1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. Country overview
Note: The content of this section, including Tables 1 and 2, has been removed by the IAEA to better focus the report on nuclear power.
1.2. Energy Information
1.2.1. Estimated available energy
TABLE 3. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Estimated available (exploitable) energy sources|
|Total amount in specific units*||8 516||43.54||2 392.9||26.8|
|Total amount in Exajoule (EJ)||0.016||60.110|
* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons; Hydro, Renewable: EJ
Source: Hungarian Office for Mining and Geology
Hungary has estimated coal reserves of more than 10.5 billion tonnes. The bulk of this is lignite, with 5.7 billion tonnes, followed by 3.1 billion tonnes of brown coal and 1.6 billion tonnes of hard coal. The coal found in Hungary has comparatively low calorific value with high ash and sulphur content. Only lignite deposits in the north-east region of Hungary represent profitable and prospective possibility of mining. An important element of coal mining is the rigorous application of environmental protection requirements. Although the major share is used for power generation, a significant amount of coal was used for heating and cooking in households and communal facilities until the early 1990s; since then it has rapidly declined. Domestic production has declined in the last two decades. Hungary produced about 9.553 Mt of coal in 2014 and import is needed. The imports come mostly from the Czech Republic, Poland and Russia. Hungary’s oil and gas reserves are relatively small. Hungary`s uranium resources are limited to those of the Mecsek deposit. Between 1956 and 1997, uranium was mined at the underground Mecsek mine by the Mecsek Ore Mining Company, producing a total of just over 21,000 tU. Until an ore processing plant became operational at the site in 1963, all ore was shipped to the Sillimae metallurgy plant in Estonia. After 1963, uranium concentrates produced at the processing plant were shipped to the Soviet Union. The mine was closed in 1997 due to poor market conditions. Remediation activities began the following year and were completed in 2008. On-going treatment of contaminated water from the mine and tailings ponds results in the collection of about 1 to 3 tU (tonnes of uranium metal) per year. With general price increases since 2003 due to rising demand, uranium exploration and mine development activities were restarted in many countries, including Hungary. In 2009, Wildhorse Energy Limited Australia signed a cooperation agreement with Mecsek-Öko and Mecsek Ore Mining Company (Mecsekérc), Hungarian state-owned companies that were responsible for uranium mining, exploration and rehabilitation activities. The intent of this agreement was to work toward the resumption of uranium mining in the Mecsek Hills. Wildhorse Energy continued exploration activities with the aim of defining a sufficiently large resource base to support commercial mining operations. A Government Resolution published in June, 2012 in the Official Gazette (Magyar Közlöny) gived the task to the minister of national development to examine that state-owned Mecsek-Öko, Mecsekérc, the state-owned Hungarian electricity company MVM and - depending on the stand of MVM - the Hungarian nuclear power plant MVM Paksi Atomeromu Ltd. could participate in a joint venture to be established by Australia's Wildhorse Energy.
Later on the Hungarian Uranium Exploration Plc. was founded in the ownership of Wildhorse Energy Limited Australia, the Mecsekérc Plc., the MVM Plc. and the local government of Kovágószolos to take over the exploration tasks. By the end of 2014 the Hungarian Uranium Exploration Plc. went bankrupt. The liquidation of the Plc. is in process. By the Government Resolution 396/2014. (XII.31.) the Plc. was qualified as a Plc. of strategic significance so that the liquidation procedure could be fulfilled with special consideration. In view of the above the execution of plans for exploration of uranium in Hungary is suspended.
However, the MECSEKÉRC Environmental Protection Public Limited Company was established also as a state-owned company continuing the mine remediation state tasks. This company undertakes the solution and accomplishment of environmental protection, geoscience, technical and geotechnical jobs on the following fields:
Design and implementing of repositories to be developed with mining techniques (e.g. prospecting for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository, gas or LPG storages, pumping energy accumulator power plants);
Prospecting and preparation of interim or final disposal of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the construction of facilities for these purposes;
Planning and fulfillment of the remediation activity for uranium industry in Middle and Central European countries;
Full-scale remediation and land reclamation activity to wind up the consequences of former mining and other environment-harming activities;
Soil mechanical test, control and design of earthworks;
Environmental damage assessment;
Planning, implementing and licensing of environmental damage remediation activities;
Geological, hydrogeological and mineral resource prospecting;
Geological, hydrogeological and soil mechanical planning and carriage tasks related with infrastructural investments (e.g. road and railway construction);
Testing, planning and carriage works for the protection and securing drinking water resources;
Surface and underground solid mineral mining activity, obtaining mining licenses.
1.2.2. Energy Statistics
TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS (Exajoule)
|1990||2000||2007||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||Average annual growth rate (%)
|- Nuclear (electricity)||-||0.141||0.161||0.162||0.169||0.172||0.171||0.172||0.168||0.171||0.173||1.37|
|- Hydro (electricity)||-||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.00|
|- Wind (electricity)||0.000||0.001||0.001||0.002||0.002||0.002||0.003||0.003||0.002||0.002||0.00|
|- Primary electricity (net import)||0.010||0.014||0.014||0.020||0.018||0.024||0.029||0.043||0.048||0.049||11.18|
Renewables and wastes
|Net import (Import - Export)|
|Stock changes (Opening – Closing stock)|
* Latest available data
** Energy consumption = Primary energy production + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy + stock change.
*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite
Source: Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Directorate of Analysis and Statistics
1.2.3. Energy policy
In line with the most recent EU Gas and Electricity Market Directives, all electricity and gas customers can freely select their supplier as of 1 July 2007. An act on electricity (Act LXXXVI of 2007) has been adopted by the Hungarian Parliament. The aim of the act is full liberalization of the electricity market in order to enhance economic competitiveness and provide sustainable security of supply. The Act is harmonized with the requirements of the European Union. The provisions of the Act came into force partly from 15 October 2007 and from 1 January 2008. In the beginning of 2008 the electricity market became fully liberalized. Nevertheless, 2008 was considered a transition period, the players of the market had to adapt to the new rules. Hungarian electricity consumers pay for substantial subsidies to the renewables and combined heat and power (CHP) sectors through levies on their tariffs.
In February 2008, the National Climate Change Strategy for the period of 2008-2025 was adopted by the Hungarian Parliament. The strategy emphasizes the need for increasing energy efficiency, energy savings and the use of renewable energies (wind, solar, geothermic, biomass). It does not mention nuclear energy as part of the concept.
In April 2008, a resolution on a new energy policy concept for the period of 2008-2020 was adopted by the Parliament. The Hungarian energy policy aims at maintaining a balance between security of supply, cost-effectiveness, energy efficiency and protection of the environment. According to the resolution, the Government should start working on the preparation of the decision on new nuclear capacity for the replacement of the old plants and the proposal should be submitted to the Parliament in due time. The Government should create the necessary conditions for the implementation of the programmes aimed at the final disposal of radioactive wastes. The Government should inform the Parliament on the implementation of the energy policy at least every two years and in case of need it should propose the review of the concept.
The Hungarian Energy Strategy was adopted by the Parliament in October 2011. The Energy Strategy gives a roadmap until 2030 and it has a vision until 2050. The main aim of the strategy is to ensure the optimal balance of security of supply, competitiveness and sustainability. The energy import should be decreased by diversification of resources and/or origins. The government considers energy production as a way out of the economic crisis. The main elements of the strategy include the increased use of renewables, maintenance of nuclear capacity (life time extension and consideration of new capacity building), development of regional energy infrastructure, development of a new organizational system as well as the increased effectiveness and efficiency in energy use. The National Energy Strategy can be found on the website of the Ministry of National Development (http://www.kormany.hu/en/ministry-of-national-development). For more information see Section 2.3.1. According to government policy, energy price cuts reached 20% in 2014 for individual customers.
The national development goals and objectives relating to spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste according to the National Policy for the Treatment of Spent Fuels and Radioactive Waste adopted in April 2015 by the Parliament and National Programme for the Treatment of Spent Fuels and Radioactive Waste approved by the Government by the end of 2015 are: development of a national strategy for the back-end of the fuel cycle with due consideration to be given to various options; continuous extension of the Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility in Paks; phased implementation of geological investigation programme of the Boda Claystone Formation aiming at a future deep geological repository; ongoing implementation of the safety enhancement programme at the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility in Püspökszilágy and the extension of the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Bátaapáti and optimization of the disposal concept.
The Act on Atomic Energy (Act CXVI of 1996) was modified to a great extent in 2011. The most important elements of the modification concerned the safety principles and the tasks and activity of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (referred as to: HAEA). The nuclear safety codes have also been modified, with the WENRA reference levels built in. The set of requirements was completed by two new volumes in order to define requirements for all parts of the lifetime of nuclear facilities. The new set of requirements came into force on 1 November 2011.
A modification of the Act in 2013 declares that in all facility-level licensing procedure the HAEA shall arrange public hearings to ensure transparency and openess.
