Structural Safety||1997|
|INS/0/015||Human Resource Development and Nuclear Technology Support||1999|
|INS/0/016||Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation||2001|
|INS/0/017||Human Resource Development And Nuclear Technology Support||2003|
|INS/4/033||Preparation for a Nuclear Power Plant||2005-2008|
|INS/4/034||Feasibility Study for Nuclear Desalination Plant Construction||2005-2006|
|INS/4/035||Preparation of Regulations, Codes, Guides and Standards for a Nuclear Power Plant||2005-2006|
|INS/0/017||Human Resources Development and Nuclear Technology Support||2005-2006|
|EBP-ASIA-178||Extra Budgetary Program on the Safety of Nuclear installations in South East Asia, Pacific and Far East Asia ||2000-2004|
|INS/4/036||Supporting the Preparation of Regulatory Control for Nuclear Power Plant||2009|
|INS/7/005||Developing a Radioecology and Marine Environment Program in Muria Peninsula||2009|
|INS/4/033||Preparation for a Nuclear Power Plant. Objectives: To enhance national capacity for preparation and introduction of a nuclear power plant (NPP). Field: (4V) Nuclear Power Plant Planning and Pre-Operational Support||2005-2008|
|INS/4/036||Supporting the Preparation of Regulatory Control for Nuclear Power Plants||2009-2011|
|INS/4/037||Supporting a Pre-Feasibility Study on the Introduction of Small and Medium Reactors for Co-generation in Bangka Belitung||2009-2011|
|INS/2/015||Supporting the Development of National Competencies for the Introduction of Nuclear Power||2012-2013|
|INS/9/023||Strengthening Nuclear Safety Regulatory Capacity||2012-2013|
Appendix 2: Main Organizations, Institutions and Companies Involved in Nuclear Power Related Activities
Directorate General for New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation
Jl. Pegangsaan Timur No.1, Menteng, Jakarta 10320
Tel. +62-21-31924546, Fax. +62-21-31924546
Directorate General for Electricity
Jl. H.R Rasuna Said, kav 06 & 07, Blok X2, Kuningan, Jakarta 12950
Tel. +62-21-5225180, Fax. +62-21-5256044
Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional (BATAN)
Jl. Kuningan Barat, Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia
PO Box 4390 Jakarta 12043
Tel. +62-21-5251109, Fax. +62-21-5251110
Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir (BAPETEN)
Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8,
PO. Box 4005 Jakarta 10040 Indonesia
Tel. (021) 6385 8269 - 70, Fax. (021) 6385 8275
Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir (STTN)
Jl. Babarsari POB 6101 YKBB, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia
Tel. +62-274-484085, Fax. +62-274-489715
Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB)
Jl. Tamansari 64, Bandung 40116 Indonesia
Tel/fax. +62-22-250 0935
Campus: Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132
Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering,
University of Gadjah Mada (UGM)
Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta, Indonesia