Furthermore from 1 July 2014 the competences of the HAEA has undergone several changes. According to this amendment HAEA took over the task of regulatory oversight of the radioactive waste repositories. The Act also introduced new procedures of licences for site assessment and evaluation, and licenses to define characteristics and to determine the suitability of the site.
The Hungarian Parliament approved the Act VII of 2015 on the modification of the regulations involving the construction of new nuclear power plant units (the 'Project' Act). The Project Act amended the Act on Atomic Energy in several sections. The new provisions (inter alia): extend the competence of the HAEA over the supervision of application of ionising radiation as well as over radioactive waste repositories and the Project Act guarantees that the revenues of the HAEA can only be used for regulatory purpose. The Project Act furthermore transfers the competences to HAEA for radiation protection (safety of radioactive sources, safety of equipment emitting ionizing radiation without radioactive material), personal dose monitoring, environmental monitoring, construction of general civil structures and buildings of nuclear facilities and radioactive waste repositories as of 1st January, 2016. Lower level legislative amendments are to enter into force also on 1st of January, 2016.
From 1 January 2016. HAEA is the general construction supervisory authority for the constructions in the safety zone of nuclear installations and radioactive waste depositories. (HAEA was responsible for the supervision of special nuclear constructions exclusively.)
The modified Act and the new safety codes can be found on the HAEA`s website (www.haea.gov.hu).
After the severe accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), all European countries operating NPP1’s had performed the Targeted Safety Re-assessment (TSR) – the so-called stress test – to meet the request of the European Council. The TSR of Paks NPP focused on topics specified by the ENSREG (the issues corresponding to earthquake and/or flooding and other external natural hazard factors; to the loss of electric power supply and loss of ultimate heat sink or combination of those; and to severe accident management. In relation to the hazard factors it was assessed whether the design basis of the plant was duly determined and whether there were sufficient reserves beyond design base before severe damage occurred). Based on the final report of the Paks NPP submitted to the HAEA for regulatory review, the HAEA agreed with the proposed tasks in the report to be carried out in order to further improve the plant safety and identified a few additional options. Along with the detailed coverage of the topics specified by ENSREG, HAEA also established that the national legal requirements for the safety of NPP1s are in line with the international standards and best practices. HAEA submitted the National Report about the results of the review to the European Commission by the end of 2011 and published it on its website (www.haea.gov.hu). Based on the results of the regulatory review of the TSR, HAEA concluded that the design basis of Paks NPP is adequate, and complies with the legal requirements and international practice. The safety systems and safety functions satisfy requirements of the design base. After the last Periodic Safety Review of Paks NPP, specific safety enhancement measures had been implemented, mainly in order to improve the plant’s beyond design basis capabilities. These measures are fully in line with expectations of the TSR as well. It can be concluded that Paks NPP is safe and no deficiency has occurred to draw the adequacy of its design basis into question or require any urgent regulatory intervention. The measures initiated by the last Periodic Safety Review provide robust capabilities for the plant for successful management of severe situations, as well. In addition to the positive findings, the TSR identified a number of options and measures to enhance plant safety even further. The HAEA ordered the operator of the plant to elaborate the detailed programme by the end of the first half of 2012 in order to realize these options.
The National Action Plan of Hungary on the implementation actions decided upon the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident was adopted in December, 2012. The National Action Plan has been prepared in accordance with the recommendations of ENSREG (see ENSREG website). The implementation of the National Action Plan is currently in progress.
As of 31st December, 2015 the status of the National Action Plan at the Paks NPP on the implementation actions decided upon lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi accident is the following: out of 46 tasks 19 are ready and closed the HAEA, 5 are ready and under review by HAEA, 22 tasks are still ongoing.
1.3. The electricity system
1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process
The reform of the electricity industry started in 1994-95, when Act XLVIII of 1994 on Production, Transportation and Supply of Electricity was elaborated and came into force. The Hungarian Energy Office (at present: Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority) was established in 1994. The privatization of the electricity sector began and took place in several phases. At present, the majority of power stations and 100% of the electricity suppliers (the grid and the distributors) are privately owned.
In Hungary, the electricity policy is an integrated part of the energy policy. The most important document upon which the Hungarian electricity market liberalization was founded was entitled “Principles of Hungarian Energy Policy and a New Business Model”. It was adopted by the Government in 1999 (Government Resolution 2199/1999).
Hungary became a member-state of the European Union in 2004 and that needed further harmonisation of the Hungarian legal framework with EU legislation. An important step of the harmonization was the adoption of a new Act on Electricity (Act LXXXVI of 2007) which had been adopted by the Parliament in 2007. The harmonization and the electricity policy objectives were reflected in the Act. The aim of the Act is the effective operation of the competitive electricity market. Access to the electricity grid is guaranteed at regulated prices. Transmission, distribution and system operation tariffs are set and published by the Minister of National Development. New capacities are established on a commercial basis through an authorization process. The new Act regulates the rules of full market opening, entered into force in 2008.
The energy market was fully opened on 1 January 2008. To supply the vulnerable consumers, universal service supplier licences were issued in addition to the licence types previously in use. In parallel with the abolition of public utility supply, the licence for public utility wholesale was also abolished. The European Committee investigated the compatibility of long term contracts with the competitive market, the contracts of which aimed to prepare the privatization in the single buyer model. In decision No. C-41/2005, published on 4 June 2008, the Committee stated that the contracts implied prohibited state subsidy and ordered to terminate them and to repay the prohibited state subsidy. Thereby, the system of long term contracts ceased to be in force at the end of 2008. Due to the lack of generation sources in the region and the high oil prices, the full market opening resulted in a non-expected price rise on the domestic market. The Electricity Act was again amended in June 2008 to ensure an “intervention possibility” in determining the prices. Based thereon and after identifying the participants with considerable market power, the Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority ordered MVM Trade Ltd. and GTER Ltd. to apply electricity price caps. The universal service category includes the household consumers and (former public utility) low voltage consumers with nominal current not greater than 3×63 A. In this circle, authority (regulated) pricing continues to exist. The competitive market consumers have to purchase the power from the traders and have to sign a network use contract with the network licence holder competent in the relevant area. Authority pricing now concerns only the system use charges, the prices of electricity traders are set by the competitive market. However, network access is ensured for each market participant. In connection with public consumers on December 15, 2012 the Ministry of National Development issued a decree stipulating price reductions in electricity, a cut-off of 10 % as of 1 January 2013. The relevant laws are available on the website of the Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority. (www.mekh.hu )
The responsibility of the reliable, efficient and environment-friendly energy supply for Hungary belongs to the Ministry of National Development (www.nfm.gov.hu), established in 2010. Directly under the top political level, energy issues are handled by the Minister of State for Energy Affairs. Development, competitiveness, security and sustainability are the key words directing the activity of the ministry.
The Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority (MEKH) (www.mekh.hu) is currently responsible for licensing energy suppliers, supervising the balance of demand and production as well as the standards of service provision, and protecting consumer interests. Pursuant to Section XIX of the Act on Electricity (Act LXXXVI of 2007), the Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority is an independent governmental office with separate and independent financial management. The MEKH is self-financing. Licencees are charged a supervisory and administration fee for their activities. Following a proposal by the Ministry of National Development, the Prime Minister appoints and relieves the MEKH president. MEKH resolutions can only be appealed and amended in court. The goal of MEKH is to ensure the market operation, to promote the competition and to effectuate the efficiency requirements and principle of least cost, to sustain and improve security of supply and to protect the interests of users and licence holders as well as to regulate the prices in order to guarantee fair competition.
The Ministry for Agriculture (FM – http://www.kormany.hu/hu/foldmuvelesugyi-miniszterium ) is responsible for environmental issues. The task of the State Secretariat for Environmental Affairs within the Ministry is promotion of sustainable development, the preservation of air, water and soil quality and the protection of natural assets. In the area of waste management, the Ministry has the aim of reducing pollution and to aid the recycling and up-to-date treatment of the volume of waste produced.
According to the legislation in force, the approval of the Government or the Parliament is needed for the establishment of power plants above 200 MW capacity. Between 200 and 600 MW capacity, it is the right of the Government to give the approval, while above 600 MW capacity, the Parliament has to approve it. Any nuclear installation, including power and research reactors, should be approved by the Parliament independently of their capacity. In 2009 the Parliament authorized the government to start preparations for new nuclear units to be built at the Paks site.
1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector
In the last decade, Hungary made substantial progress in restructuring its electricity sector and creating a market-oriented, fully EU-conforming regulatory framework. Today, the power industry is restructured and mainly privatized. Its prices cover costs.
Figure 1 shows the simplified model of the Hungarian electricity industry.
FIG 1. Hungarian electricity industry
MVM Hungarian Electricity Ltd. (MVM Ltd.) (http://www.mvm.hu/en/Lapok/default.aspx) controls a group of companies (the MVM Group) and is a key player in the domestic electricity and natural gas industries. MVM Ltd. is an integrated, strong, successful and nationally owned company. As a holding, MVM Ltd. basically performs the strategic management and control of the business organisations in its ownership, the companies comprising the MVM Group. The members of the Group cover almost all areas of the vertical structure of the electricity industry from electricity generation to the areas of transmission and system operation and to electricity trade. The MVM Group plays an active part in power generation as well. The Paks Nuclear Power Plant primarily has a crucial share in domestic power generation and therefore ensures a favourable price for electric energy. The Group has invested great efforts to create a firm basis for future growth, emphatic elements of which are the extension by twenty years of the service life of the units of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant and the maintenance of their capacity.
In order to prepare the planned new units, it established its new project company, MVM Paks II. Nuclear Power Plant Development Ltd. (MVM Paks II. Ltd. or project company) in 2012. Due to change of ownership in November 2014 (with the aim of shortening the decision-making mechanism), the project company MVM Paks II. Ltd. does not belong to the MVM Group anymore. It came under direct state control since the Prime Minister’s Office obtained the owner’s rights until the end of 2026.
FIG 2. The structure of the MVM Group
Companies operating power plants of 50 MW or higher capacity:
There are 200 companies operating 314 (small) power plants under 50 MW capacity.
The management-type tasks do not cover activities subject to a licence (electricity generation, system operation, electricity and natural gas trade, transmission and storage, as well as activities related to nuclear safety). On the basis of certification included in the Decision of the Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority dated 13 March 2012, MAVIR is operating in accordance with ITO model.
There are six privatised regional distribution companies responsible for operation of networks with a voltage of 120 kV and below, as well as supply for the customers.
The installed capacity of domestic power plants on 31 December 2015 was 8 453 MWe. Compared to the value of 31 December 2014 (8 419) it decreased slightly by 34 MWe . The peak load of the Hungarian electricity system was 6 457 MW in 2015 which means also a slight decrease of 4 MW compared to 2014 (6 461 MW). Though the increase in energy efficiency may help to reduce the rate of increase of primer energy consumption, it is still probable that the electricity demand will increase after overcoming the world crisis. The capacity expansion needed until 2030 will be between 600 and 2 600 MW. Taking into account the necessary closure of old fossil power plants new capacity between 6 000 and 8 000 MW is needed until 2030.
The capacity structure of the Hungarian electricity system is presently well balanced, with about 14% gas, 53 % nuclear, 20% coal, and an increasing ratio of renewables. The electricity production from renewable energy sources is growing in accordance with the EU directive on green electricity. In 2014, renewable based electricity production made up a share of 7.28% of total electricity production.
The Hungarian energy supply is around 60% import dependent, therefore its security is a crucial priority of the National Energy Strategy. The safe, successful and profitable operation of the state owned Paks NPP greatly contributes to meet this challenge. The obligatory stockpiling of nuclear fuel for two years is also an essential element in ensuring the stability of supply in case of any disturbances in import.
1.3.3. Main indicators
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|- other renewable***||0.01||0.02||0.36||0.52||0.5||0.29||0.3||0.364||0.278||19.18|
|Electricity production (TWh)|
|- other renewable***||0.02||0.07||1.66||2.3||1.86||1.66||1.86||1.86||2.22||25.92|
|- Total (1)||14.5||23.9||28.44||35.2||35.75||37.37||35.99||34.58||34.59||30.27||30.29||-1.00|
|Total Electricity consumption (TWh)****||17.94||31.3||39.58||38.63||41.98||42.57||42.63||42.55||42.2||42.15||43.98||0.87|
(1) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
* Latest available data
** Only fossil fuel, and non renewable municipal waste and industrial waste
*** Renewable combustible fuel; solar
**** Gross production + imp - export
Source: Hungarian Power Companies Ltd.
Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority (only data for 2015)
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||116||103||106||109||96|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)||3 817||3 500||4 695||4 787||5 815|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||14.4||27.0||34.1||35.7||30.2|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||48.1||40.3||43.0||42.1||50.7||53.6||52.7|
|Ratio of external dependency (%) (1)||47.34||54.0||62.0||57.51||N/D|
(1) Net import / Total energy consumption.
* Latest available data
Source: Hungarian Statistical Office
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical development and current organizational structure
The first Hungarian reactor was built for research purposes at Csillebérc, on the outskirts of Budapest in 1959. The reactor, of Soviet origin and refurbished by Hungarian experts after 30 years of operation, was put into operation again by the Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1993. The Budapest Research Reactor is a tank type reactor with a 10 MWth power and is operated by the Centre for Energy Research of HAS.
The Nuclear Training Reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Techniques (NTI) of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME) was put into operation in 1971. Since then, the training reactor has been used for the purposes of education in the nuclear field. It is a pool type reactor with 100 kWth power.
In 1966, it was decided to construct a NPP in Hungary. The decision included two VVER-440 type, 230 model reactors. The construction work started in 1968, but it was interrupted in 1970 because, at that time, the oil-fired stations were considered to be more economic. The actual construction work started after the oil crisis in 1975. The final decision included four second generation reactors, i.e. VVER-440/213, instead of the two 230 model reactors, all to be part of one NPP. The plant is located about 5 km south of the town Paks, on the right bank of the river Danube. Since 1987, these four reactors have been generating electricity for the Hungarian electric energy system. The original installed capacity of the reactors was 4 times 440 MWe. Earlier upgrades of the secondary circuit and turbine resulted in an uprated 470 MWe, with an unchanged thermal capacity at all four units. An upgrade of the primary side was decided to increase the nominal power by 8% to 1485 MWth, resulting in about 500 MWe generated power per unit. The power uprate was completed in 2009. Based on the application of the operator, HAEA granted 20 years service life extention for Unit 1, and in November 2014 for Unit 2.
Hungary’s national policy concerning the application of atomic energy is regulated by law. The basic purposes of Act CXVI of 1996 are those of protecting health and safety of the population and protecting the environment. The requirements of the Act state that the use of atomic energy is allowed only in a manner provided by law and under the permanent control of the competent authority. Regardless of what aspect of atomic energy is being considered, safety is a priority.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)
MVM Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd.; (www.npp.hu) (It has four VVERs-440/213 type power reactors.)
MVM Paks II. Nuclear Power Plant Development Plc. (http://www.mvmpaks2.hu) The goal of the Company is to continue performing at a high professional standard the tasks involved in the preparation of the establishment of new nuclear power plant units.
Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management (PURAM) (http://www.rhk.hu/en). It operates the Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility at Paks and the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility at Püspökszilágy that manages low and intermediate level waste generated by medical, industrial and research applications. It also operates the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Bátaapáti dealing with low and intermediate level waste generated in the Paks NPP.
Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research (www.energia.mta.hu) It operates the Budapest Research Reactor.
Institute of Nuclear Techniques of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (www.reak.bme.hu). It operates the BME Training Reactor.
Governmental organizations with responsibility in nuclear field:
The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) (www.haea.gov.hu) is a public administration body acting in the field of peaceful applications of atomic energy with a specified scope of tasks and authority, being independent from both organizational and financial points of view. Establishing the regulatory duties in connection with the safety of the peaceful application of nuclear energy, particularly with the safety of nuclear facilities under normal and accidental conditions and with nuclear emergencies is a basic task of the HAEA. In addition, the HAEA is required to harmonize and handle the related public information activities. Acting independently and supervised by a minister appointed by the Prime Minister, the HAEA is primarily concerned with ensuring nuclear safety in accordance with the law. From 2010, the Minister of National Development is responsible for the supervision of the HAEA`s activity. The Director General of the HAEA is appointed and relieved by the Prime Minister. The HAEA resolutions can only be appealed and amended in court.
The Ministry of Human Capacities undertakes the tasks of the authority regarding issues related to radiation protection during medical irradiations.
Within the Ministry of Agriculture the State Secretariat for Environmental Affairs, Agricultural Development and Trademarks is responsible for establishing air and water quality standards, limits in radioactive releases from nuclear facilities, as well as for controlling the emissions at the facilities to the environment.
The HAS Centre for Energy Research was established in January 2012 on the basis of two former independent institutions, the Institute of Isotopes and the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute. The Centre is part of the a research network of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS). The website of the new organization can be found as www.energia.mta.hu.
The center operates the 10 MWth Budapest Research Reactor. It is active in several fields of nuclear technology, such as reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, health physics, simulator techniques, reactor chemistry. It performs a wide variety of research related to the use of radioactive materials and nuclear techniques, among them a research and development programme for nuclear safeguards. They provide the expert support and the laboratory backgrounds for the HAEA.
The Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI, Debrecen) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences operates a 20 MeV cyclotron and a 5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator, and is active on several fields of nuclear physics and nuclear techniques. (Homepage: www.atomki.hu)
The National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene (OSSKI, Budapest) performs a wide spectrum of research including the biological effects of radiation and radioisotopes, radiohygiene (operational and environmental), sterilization, detoxification, etc. Please note: as of 3 April, 2015 the Institute merged with National Public Health Centre (Országos Közegészségügyi Központ). (Homepage: www.osski.hu)
The Nuclear Research Safety Institute (NUBIKI, Budapest) carries out safety analysis and risk assessment of nuclear power plants including level 1 and 2 PSA and severe accident analysis. (homepage: www.nubiki.hu).
The Institute of Nuclear Techniques of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME NTI) operates a training reactor, teaches nuclear technology for engineers, physicists, chemists and environmentalists, and performs research in different nuclear related topics. (homepage: www.reak.bme.hu)
The Power Engineering and Contractor Co., Poyri Eroterv Co. (before 2010: ETV-EROTERV Co., Budapest) works in the field of design, construction, commissioning and operating management of nuclear facilities. Its activities include waste management (treatment, storage and disposal). (homepage: http://www.poyry.hu/ )
The Institute of Experimental Physics of the University of Debrecen is operating the Laboratory for Nuclear Safety and Techniques, NUBITEL (http://falcon.phys.klte.hu/kisfiz/) and the Quantechnologies Research and Development Co. (http://www.quantec.hu/). The following main fields represent their areas of operation: in-situ alpha-, beta-, gamma-activity measurements in NPPs (primary circuit, refueling-, storage- and technical ponds); exploration and handling of nuclear wastes; detection of radioactivity in the environment (NORM/TENORM), under-water gamma-spectrometry; data evaluation and trend analysis; education and training in applied nuclear physics.
The Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University of Debrecen (DE NMI) (http://www.pet.dote.hu/ ) operates a GE PETtrace cyclotron and a radiochemistry center, develops and produces positron-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for medical and research purposes. The department takes part in various IAEA training programs.
The Institute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology at University of Pannonia has a wide range of topics in research and education in two main fields: radiochemistry and nuclear technology as well as radioecology and radiation protection (http://radio.mk.uni-pannon.hu/)
2.2. Nuclear power plants: Overview
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
Taking into account the energy situation in Hungary the operation of the only NPP is crucial. The design lifetime of the VVER-440/213 Units at Paks is 30 years; the operational licence is formally limited in time by the planned operational lifetime. As in other countries, the current Hungarian legislation for nuclear energy allows the renewal of the operation licence, if the safety of the continuation of the operation can be demonstrated, and the renewal is approved by the responsible authorities.
TABLE 7. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table 7 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
There are no NPP suppliers in the country, the main components of the Paks NPP were made abroad. (i.e. in Russia and the Czech Republic). The main constructor was AEE (Atomenergoexport) and the main architect ERBE-EROTERV (Hungary). The manufacture of many components of the Russian-designed VVERs was done in the former COMECON countries under a multilateral agreement.
The Paks NPP generated 15 834 GWh of electric energy in 2015, which represents 52.7 % of the gross domestic electricity production of HungaryThis amount was generated by four Units as follows: Unit 1: 3 624.3 GWh; Unit 2: 4 415.9 GWh; Unit 3: 4 023.5 GWh; Unit 4: 4 70.6 GWh. As far as the amount of the produced energy is concerned, 2015 is considered an outstanding year, because the largest production result was achieved in the history of the power plant. The total of all electricity that has been generated by Paks NPP since the date of the first connection of Unit 1 to the grid was higher than 429.5 TWh as of the end of 2015.
FIG 3. Map of Hungary indicating the location of Paks NPP
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
The Paks NPP consists of four VVER-440/213 type reactor units, originally designed to produce 1375 MWth and 440 MWe each. Earlier upgrades of the secondary circuit and turbine increased the electrical output to about 470 MWe in each unit, with no change to thermal capacity. Recently an upgrade of the primary side has been completed that increased the nominal power by 8% to 1485 MWth, resulting in about 500 MWe of power generation by each unit. The power increase is primarily reached by refined primary pressure regulation, a core control system upgrade and the use of a new type of fuel assembly. Additional modifications have been performed in certain technological components, e.g. replacing some of the MCP impellers and decreasing the initiating pressure value of the hydro-accumulators. By the end of 2009, the uprating process was completed successfully on all four units and 2010 was the first year they operated at the increased power level.
In order to enhance its economic and operational efficiency and to improve its position in the market, the Paks NPP has begun an Economical Efficiency Enhancement Programme (EEP), the principal elements of which are enhancing human resources efficiency, power uprating, optimizing maintenance and initiating service life extension.
At the end of 2008 Paks NPP submitted a Lifetime-extension programme to HAEA to justify the establishment of the operating conditions and safe operation beyond the designed lifetime. HAEA evaluated the programme and ordered the licensee to implement the programme with certain conditions. The technical preparation activities covered the determination of the ageing effects and ageing processes requiring treatment, the status of the systems, structures and components, the evaluation of the existing aging management programmes, and if necessary, the amendment or development of new programmes. HAEA regularly reviews and evaluates the progress reports of the Lifetime-extension programme. In December 2011 in compliance with the legal requirements, Paks NPP submitted the beyond designed lifetime licence application of Unit 1, one year before the expiration of its licensed operating time. By the end of 2012 HAEA evaluated the licence application and the additional information and made a decision on the extension. On the basis of the review of the approximately 30,000 page long licence application, the HAEA stated, that nuclear safety requirements are fulfilled and the safe operation is ensured. The HAEA granted the operational licence of Unit 1 for the next 20 years, subjected to the periodic safety assessment of the unit. In November 2013 Paks NPP submitted the beyond designed lifetime license application of Unit 2, and obtained the license in November, 2014. In December 2015 the NPP submitted its request about the authorisation of the lifetime-extension of Unit 3.
In December 2015 the HAEA has issued its licence to introducing the 15-month operation interval at Units 1-4 of Paks NPP , and as a preliminary measure, to the implementation a new type of fuel assembly with the mean enrichment of 4.7 percent.
2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The construction of new units at the Paks site has been proposed in order to meet future electricity demand.
Under Hungary's Atomic Energy Act, the government needs to obtain a decision-in-principle from the Parliament in order to start any preparatory activity that could lead to the construction of a new nuclear installation. On 30 March 2009, members of the Hungarian Parliament gave their decision-in-principle with more than 90% of the votes in support of it.
After this, the preparation for the construction of the new units was started. The activities included preparations for obtaining environmental and site licence. A survey was also initiated to determine the possible suppliers for the construction of the new units and the demand for the necessary man-power.
In 2012 the Board of the MVM Ltd. took a decision to establish a company to continue the tasks. The company is called MVM Paks II, Nuclear Power Plant Development Ltd. (MVM Paks II. Ltd.). The tasks of the MVM Paks II. Ltd. include the examination of all essential aspects of the construction in order to prepare the Project for the further decision-making procedures on the construction of the new units at the Paks site.
Update of the nuclear safety regulation
The HAEA has started the preparations for the licensing of the new units by reviewing four important areas including regulatory requirements, licensing framework, technological and safety characteristics of possible new units and international framework. The most important goal of HAEA is to adopt the strictest requirements set by the latest results of science and technology. As part of the review process the representatives of the nuclear industry, the HAEA and the Hungarian National Standard Committee agreed on the promulgation of a series of international standards specific to NPP’s to cover the necessary technical fields on which Hungarian National Standards were not available. The first series of standards covering the principles of instrumentation, control room and emergency control room design, safety parameter displaying, detection of leakages and loose parts in primary circuit, neutron flux monitoring, radiation monitoring and alarming were published as Hungarian National Standards in January 2011.
According to the Act on Atomic Energy, the safety requirements of use of nuclear energy shall be regularly reviewed and modernized taking into account the achievements of sciences and international experience. Government Decree 89/2005. (V. 5.) describes that the Nuclear Safety Code shall be reviewed and updated if necessary at least every five years. As a result of the review, the Government Decree 118/2011. (VII. 11.) on nuclear safety requirements of the nuclear facilities and on the related legal activities was issued and came into force on August 10, 2011. The reviewed Nuclear Safety Code was published as annexes of the Government Decree.
Recently the requirements related to the new nuclear facilities have been elaborated (Volume 9. of Nuclear Safety Code) and the extended set of regulations came into force on 1 April, 2012 by Government Decree 37/2012 (III. 9.).
Based on the nuclear safety codes in the field of nuclear safety, it is mandatory to present an independent technical expert’s opinion to the licence applications for plant modifications. The registration and evaluation process of these technical experts is prescribed in the Atomic Energy Act (Act CXVI of 1996) and its implementation decree (Government Decree 247/2011).
Comprehensive modification to the Nuclear Safety Code was elaborated in the second half of 2014, which covered on one hand the results of the revision of the Western European Nuclear Regulators’ Association (WENRA) requirements, and also the results of other countries’ NPP construction experience, relevant Finnish and British regulations and also the Hungarian licencing experience.
22.214.171.124. Establishment of the contractual and legal framework of the new-build project
In January 2014, the Hungarian Government signed a bilateral agreement (Intergovernmental Agreement, IGA) with the Russian Federation about the cooperation in the field of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. The agreement was promulgated in the Act II of 2014. The agreement covers – among others – the cooperation neccesary for replacing the capacity of the Paks NPP, which means the planning and construction of two new nuclear units at the Paks site. In accordance with the IGA, on 28 March 2014, the Government of Hungary and the Government of the Russian Federation signed an agreement on the provision of a state credit (Financial IGA, FIGA) of maximum EUR 10 billion to Hungary for financing 80% of the project (for funding details see section 2.3.2.). This agreement was promulgated in the Act XXIV of 2014. As promulgated acts, these agreements (IGA, FIGA) are available in their full scope to the public.
A government commissioner was also assigned by 1358/2014. (VI. 30.) Government Resolution to supervise and support the project from 1st of July 2014. Since November 2014, the MVM Paks II. Ltd. is in direct state ownership and is controlled by the Minister leading Prime Minister’s Office.
After the negotiations in the second half of 2014, MVM Paks II Ltd. and the Russian Joint-Stock Company Nizhny Novgorod Engineering Company Atomenergoproekt (JSC-NIAEP) signed three implementation agreements on 9th December 2014. These agreements include (1) the engineering, procurement and construction contract (EPC) for two VVER-1200 type new nuclear units, (2) operation and maintenance support contract and (3) nuclear fuel supply contract.
With the intergovernmental agreements and the implementation agreements, the project’s fundamental elements, its contractual framework was established.
Also in 2014, the Hungarian nuclear licensing regulatory framework was revisited, modernized and made fit for the instant licencing procedures. As a result, Act VII of 2015 was adopted by the Hungarian Parliament and the licensing and investment environment of the project was successfully created. The new rules include an extension of the staff and the remuneration of the main licensing authority (Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority, HAEA) and increase the timeframe available for the HAEA to evaluate the construction licensing documentation from 6 months to 18+3 or 12+12+3 months.
126.96.36.199. Ongoing licensing and pre-construction works
The preparations for construction of the new units are coordinated by MVM Paks II. Ltd and the Government Commissioner of the project.
Site investigation and evaluation
As said before, the units will be built on the site of the Paks nuclear power plant currently in operation. Despite of the in-depth knowledge of site (which is the most explored and best-known geological area of Hungary) the project company decided to conduct a thorough site investigation and evaluation program to double-check whether the most up-to-date geological exploratory methods confirm the suitability of the site to host two new units and in order to check the site-specific data necessary for the design of the plant. In 2014, the MVM Paks II project company obtained the site investigation and evaluation license from HAEA, which enables the execution of the site investigation programme. In the autumn of 2014, extensive 3D seismic exploration was carried out on a territory of 300km2 around the site. Until the end of 2015, several deep drilling activities were performed or were in progress and several shallow boreholes were drilled outside the site for the identification of the geology and the tectonics of the area. Further, several other geological mapping, other geophysical, geotechnical and hydrogeological research is already going on or is envisaged for 2016 on the site itself and/or its surrounding.
In 2012, the preliminary consultation document (PCD) was sent to 30 European countries. Based on this, 11 countries have registered their intention to participate in the environmental licensing procedure (according to the Espoo Convention) of the two new units. In addition, more than 10 Hungarian non-governmental green organisations have been registered in order to participate in the procedure as a party. The environmental licensing procedure was initiated at the end of 2014 with the submission of the more than 2000 pages long environmental impact assessment study (available also in English here:
In the spring of 2015, an information forum series was held in 41 settlements in and around the city of Paks with the objective to draw the attention of the public to the environmental licensing procedure and the request them to submit their comments on the environmental impact assessment of the new nuclear units. On 7th May, a public hearing was held in Paks with roughly 600 participants. To meet the request of the participating countries, 9 international hearings in 7 interested countries (Austria, Croatia, Germany, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Ukraine) were successfully concluded in September-November 2015. With this, the bulk of the international environmental licensing procedure has been completed until the end of 2015.
The decision of the Hungarian environmental authority about the environmental license is expected to be made in the first half of 2016.
Remaining ongoing pre-construction activities
In 2016 the following licence procedures are planned to be initiated: site licensing, the MEKH (Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority) principal permit procedure and construction licensing.
Complete Table 8.
TABLE 8. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/Project Name||Type||Capacity||Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|Paks 5||VVER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2018||2025|
|Paks 6||VVER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2020||2026|
2.3.2. Project management
The delivery of the new nuclear power plant units will be a turn-key project.
2.3.3. Project funding
According to the Financial IGA, the Hungarian Government can make use of a Russian credit line to cover 80 % of the project costs. The credit line amounts to a maximum of EUR 10 billion. The Hungarian State will finance the remaining 20% of the capital required. This provides capital access certainty for up to EUR 12.5 billion, which is expected to be in excess of construction period capital cost requirements and include contingency funding access. The funding is planned to be provided to the MVM Paks II Ltd. project company through a capital structure that is on market benchmark terms.
Conditions of the credit line available to the Hungarian state as set out in the Financial IGA are as follows:
Disbursement period: 2014-2025
Loan amount: 80% of the agreed amount of EPC, maximum EUR 10 billion
Repayment period: 21 years
1-7 years: 25% of the whole amount
7-14 years: 35% of the whole amount
14-21 years: 40% of the whole amount
During the investment period: 3.95%
First seven years of repayment: 4.50%
Second seven years of repayment: 4.80%
Third seven years of repayment: 4.95%
Commitment fee: 0.25% of the undisbursed amount from the preliminarily agreed annual credit line.
2.3.4. Electricity grid development
A new high voltage substation and a new double-circuit overhead line of 400 kV are planned to be constructed. In order to provide an increased reliability, the new substation and the substation of the existing nuclear power plant will be connected by means of two coupling lines of 400 kV. After the implementation of these grid improvements, safe connection of the new units to the grid can be implemented.
2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs
MVM Paks II. Nuclear Power Plant Development Ltd. (http://www.mvmpaks2.hu/)
NIAEP-ASE of Nizhny Novgorod (http://www.niaep.ru/ )
2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs
The MVM Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd. is a state owned business entity. More than 99% of the shares are held by the MVM Hungarian Electricity Ltd. (with authority granted by the state) while the remaining part is held by local authorities. The operator is the MVM Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd. The technical supporting organizations (TSO) are listed in Section 2.1.2 (Current organizational chart)
2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs
Decommissioning is not a current issue for the Hungarian nuclear facilities. Nevertheless, this question has been covered in regulations, as the final phase of the life-cycle of the installations. As for all other phases, it requires a nuclear safety licence. For decommissioning, a multi-step licensing procedure is established, where the first step is to obtain the authorities’ consent to terminate operation. A further requirement is a valid environmental protection licence based on an environmental impact assessment and public hearings. As in all phases of the life-cycle of a facility, radiation protection authorities are involved in these licensing processes, and they license the appropriate radiation protection programme and radiation protection organization separately.
During the dismantling, decontamination and other steps, an ongoing task of the authority is the control of the radiation situation within the facility and around it, the monitoring of personal doses and the discharges, as well as the radiation in the environment. Emergency plans have to be updated with new or likely scenarios and any necessary organizational changes required must be adjusted accordingly.
The Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management (PURAM) is a 100% state owned, non-profit oriented enterprise, which was established by the Director General of HAEA on behalf of the Government. Its tasks include the final disposal of radioactive wastes, the interim storage of spent fuels, the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The ownership of PURAM was transferred to the Hungarian National Asset Management Inc. at the end of 2013, but the regulatory tasks remained among the competences of the HAEA.
2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management
Hungary has 20 000 metric tons of exploitable uranium resources and 10 000 metric tons of additional reserves. There are three areas in Hungary where uranium occurrences are known, but only one region in Mecsek Mountains has been exploited. Hungary was mining uranium ore, which was processed to yellowcake at Mecsek and then shipped to Russia. Fuel cycle services were guaranteed by the former USSR when Hungary purchased Soviet reactors, including the fabrication, shipping of the fabricated fuel assemblies to Hungary, and also the return of the spent fuel to the former USSR. Hungary does not have other fuel cycle capabilities such as fuel conversion, enrichment, and fabrication.
There are no reprocessing capabilities in Hungary, and no plans to develop any. Hungarian spent fuel has been reprocessed in Russia and the recovered plutonium does not have to be returned to Hungary. Hungary has at present no plans for recycling plutonium as fuel.
A new type of fuel assembly with improved parameters was introduced at the Paks NPP. The enrichment of the new fuel is increased and it contains burnable poison (Gd isotope). The increased enrichment enhances the economic efficiency of the fuel cycles while the application of the burnable poison compensates for the negative effects of the increased enrichment on the safety features of the reactors and the transport and storage devices. This change conforms with a world-wide trend. In 2010, test operation of 18 assemblies was completed following licensing in 2009. The preliminary use of the test assemblies was necessary for the validation of the design computer codes. When the test programme was finished successfully, the HAEA issued a licence for the general use of the new fuel. On this basis, the first batch of the new fuel assemblies was loaded at Unit 4 in 2010. The results of a special inspection programmes showed that the behavior of the fuel assemblies is in harmony with the preliminary estimates and design requirements. The transition to the new fuel will be finished gradually during the next 4-5 years.
According to the Hungarian-Soviet Inter-Governmental Agreement on Co-operation in the Construction of the Paks NPP, concluded on 28 December 1966, and the Protocol concluded on 1 April 1994 attached to this Agreement, the Soviet and/or Russian party undertakes to accept spent fuel assemblies from the Paks NPP in such a manner that the radioactive waste and other by-products arising from the reprocessing of such fuel is not returned to Hungary. Until 1992, the return of the spent fuel assemblies was conducted without problems, under conditions which were very favorable for Hungary, but which nevertheless deviated from normal international practice. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, however, this method of returning spent fuel became less and less reliable. For this reason and in the interests of ensuring the undisturbed operation of the NPP, it became necessary to find an interim solution (50 years) for the storage of spent fuel assemblies.
The Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility (SFISF) (designed by GEC Alsthom UK) at the Paks site is a ‘modular vault dry storage’ type spent fuel storage facility which has been receiving irradiated fuel assemblies from the Paks NPP since 1997. The increase of storage capacity is in line with the demands of Paks NPP. The planned 36 vaults are assumed to be capable of storing all spent fuel until the end of the extended service life of the plant. The extension of the storage facility with four new vaults was finished at the end of 2011. At present, 20 vaults in 45 storage modules are ready. Beginning with vault nr. 17 square arrangement will be applied for the storage tubes instead of triangular arrangement that is used in vaults 1-16; consequently 527 storage tubes can be stored instead of the original 450. When the storage facility reaches its maximum planned capacity it will be capable to store a total of 17,740 fuel assemblies within the 36 vaults.
These data do not take into consideration yet the plans to further increase the capacity of the vaults.
The basic regulation in force at present, Act CXVI of 1996 on Atomic Energy, expresses Hungary’s national policy in the application of atomic energy. Among other aspects, it regulates the management of radioactive waste and authorizes the Government and the competent Ministers to issue executive orders specifying the most important requirements in this field. The Hungarian Parliament approved the Act on Atomic Energy in December 1996; the Act entered into force on 1 June 1997. Significant amendments were made in the Act on Atomic Energy in 2013. The recent amendment was made to take into consideration the requirement of the relevant EU directive and to reformulate the task to be performed in relation with the management of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste. For radioactive waste repositories the Act prescribes that Parliament’s preliminary approval in principle is required to initiate activities for preparing their establishment. From July 2014 the authority of the repositories of radioactive waste is the HAEA.
In accordance with the basic rules laid down in the Act, radioactive waste management shall not impose any undue burden on future generations. To satisfy this requirement, the long-term costs of waste disposal and of decommissioning of the NPP shall be paid by the generations that enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy production and applications of isotopes. Accordingly, by the Act and its executive orders, a Central Nuclear Financial Fund was established on 1 January 1998 to finance radioactive waste disposal, interim storage of spent fuel, the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Government authorized the Director General of the HAEA to establish the Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management; this agency has been in operation since 2 June 1998. In line with the corporate forms used in the European Union, Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management has been transformed, as of 7 January 2008, into Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management (PURAM).
On the basis of the Act, PURAM shall design and carry out radioactive waste management in such a way that it shall be safe during the whole duration of the activity and it shall not affect human health and the environment abroad in a greater extent than the accepted value within the country.
In the field of radioactive waste management the following projects are underway:
a) Disposal of high level and long lived radioactive waste
In 1995, a programme was launched for solving the disposal of high level and long lived radioactive wastes. Though there is no final decision yet on the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, a domestic deep geological repository must be built in any case for other high level waste, including decommissioning waste. The programme focuses on investigations in the area of the Boda Claystone Formation in West-Mecsek. Currently surface based investigations take place, including trenching, drilling of boreholes, geological and geomorphological mapping etc. An underground laboratory is planned to operate from 2038 to 2054, and the repository will operate from 2064.
b) Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from the Paks NPP: National Radioactive Waste Repository (NRWR) in Bátaapáti:
For the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from the Paks NPP – following a country wide screening and ensuring public acceptance – explorations have been carried out in the vicinity of Bátaapáti (Tolna County) (about 65 km southwest of Paks). Reflecting the results of the extensive research work carried out, the Hungarian Geological Survey declared the site as geologically suitable for housing a L/ILW geological repository. In November 2005, after a decade spent with siting investigations, the Hungarian Parliament gave its preliminary approval in principle for the construction of the repository by the Resolution of the Parliament 85/2005. (XI. 23). It is a formal requirement in accordance with the Act on Atomic Energy. Prior to the voting in the Parliament, a local referendum was held, and nearly 91% of the large number of voters (voting percentage 75%) agreed that a L/ILW repository shall be constructed in Bátaapáti.
In addition to the already ongoing underground research activities, both the licensing procedure and the preparation for construction started in 2006. The competent authority issued the environmental licence in 2007. The construction licence for the surface part (central and technological buildings) and for 4 underground disposal chambers entered into force in 2008. By October 2008, the surface buildings of the National Radioactive Waste Repository (NRWR) were completed. Later, the authority granted the operation licence valid for the surface part of the facility. The operational licence allows the buffer storage of 3000 drums (200 litre capacity each) containing low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste from the Paks NPP. The first transports of waste were delivered to the facility by the end of 2008. The first underground disposal chamber of the repository was put into operation in 2012. The second disposal chamber will start operation in 2017. The third and fourth chambers were excavationed in 2015.
The capacity of NRWR will meet the demand of the Paks NPP and the underground space will be extended to be enough in the whole lifetime of the Hungarian NPP.
c) Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility in Püspökszilágy
The Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility was built for the disposal of institutional radioactive waste. The low-level, solid waste from Paks Nuclear Power Plant was transported to the repository in Püspökszilágy only as a provisional solution. At the same time the capacity of the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility was increased with the financial support of the power plant. The total capacity of the repository is now 5040 m3. The Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility is operated based on the extendable license that is currently valid until 03 June 2019.
The results of the safety assessments, at the same time, unambiguously indicated that certain spent radiation sources may pose a risk in the distant future, after the closure of the repository in case of human intrusion. Therefore, with the aim of enhancing the long term safety of the repository (affecting, in the first place, future generations), a multi-year programme was launched in the framework of which the ‘critical’ waste types are segregated from the recovered waste and then the rest are – as far as possible – compacted before redisposal in the vaults. By doing so, the repository – which used up its capacity in 2004 – can continue to accommodate the institutional radioactive waste from all over the country.
In order to provide the possibility of waste retrieval, it is necessary for the long term to build a large, light-structure hall which can ensure appropriate working conditions and satisfies the radiation safety and environment protection functions necessary for the work. The documentation supporting the building license of the light-structure building has been prepared, and the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority has granted the building license based on it. The building of this structure will start at the end of 2016, processing works are planned from 2018.
2.8. Research and development
2.8.1. R&D organizations
Legal framework for implementation of the R&D program is established in the Act on Atomic Energy, according to which the technical support activities needed for improving the safety of the peaceful application of nuclear energy shall be financed via the HAEA. Thus it is the responsibility of the HAEA to manage the scientific-technical support for the nuclear safety and security regulatory activities. For managing the quality of such a complex program the HAEA defined its basic principles and requirements for performing technical support activities. The scientific-technical support is provided by a group of scientific-technical institutions and other engineering organizations (Technical Support Organizations – TSO). As a rule, the scientific-technical co-operation with the strategic Partner TSO’s (with a wide range of competency in the nuclear facility operation and regulation) is based on a long term agreement accepted and signed by both the HAEA and the Partner TSO’s. At present there are several strategic Partner TSO’s including the HAS Centre for Energy Research (CER), the Nuclear Safety Research Institute (NUBIKI) and the Institute of Nuclear Techniques of the Budapest University of Technology and Economy (BME NTI). The requested technical support from a TSO is described in a contract in which the deadline and the expected quality are further defined. In urgent regulatory matters the strategic TSO Partners – based on the above mentioned strategic agreement – provide technical support quickly and flexibly on a free of charge basis. The system of TSO’s ensures that the HAEA has appropriate engineering and scientific reserve capacities to handle situations, which need fast and technically correct decisions.
To efficiently harmonize the TSO co-operation, the HAEA has elaborated a mid-term R&D concept which has been regularly updated. The R&D concept assigns the main goals, the area of the support program. The most important R&D areas are: Development of the regulatory framework, Support and modernization of the regulatory work, New nuclear facilities, Decommissioning and radioactive waste management, Development of operational safety, Development of risk informed supervisory instruments, Analysis of beyond design basis and sever accidents, Nuclear emergency response, Nuclear material accountancy and control, Supervision of radioactive material, Physical protection, Regulatory control of radioactive waste storage facilities.
Collection of data about knowledge and competencies (so called knowledge profile) of TSO’s was started in 2005 and are permanently surveyed about their competencies and co-operation affinity in 10 main areas of regulatory interest divided into 48 specific sub-areas. Based on the demands connecting with new build units the knowledge profile of TSO’s was completely reviewed in 2015. As a result of the review the TSO’s can offer it’s knowledge in 26 main areas which can be divided into 180 specific sub-areas. As a result, it can be concluded that in Hungary all major scientific-technical areas important for nuclear safety are covered by research or technical institutions.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
The attention of research organizations is also attracted by other nuclear systems. The Generation-4 SCWR (more accurately, its European version, HPLWR) is currently studied in Hungary in the framework of a nationally financed project which gives a good background for participating in an EU project with a similar aim and in several bilateral co-operations. The decision on constructing ITER also attracts scientists to deal with various aspects of fusion technology rather than restricting themselves to plasma physics.
The Centre for Energy Research, together with its Czech, Slovak and Polish partners, with strong technical support of CEA, started the preparatory activities to launch the ALLEGRO project for establishing a 75 MWth demonstration of gas fast reactor technology in 2010. These preparatory activities include
finalization of the design and the safety concept of the ALLEGRO reactor;
clarifying the fuel related problems;
defining the R&D needs for starting the licensing and construction of ALLEGRO;
paving the way to license ALLEGRO by the nuclear safety authorities;
preparing the outline of EIA;
defining the technical details of site selection ;
proposing the method of site selection;
defining the governance structure of the project;
organizing the political support and financial support of the project.
Most of these activities will be concluded in 2014, however, R&D activities will continue on the medium and long run.
In July, 2013 four nuclear research institutes and engineering companies from central Europe’s Visegrád Group (V4) of nations decided to establish a centre of excellence for joint research, development and innovation in GenerationIV nuclear reactors. The V4G4 Centre of Excellence, is registered in Slovakia and managed by a steering committee, is being set up by scientific and research engineering company ÚJV Rež AS of the Czech Republic, the Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research (MTA EK) of Hungary, Poland’s National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) and engineering company VUJE AS of Slovakia. The preparatory phase is ongoing, the Centre is to operate by 2020.
2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives
In Hungary both the Licensees and the HAEA maintain wide-ranging relations with various international organizations, with other countries and institutions involved in the design, manufacture, installation and operation of nuclear facilities and research institutes.
These relations serve as means of exchanging knowledge and experience. The fact that Hungarian experts are held in high esteem internationally is demonstrated by their active role on different committees, with many of them being board members of international organizations or invited as experts.
Hungary has been a Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (since 1957) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (since 1996).
Hungary has bilateral international agreements with Australia, Austria, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Romania, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Serbia, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Ukraine, the United States of America and Viet Nam.
There are several memoranda of understanding on cooperation and mutual information exchange concluded by HAEA with other regulatory authorities, i.e. those of the Czech Republic, Finland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, the Russian Federation, Turkey and the United States of America.
Regional programmes organized by the EU and the IAEA play an important role in the co-operation between the regulatory authorities of the neighbouring countries. Moreover, the HAEA is taking part in a quadrilateral cooperation including the Czech Republic, Slovak Republic and Slovenia.
The HAEA takes part in several international co-operations including
WENRA (Western European Nuclear Regulatory Association);
ENSREG (European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group) organized by the EU (cooperation to progressively develop a common understanding and furthering common approaches in priority domains related to the safety of nuclear installations);
VVER Forum (established by the regulatory bodies of countries operating Soviet designed pressurized water reactors);
Standing Committees of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency;
Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) ENSRA (European Nuclear Security Regulators' Association);
ESARDA (European Safeguards Research and Development Association);
HERCA (Heads of the European Radiological Protection Competent Authorities)
EURACA (European Association of Competent Authorities for Safe and Sustainabble Transport of Radioactive Material)
Global Initiative to combat nuclear terrorism;
Zangger Committee (dealing with controlling the export of nuclear materials and equipment);
Nuclear Suppliers Group ((NSG) dealing with controlling the export of nuclear materials and equipment and the dual use materials and equipment).
The Paks NPP is a member of several international bodies of major importance including the World Association of NPP Operators (WANO), the VVER-440 operators' club, the VVER users' group, the International Nuclear Safety Programme (the so-called Lisbon Initiative), the Nuclear Maintenance Experience Exchange (NUMEX).
The Hungarian Nuclear Society is a member of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), and the Health Physics Section of the Roland Eötvös Physical Society is a member of the International Radiation Protection Association.
The technical support organizations of the HAEA take part in the international activities including the working groups of the OECD NEA.
2.9. Human resources development
The Budapest University of Technology and Economics Institute of Nuclear Techniques (BME NTI) operates a training reactor with the nominal power of 100 kWth. Using this unique facility, the university has developed special nuclear education programmes for physics and energy engineering students on BSc, MSc and PhD levels. A „Medical physics” specialization of the Physics MSc education is also vailable since 2010. BME offers post-graduate nuclear training for engineers working in or willing to work in the nuclear industry. Special training courses for foreign students – with different duration, from 6 weeks to 3 month – are available at the institute.
There is a particle accelerator at the University of Debrecen, another source for the specialists in the field of nuclear sciences.
At the Faculty of Science of Eötvös Lóránd University (ELTE), the students of the physics faculty also learn about nuclear techniques and practice at the CER.
The Paks NPP has its own training organization which operates a state of the art training infrastructure. The training organization provides initial and refresher training both for its own employees and for the contractor’s staff. The training system is operated on the basis of the IAEA Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) system. Job specific training programs and training materials are available for all the job positions related to nuclear safety. As part of the training infrastructure there is a full scope replica simulator for the operator training. For the training of the maintenance and technical support staff a unique Maintenance Training Center is available, this is equipped with real primary circuit equipment, like reactor vessel and its internals.
The training organization has a wide cooperation on the human resource development area with national and international institutes and universities.
Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
At the HAEA, the inspectors take part in a predefined training programme, which is reviewed annually. The training plan is divided into three parts, mainly the training of newcomers, the refresher training and the specific training. The training plan also includes the utilization of results of the R&D projects.
Newcomers of the HAEA have to complete a special training. It includes all important fields related to the HAEA responsibility areas, and also special training courses at the NPP and at the other licensees. After fulfilling of the predefined training programme the newcomers have to pass the so-called inspector exam, where they shall analyze real events regarding the licensing, supervision and investigation process of the HAEA.
The longer term training programme contains training directions based on the knowledge profile survey and on the future projects and strategy of the HAEA, for example: bigger systems of the Paks NPP, life-time extension at the Paks NPP, decommissioning, R&D projects, legal environment, etc.
At the initiation of the Director General of the HAEA, following thorough negotiations conducted in 2009, the representative of the leading Hungarian nuclear organizations established the Hungarian Nuclear Knowledge Management Database System on 22 June 2010 by signing a joint cooperation agreement at the headquarters of the HAEA. The main objective of the system is to collect and maintain the Hungarian made documents of the expertise accumulated during the application of atomic energy for the future generations. This continuously updated common database facilitates the sharing of knowledge and information within the nuclear community.
The code of conduct developed by the editorial committee was signed on 15 December 2010, and thus the administrative conditions for the operation of the knowledge management database were established besides the technical provisions. Consequently, the ordinary use of the “common electronic repository” of the Hungarian nuclear community started in 2010. The uploading of documents is still ongoing, the database currently consists of appr. 8000 documents.
2.10. Stakeholder Involvement
For stakeholder involvement the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority is:
arranging public hearings in all facility-level licensing procedure to ensure transparency and openness,
organizing "About Atomic Energy - to everyone" student conferences, forums and meetings for other authorities, for licensees,
publishing a wide range of documents on its website, such as country reports (Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention), annual report, legal framework, guiding documents and all relevant news and events
running a Facebook profile.
Public Relations and information of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant
The MVM Paks NPP Ltd. informs frequently the public of events that happens at the power plant via press releases. The press releases are also uploaded together with other information materials to the Hungarian and English website of the NPP (www.atomeromu.hu and http://www.atomeromu.hu/en/Lapok/default.aspx ).
MVM Paks NPP Ltd. has a Visitors’ Center and a Nuclear Energetics Museum. The Visitors’ Centre was established in 1995 and it welcomes over 25,000 visitors yearly. The number of visitors in the Nuclear Energetics Museum, which runs from 2012, exceed 14,000 per year. Thanks to its programs, the nuclear power plant remains a popular tourist destination.
The numbers of followers of the Facebook page of the Paks NPP increase year by year, the activity of the followers is exceptional both within and without the industry.
Paks NPP organizes an open day in every year’s, which is very popular for the participants.
Public relations and stakeholder involvement of the Public Limited Company for Radioactive Waste Management
The primary purpose of the communication work of PURAM is to obtain, retain, and reinforce the confidence and acceptance of the public to ensure that the existing or planned facilities can safely serve, for many long decades, for the benefit of the country.
The regional communication task of the Company is to keep contact and inform the stakeholders who live near to the facilities. Thanks to the successful cooperation between PURAM and the local associations of the municipalities, the Company receives help in organising public events, children competitions or local newspapers.
The other part of the communication strategy focuses on the national and international relationships. PURAM has a showroom in Paks, next to the Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility and a Visitor Center in Bátaapáti, on the site of the National Radioactive Waste Repository, where the Company hosts civil and expert visitors also.
PURAM has several brochures, publications and website news, which can also give widespread information about the activities of the Company. Additionally, PURAM organises public opinion polls in every two years, which can help to generate useful consequences and feedback about the general attitudes of the Hungarian public.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory framework
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
Before 1991, the Hungarian Atomic Energy Commission (HAEC) managed most of the nuclear aspects, which were related to international relations, preparation for legislation, internal relations, and nuclear regulatory and licensing activities. The scope of activities and responsibilities of the HAEC were redefined in a Government Decree, which came into force on 1 January 1991. The HAEA, as a new, nation-wide central state administration organization was established under the supervision of the President of the HAEC. The revised Act on Atomic Energy adopted at the end of 1996 (Act CXVI of 1996 on Atomic Energy) and its Decrees on Implementation introduced further changes in the scope of authority and organizational structure of the national regulatory bodies related to nuclear safety.
According to the above-mentioned changes in competence, the licensing of nuclear facilities became the responsibility of HAEA. In addition, the regulatory control over certain constructional, technical radiation protection and nuclear accident prevention issues was also transferred into the scope of the authority of the HAEA.
Hungary’s accession to the European Union required a further strengthening of the regulatory bodies’ independence. To this end, the Parliament amended the Act on Atomic Energy in 2003. Pursuant to this amendment, the operation of HAEC was discontinued and one of the ministers of the Government appointed by the Prime Minister – currently the Minister of National Development – was given the task to supervise the HAEA. The role of the Director General of the HAEA became more significant: he is responsible for giving an annual report to the government about the safety of the domestic application of nuclear energy, instead of the chairman of the HAEC. Furthermore, he shall participate, with the right of consultation, in the sessions of the Government when any proposal related to the scope of activity of the HAEA is considered.
The administrative duty of the nuclear safety authority comprises two types of tasks. On the one hand, the authority shall perform the relevant regulatory tasks and issue standards and requirements, while on the other hand, these regulations and requirements must be enforced (it is realized during the implementation of the licensing and inspection/enforcement procedures).
The supervisory competence of the HAEA involves the following activities: it enforces compliance with the provisions of relevant statutory regulations, ensures that the requirements of Nuclear Safety Regulations are observed and the conditions serving as a basis for regulatory licences are met, and in addition, it monitors the implementation of the measures imposed by the Authority. The HAEA also carries out analysis and assessment activities that are basically related to its licensing and inspection responsibilities. In some cases, the official licensing and inspection activity also entails the initiation of law enforcement measures. Enforcement activities comprise all the measures to enforce the licensees to return to compliance with the regulations in the case of deviations, and also involve those that encourage participants to avoid repetition.
There was an amendment of the Act on Atomic Energy in 2005 (owing to the new general rules of the administrative regulatory procedures) which introduced the continuous regulatory supervision as a new term. The supervision may be exercised through on-line computer systems connected to the authority office network. It gave the definition of clients in the licensing and permission cases. Furthermore, the deadlines of the administrative regulatory procedures were also modified for the HAEA and its co-authorities (60+30 days for equipment level licences, 180+90 days for facility level licences, 30+30 / 60+30 days for the co-authorities). In case of imminent danger, accident or emergency situation in the nuclear facility, it gave an opportunity for deviations from the procedural rules, as well.
Further modification of the Act CXVI of 1996 on Atomic Energy was adopted in 2011. In Act No. CIX of 2006 on the reorganization of the governmental structure the HAEA is listed among the government offices. The scope of authority and duties of a government office are required to regulate on the statutory level. Until 2011, the legal regulation of scope and duties was included in two different sources: the Act on Atomic Energy and the Government Decree 114/ 2003 on the Scope of Duties, Authority and Competence to Impose Penalties of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority, and on the Activities of the Atomic Energy Co-ordination Council. The modification makes an end of the two level regulation system and takes up all the relating regulation to the statutory level. The modification also concerned the use of subsidies by municipal associations around nuclear facilities and now they may use up the subsidies for information, monitoring, operation as well as to ensure municipal development.
According to the Act the licensee is obliged to present an expert’s report before an administrative procedure (non-procedural expert). The amendment locates the task of previous evaluation of independent nuclear expert to the Hungarian Chamber of Engineers. The Hungarian Chamber of Engineers as an independent professional public body can give substantive assistance to the regulatory body. The new modification of the Act defines the Design Basis Threat (DBT) and nuclear security and provides a clear basis for allocating responsibilities between the organizations involved. The Act also identifies protection functions that are the responsibility of the State. The Government is empowered by the Act to elaborate more detailed provisions of DBT and nuclear security in a government decree.
From 2013 the Act declares that in all facility-level licensing procedure the HAEA shall arrange public hearings to ensure transparency and openess.
From 1st July, 2014 the competences of the HAEA has undergone several changes. According to this amendment HAEA took over the task of regulatory oversight of the radioactive waste repositories. The Act also introduced new procedures of licences for site assessment and evaluation, and licenses to define characteristics and to determine the suitability of the site.
HAEA took over the regulatory tasks for radiation protection. The Act VII of 2015 has given the scope of duties of radiation protection to the atomic energy oversight organization from January 1, 2016. The Act separated the regulatory tasks among the authorities. The Office of the Chief Medical Officer will remain the competent authority for the radiation health issues, while the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority will be responsible for supervision of other radiation safety matters. The purpose of the amendment is to integrate the regulatory framework for nuclear safety, radiation protection, and physical protection of the peaceful use of atomic energy under the same authority. This way a single level, country wide, customer centred regulatory regime will be realized making licensing easier, reducing the number of licensing processes per licensee, and unifying data supply to be performed by the users of atomic energy.
The Project Act furthermore transfers the competences to HAEA for construction of general civil structures and buildings of nuclear facilities and radioactive waste repositories as of 1st January, 2016. Lower level legislative amendments are to enter into force also on 1st of January, 2016.
3.1.2. Licensing Process
The basic principles of licensing procedure of the NPP, and the concerned authorities taking part in licensing procedure are regulated by Chapter III of the Act on Atomic Energy. To establish a new NPP or a new NPP unit the preliminary consent in principle of Parliament is required for starting preparatory work, whereas to establish ownership of a NPP that is in operation or to transfer the right of operation the consent in principle of the Government is required. In concordance with regulations in force, a licence shall be obtained from the authorities for all phases of operation (siting, construction, commissioning, operation, decommissioning) during the lifetime of a NPP. Moreover, a separate licence shall be obtained for all plant level or safety related equipment level modifications. Within the licensing procedures, technical aspects are enforced by legally delegated authorities. The Authority shall take account of opinions of legally delegated special authorities. When the installation of a new NPP is being considered, the precondition for launching the licensing procedure is the existence of an environmental protection licence. During the licensing procedure the Licencee prepares a preliminary environmental impact study. The environmental protection authority then sends the preliminary impact study to the relevant authorities to seek the opinion of authorities of potentially affected areas who – in turn – expose it to public view. The environmental protection authority, if it does not reject the detailed environmental impact study that has been submitted, shall subsequently hold a public hearing. Based on the detailed environmental impact study and on any responses received, the environmental protection authority may issue an environmental protection licence for the construction and operation of the plant.
The safety-related licensing of a nuclear installation takes place after the environmental licensing. The environmental protection authority plays the role of special authority in the course of licensing a nuclear installation. During the licensing of installations and equipment, and the licensing of their modifications, the contributing procedure of the environmental protection special authority provides the possibility for the civil organizations to act as clients. The decisions of the nuclear safety authority are made public. Those licences to be issued based on Act CX. of 2001 on Electric Energy are also required for establishing and operating a nuclear plant. Licences are valid for fixed periods; on request and provided that the necessary requirements are fulfilled, they may be extended. A licencee can appeal against the decisions of the Authority. It has the right to take the case to court.
Every ten years a periodic review of the safety of the NPP is performed on the basis of a comprehensive, predefined programme known as the Periodic Safety Review. Any decision on the further validity and conditions of the operating licence is made within the framework of the review. For certain facilities, beyond the regulatory licensing procedure, the Act on Atomic Energy prescribes higher approval as well.
3.2. Main national laws and regulations in nuclear power
For the detailed LIST OF LEGISLATIVE ACTS governing the peaceful use of Nuclear Energy see the HAEA (website: www.oah.hu)
APPENDIX 1: MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER