1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. Country overview
1.1.1. Governmental System
Government form in Romania is that of a republic, according to the Constitution adopted in 1991 and modified in 2003.
The capital is Bucharest Municipality. It is organized into six administrative sectors. The first documentary mention of the city was on 20.9.1459, as the residence of Vlad Tepes. The capital of Romania since 1862, Bucharest Municipality is the most important political, economic and cultural-scientific center of the country.
Legislative power is represented by a two-chambered parliament (Chamber of Deputies and Senate), and executive power is held by a government led by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the country’s President
President of Romania is elected by universal vote based on general election results, for a 5 year mandate.
Official language: Romanian.
Flag of Romania: is three-coloured. The colours are placed vertically in the following order from the lance: blue, yellow, red.
National day of Romania: December 1.
National anthem of Romania: “Wake up, Romanian”.
National currency: "RON" (Romanian Leu), “Ban” subdivision.
The exchange rate is set in the interbank currency market on a daily basis, reference currency being the Euro.
Country code: +40
Bucharest code: +40 21
UE membership from 1st January, 2007
NATO membership from 29th March, 2004
Source: National Institute of Statistics
1.1.2. Geography and Climate
Romania is situated in the geographical center of Europe (south-east of Central Europe), north of Balkan Peninsula and halfway between Atlantic Coast and The Urals. The lower course of the Danube passes through Romania for 1075 km, before exiting into the Black Sea. Romania is the twelfth largest country in Europe, with an area of 238,391 km2.
Romania’s Black Sea coastline is 245km long, stretching from Masura stream, at the Ukrainian border, to Vama Voche, at the border with Bulgaria. This coastline provides access to countries in the Black Sea basin, in the Mediterranean Sea basin and, through these, to the rest of the world.
Romania's natural landscape consists of three major levels. The highest level is found in the Carpathians, where the highest peak, Moldoveanu, is 2,544 m. The middle level corresponds to the Sub-Carpathians, to the hills and to the plateaus. Romania’s lowest level of relief is found in its plains, meadows and in the Danube Delta. The Danube Delta, the youngest relief unit under permanent formation, has an average height of 0.52 m. Main features of the relief units are their proportionality (31% mountains, 36% hills and plateaus, 33% plains and meadows) and the concentric display of the major relief levels.
Romania’s climate is temperate-continental of transition, with oceanic influences from the west, Mediterranean ones from south-west and continental-excessive ones from the east. Multiannual average temperature is latitudinally different, with 8°C in the north and over 11°C in the south, and altitudinally different, with values of -2.5°C in the mountain floor (Omu peak - Bucegi massif) and 11.6°C in the plain (Zimnicea town - Teleorman county).
Yearly precipitations decrease in intensity from west to east, from over 600 mm to less than 500 mm in the East Romanian Plain, under 450 mm in Dobrogea and about 350 mm by seaside. In the mountainous areas they reach 1,000-1,500 mm.
Romanian running waters are radially displayed, most of them having their source in the Carpathians. They are predominantly tributaries of the Danube river, which crosses the country in the south and flows into the Black Sea. There are natural lakes (numerous genetic types) spread in all major units of relief, from glacial ones in the alpine floor (Mioarelor Lake in Fagaras, at 2,282 m) to river-maritime banks (Techirghiol Lake, at 1.5 m) and anthropic lakes.
The vegetation is determined by the relief and by pedoclimatic elements. Mountainous regions are covered by coniferous forests (especially spruce fir), mixture forests (beech, fir, spruce fir) and beech forests. Higher peaks are covered by alpine lawns and by bushes of dwarf pine, juniper, bilberry, red bilberry etc.
In the hills and plateaus, there are broad-leaved forests, of predominantly beech, common oak or durmast oak. The main forest species, often met on low hills and high plains, are Quercus cerris and Quercus frainetto.
The steppe and silvosteppe vegetation, which covered the areas of low humidity in Dobrogea Plateau, Romanian Plain, Moldova Plateau, Banat and Crisana Plain, has been mostly replaced by agricultural crops.
Romania's fauna is grouped according to each species’ biotype. Relict elements, such as black goat (chamois) and mountain vulture, live in the alpine area. Various animals live in the Carpathian forests, such as bear, buck, lynx, wolf, wild boar, roebuck, squirrel and several species of bird. In a few mountainous areas, both mountain cock and birch cock are still met. In the hill and field areas, there are hares, moles, hedgehogs, various birds, lizards and batrachian. Rodents such as gopher and hamster are characteristic of the steppe areas. Water fauna is represented especially by trout in the mountainous waters (huck, which was widely spread in the past, has become quite rare), dace and barbel in the hill region, and carp, perch, pike, sheat fish and crucian in the field region and Danube Delta. Sturgeon species are also found in the marine territorial waters and on the downstream Danube.
Romania's useful minerals resources are various. They include crude oil, with old exploitation traditions, natural gas, coal, especially coking pit coal, brown coal and lignite, ferrous and nonferrous ores, gold, silver and bauxite ore deposits. There are vast reserves of salt as well as numerous nonmetalliferous resources. A special category of subsoil riches is the over 2,000 mineral water springs, with consumption and medical treatments valences.
Romanian territory is divided, from an administrative viewpoint, into villages, communes, towns, municipalities and counties.
As territorial (non-administrative) units, 8 regions of development were created, gathering several counties.
County represents the traditional administrative-territorial unit in Romania, including towns and communes, and depending on geographical, economical and social-political conditions and on population, cultural and traditional relations. Romania’s territory is organized into 42 counties (including Bucharest Municipality).
Municipality is a town with an important economic, social, political and cultural role, usually with an administrative function.
Town represents a human concentration with administrative function and a life specific to urban areas. It has a professional population structure wherein the population is predominantly employed in nonagricultural branches of the economy.
Commune is a territorial-administrative unit which comprises a rural population, united by interest and traditional community, and includes one or several villages (of which one is the commune residence).
Village is the smallest territorial unit, with characteristics of rural settlements.
Main cities: Bucharest, Iasi, Cluj-Napoca, Constanta, Timisoara, Craiova, Galati, Brasov, Ploiesti, Braila, Oradea, Bacau, Pitesti, Arad, Sibiu.
– at the Black Sea: Constanta, Mangalia
– at the Danube: Moldova Noua, Orsova, Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Calafat, Corabia, Turnu Magurele, Zimnicea, Giurgiu, Oltenita, Calarasi, Cernavoda, Hârsova, Macin, Braila, Galati, Tulcea, Sulina
Main airports: Bucharest (“Henri Coanda”-Otopeni and Baneasa), Constanta (“Mihail Kogalniceanu”), Timisoara (“Traian Vuia”), Cluj-Napoca, Iasi, Arad, Oradea, Baia Mare, Târgu Mures, Suceava, Bacau, Deva, Sibiu, Craiova, Tulcea.
TABLE 1. POPULATION INFORMATION
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|Year||1970||1980||1990||2000||2007||2010*||2000 to 2010*|
|Population density (inhabitants/km²)||85.5||93.2||97.7||94.3||90.43||89.9||-0.46|
|Urban Population as % of total||36.9||45.8||54.3||54.6||55.1||55.0||0.07|
|Area (1000 km²)||238.4|
* Latest available data
Source: National Institute of Statistics http://www.insse.ro
1.1.4. Economic Data
TABLE 2. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1990||2000||2005||2010**||2000 to 2010**|
|GDP (millions of current US$)||39789||37332||99171||164436||34.0|
|GDP (millions of constant 2000 US$)||42386||37332||49297||55767||4.9|
|GDP per capita (PPP* US$/capita)||5578||6103||9403||11895||9.5|
|GDP per capita (current US$/capita)||1715||1664||4586||7673||36.1|
* PPP: Purchasing Power Parity
** Latest available data
Source: National Institute of Statistics http://www.insse.ro
1.2. Energy Information
1.2.1. Estimated available energy
TABLE 3. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Estimated available energy sources|
|Total amount in specific units*||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a|
* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons; Hydro, Renewable: TW
1.2.2. Energy Statistics
TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS (GWh)
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1992||2000||2005||2010||2000 to 2010*|
|Net import (Import - Export)|
* Latest available data
** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy.
*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite
Source: National Institute of Statistics http://www.insse.ro
1.2.3. Energy policy
As part of the economic reform measures passed in 1990, the energy sector was reorganized two types of autonomous state enterprise were established: Regies Autonomous (RAs) for the production and supply of energy products, and Commercial Companies (CCs) for support services and activities. This enabled the government to separate policy and regulation from operational functions, to bring accountability, and to institute commercial practices in the energy sector. RAs are state holding-companies for sectors considered strategic by the Government of Romania, including electric power, oil, natural gas, lignite, and coal. CCs are joint-stock companies, established under commercial law.
The energy sector is under the supervision of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Business Environment, which formulates policies and strategy.
The Government is currently trying to cope with the current global economic circumstances, with increased energy demand and with clarified requirements for a clean and safe environment. The economic context is characterized by deregulation and competition, supported by the industry.
Current government policy aims to develop an energy sector that promotes a market-oriented economy, in accordance with the relevant EU Directives. Following the general elections of December 2008, the new Government Program for 2009-2012 calls for the updating of the national energy strategy, according to the new evolutions and priorities. A new energy strategy is to be accomplished, therefore, by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Business Environment in the near future.
Furthermore, since the beginning of 2009, following a decision by the Romanian Government, the energy institutional framework restructuring process is still in progress.
The Romanian environment authorities sent the European Commission updated information on the implementation of the “Energy – climate change” package, which was adopted by the European Union by 2008. For Romania, this plan will come into force as of January 2013.
According to the official statistical data for 2007, there were 244 certified environment installations in Romania, and the country’s annual carbon dioxide emissions stood at 74 million tons. A decrease in the number of said facilities and of emissions was found to have occurred over the interval 2008-2009. The national greenhouse gas emissions cap is currently set at 300 million tons a year.
1.3. The electricity system
1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process
In 2007, the Romanian government approved a long-term energy strategy, building on the National Energy Strategy on Medium Term.
The government's strategy places emphasis on:
increasing energy efficiency
boosting renewable energy
diversifying import sources and transport routes
protecting critical infrastructure.
The strategy aims to create public-private partnerships in different sectors. An example of this can be found in the nuclear field, with the building of two additional units (3 and 4) in Romania's nuclear power plant in Cernavoda.
Romania's overall goal is to become an important electricity exporter and to double power output to approximately 100 TWh by 2020. This amount will be greater than the level of domestic consumption.
A new energy strategy is to be formulated by the Ministry of Economy in the near future.
1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector
The generation, transmission and distribution network consists of the following companies:
Termoelectrica S.A., which is the Commercial Company for Electricity and Heat Generation. It is responsible for the production of electrical and thermal energy, and responsible for electricity generation from thermal power plants, district heating, and related fuel supplies. The reorganization process at SC Termoelectrica S.A. continues in a dynamic rhythm, sustained also by government decision 1524/2002 regarding the creation of competitive conditions in the energy production sector.
Hidroelectrica S.A., which is the Commercial Company for Electricity Generation and for the production and delivery of hydroelectric power.
Electrica S.A., which is the Commercial Company for Electricity Distribution and Supply. SC Electrica S.A. was reorganized in 2002. It is now a group of companies, which includes 8 branches for the supply and distribution of electric energy and 8 branches for maintenance and energetic services. 5 out of 8 distributors had been privatized by 2007.
Nuclearelectrica S.A. (SNN), which carries out, as its main mission, the production of nuclear power and nuclear fuel and project development at the Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant site. Nuclearelectrica S.A. has two branches:
- Cernavoda NPP Division, operating Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2 and the auxiliary services
- FCN - Pitesti, the Nuclear Fuel Plant that manufactures nuclear fuel for Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2
In addition, Nuclearelectrica S.A. is associated with the recently-settled EnergoNuclear S.A. Project Company, responsible for completion of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4.
The whole economic and technical operation and development of the electricity sector will be regulated, ruled, supervised and monitored by the Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority, ANRE. ANRE was created according to the new Electricity Law, set up by a Government Emergency Ordinance in October 1998, as a public institution, both independent and autonomous.
Romania has an extensive interconnected power transmission and distribution network, with an overall length of about 600,000 km and a total transformer capacity of about 172,000 MVA. The national grid operates on 750 kV, 400 kV, and 220 kV for transmission, and 20 kV, 10 kV, 6 kV, 1 kV and 0.4 kV for distribution.
As a limited member of the Interconnected Power System-Central Dispatching Organization, Romania has strong interconnections with Ukraine and Bulgaria, substantial interconnections with the former Yugoslavia, and weaker links to the Republic of Moldavia and Hungary. The Romanian grid operator, Transelectrica, is currently co-operating with the electric power systems of Greece and the former Yugoslavia (both UCPTE members), and is working to become more fully integrated into the UCPTE system. The transmission network is interconnected with those of neighboring countries – by 750 kV (4,000 MWe capacity), 400 kV (2,500 MWe capacity), and two 110 kV tie-lines with Ukraine, a 400 kV line with Hungary (currently operating at 220 kV, with a planned capacity of 1,200 MWe), 750 kV (4,000 MWe capacity), 400 kV (2,500 MWe capacity), and 220 kV (260 MWe capacity) lines to Bulgaria, one 400 kV (1,200 MWe capacity) and two 110 kV lines with former Yugoslavia, and two 110 kV lines with Moldavia. In 2001, Transelectrica received a $51.5 million loan from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) to upgrade the Romanian transmission system and make it more compatible with the western European power network.
1.3.3. Main indicators
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1992||2000||2005||2010*||2000 to 2010*|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|- other renewable||...||...||...||...|
|Electricity production (TW.h)|
|- other renewable||...||...||...||...|
|- Total (1)||54||52||59||61||1.73|
|Total Electricity consumption (TW.h)||53||43||50||52||2.09|
(1) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
* Latest available data
Source: National Institute of Statistics http://www.insse.ro
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||85||68||73||68|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kW.h/capita)||2326||1917||2312||2407|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||14||16||19||19|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||-||10||8||19|
|Ratio of external dependency (%) (1)||28.0||22.7||28.6||21,2|
(1) Net import / Total energy consumption.
* Latest available data
Source: National Institute of Statistics http://www.insse.ro
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical development and current organizational structure
Dates of reference in the Romanian nuclear energy field
1976 - The Romanian-Canadian feasibility study for the CANDU system in Romania is completed
December, 1978 - The contracts between ROMENERGO and AECL, for the takeover of the CANDU system license and for design and procurement of the nuclear equipment for Unit 1, are concluded
February 1981 - The contracts between ROMENERGO-Ansaldo (Italy) and General Electric (USA) for the conventional part (BOP) of Unit 1 are concluded
1982 - First containment concrete is poured (reactor building base slab)
December 1985 - The delivery on site and the installation of the Calandria vessel for the Cernavodã NPP Unit 1
1989 - The installation of the fuel channels at the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1
December 1989 - Romanian revolution; the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 is 45% complete
July 1990 - The first PRE-OSART mission of IAEA-Vienna to the Cernavoda NPP
August 1991 - The management contract with AECL-Ansaldo Consortium (AAC) is concluded
May-June 1995 - The fuel loading of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1
April 16, 1996 - The first criticality of the Unit 1 reactor
July 11, 1996 - The first synchronization to the grid of the Unit 1
December 2, 1996 - The Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 is declared to be in commercial operation
June 30, 1997 - The transfer of the Unit 1 management and operation responsibilities from AAC to the Romanian personnel
July 2, 1998 - The setting up of the national company Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica S.A.
September 30, 1999 - The Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 ranks tenth in the world capacity-factor top ten
February 2003 - Canadian, Italian, French and USA loan agreements are signed with Societe Generale, Credit Lyonnais and Romanian Bank for Development
March 24, 2003 - The Contract for the Completion and Commissioning of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 comes into force
March 30, 2004 - EURATOM Loan is approved by the EC, subject to the implementation of a well-defined improvement package.
September 21, 2004 - The manufacturing of the nuclear fuel, dedicated to the first load of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 Reactor , is started
September 15, 2005 - The nuclear fuel bundle # 50,000 is manufactured
December 2005 - The completion of Unit 2’s main systems and transfer of procedures to the commissioning team, comprising a total number of 154 systems
July 2006 - The successful completion of the pressure test at Unit 2
September 2006 - The loading of the heavy water in the moderator circuit of Unit 2
November-December 2006 - The completion of more tests at Unit 2 (leak rate test and hot conditioning test)
December 2, 2006 - The celebration of 10 years of successful operation of Unit 1
February 15, 2007 - The loading of the first fuel bundle in the active zone of Unit 2 reactor at 01:29 hours
February 22, 2007 - The completion of the fuel loading into the reactor of Unit 2, 23:25 hours
March 2, 2007 - The loading of the heavy water into the cooling circuit of the reactor
May 6, 2007 - The initiation of the chain reaction (criticality) at Unit 2, 23:25 hours
June 2, 2007 - Six consecutive years of Unit 1 operation have been achieved without any flaw-suspected fuel bundles
August 2, 2007 - 300 days of operation without interruption at Unit 1
August 7, 2007 - The first synchronization of Unit 2 with the national power system, at 25% of the reactor's capacity of 700 MWe, 17:21 hours
September 12, 2007 - Unit 2 reaches full power for the first time, during commissioning tests
September 12, 2007 - Completion of contractual 10 day operation without an interruption day
September 28, 2007 - The management of Unit 2 is turned over to SN Nuclearelectrica S.A.
October 5, 2007 - The official inauguration of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2
Source: SC Nuclearelectrica S.A.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)
The three main institutional pillars of the Romanian nuclear field are:
- Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (AN&DR) is a specialized authority of the central public administration, acting as a legal person, co-ordinated by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Business Environment. The main object of the activities of the AN&DR is to provide technical assistance to the government in devising policies in the nuclear field, as well as to promote and monitor nuclear activities in Romania. AN&DR is the national competent authority, co-ordinating the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, including final disposal, at a national level.
AN&DR elaborates and monitors the implementation of:
· National Strategy for Nuclear Field Development
· National Nuclear Program
- National Commission for Nuclear Activities (CNCAN) is the national competent authority in the nuclear field, exercising the functions of regulation, authorization and control of nuclear activities.
- The national nuclear operator is Nuclearelectrica S.A. The shareholders of Nuclearelectrica S.A. are the Romanian State (90.28%) and „Fondul Proprietatea” (9.72%). Its main activities include electrical power and heat production, NPP construction and commissioning, and nuclear fuel fabrication.
2.2. Nuclear power plants: Overview
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
The electricity annually generated by the Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2 represents approximately 19% of the overall electricity production of Romania.
TABLE 7. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
* UCF (Unit Capability Factor) for the latest available year (only applicable to reactors in operation).
** Latest available data
+ Date, when first major placing of concrete, usually for the base mat of the reactor building is done.
++ Date of the first connection to the grid
Source: Source: SC Nuclearelectrica S.A PRIS database (www.iaea.org/pris).
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals
Cernavoda Unit 1, having been in operation since December 1996, started the development of the Plant Life Management (PLiM) Programme. Due to its complexity, the programme plan has been divided into several subprogrammes and pilot projects, and integrated with other initiatives for improvement to the long-term strategy of Cernavoda NPP (2004-2008), managed effectively by annual Station Technical Programmes.
The overall PLiM programme is designed to meet the needs of Cernavoda Unit 1 for a structured work programme, and will be implemented in phases. This phased approach will provide the information required for input into its cost model for plant economic assessments.
Source: IAEA TECDOC 1503
2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
Further nuclear power capacity
In 2002, efforts got under way to resume work on Cernavoda Unit 3. Nuclearelectrica S.A. commissioned a feasibility study from Ansaldo, AECL and KHNP (S. Korea) in 2003.
In August 2004, the government advertised for companies interested in the completion of Cernavoda Unit 3, a 700 MWe Candu 6 unit, through a public-private partnership arrangement. This proved impractical, and a feasibility study in March 2006 analyzed further options for both Units 3 and 4.
Main foreseen characteristics of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 are:
Reactor Type: CANDU 6
Installed Output: 2 x 720 MWe
Delivered Power: 2 x 5,239 TWh/year
Schedule: 64 months per unit
Unit Life: 30 years, possible 40
Electricity Price: 28.2-32.5 Euro/MWh
Policy for nuclear fuel cycle
Current policy is for a once–through nuclear fuel cycle without reprocessing
Strategy for funding long term spent fuel handling and final disposal, waste management and decommissioning
The Unit 2 (CANDU 6 PHWR) from Cernavoda NPP started operation at the end of 2007. Because there is a difference in operation between the two NPPs of eleven years, and to finalize the decommissioning at the same time, Unit 1 was assigned the SAFESTORE strategy for decommissioning (31 years from shut-down to release from CNCAN control) and Unit 2 the DECON strategy for decommissioning (20 years from shut-down to release from CNCAN control). It is expected that each unit will operate for about 40 years. The decommissioning of Unit 2 is scheduled to begin in 2054. In 2067, after 7 years of preparation in the transition period from operation to decommissioning will be completed.
New Nuclear Power Plant in Romania
The construction of a new NPP after 2020 is under consideration.
2.3.2. Project management
The annual production of a CANDU 720 MWe nuclear unit is steady, with output amounting to about 5.2-5.4 TWh (gross). This leads to an equivalent yearly reduction of roughly 1.4 million tons of oil, representing more than 100 millions USD, and the associated decrease in noxious emissions.
The “Strategy” states that, given present conditions in Romania and taking into account the cost of energy from nuclear plants versus the costs of fossil fuel power plants, investment should continue for the next units of Cernavoda NPP.
In addition, sites are currently being considered for a second nuclear-power plant.
At present, R&D programs are addressing problems regarding: the nuclear safety and physics of nuclear reactors, testing of nuclear materials and equipment, development of new concepts of nuclear fuel cycles and advanced reactors, decommissioning (the VVR-S research reactor from Bucharest-Magurele is preparing the decommissioning process), management of nuclear waste, and protection of environment.
2.3.3. Project funding
The project company EnergoNuclear S.A. was established by Governmental Decision no. 1565/2008, and consists of Nuclearelectrica S.A. and private investors. The current Romanian Government Program states that the selection of new investors and re-negotiations will occur within a public-private partnership.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
No data available.
2.3.5. Site Selection
No data available.
2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs
Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 – Project Development Activities
For the completion of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4, the new project company, EnergoNuclear S.A., which was established through the Governmental Decision no. 1565/2008, announced two phases of the project:
- the pre-project phase: this is estimated to last 18 months from the registration of the Project Company, and will have a budget of 30 million Euro as a result of shareholder subscriptions and payments. During this period, the investors will conclude the commercial arrangements for the construction of the reactors, their long-term operation and the financing methods. During these 18 months, the necessary approvals from the European Commission for construction must also be obtained
- the project phase: this is the period in which each investor will contribute to covering the costs of the project with an amount relevant to the share owned in the social capital of the company.
2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs
National Company Nuclearelectrica S.A., the owner and operator of Cernavoda NPP, was founded by Governmental Decision no. 365 in July 1998. CNE PROD Cernavoda, a subsidiary of Nuclearelectrica S.A., is responsible for operating the Cernavoda Units 1 and 2.
There is another subsidiary of Nuclearelectrica S.A., the Nuclear Fuel Plant in Pitesti–Mioveni. This is the local manufacturer of CANDU-type nuclear fuel for the Cernavoda Units 1 and 2. CNE PROD has its own maintenance division and a Training Center with a full scope simulator.
2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs
No available data
2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management
Nuclear fuel cycle policy: Open nuclear fuel cycle
Uranium mining activities started in Romania in 1952. The National Uranium Company (CNU) is the representative of the State in this activity, and has three uranium mining branches (EM): Bihor - EM Bihor, Banat - EM Banat, and Suceava - EM Crucea.
Milling and conversion:
Uranium ores are processed by the Feldioara plant, which is operated by CNU. The Feldioara processing plant has two modules:
- ‘R’ type module for uranium milling and concentration (nominal capacity 300 t U(U3O8)/y)
- ‘E’ type module for uranium refining and conversion to nuclear grade UO2 (nominal capacity 300 t U(UO2)/y).
Both modules are in operation, but the production capacity is reduced to about 100 t U(U3O8)/y for the R plant, and on request (by the Pitesti Fuel Fabrication Plant (FCN Pitesti)) for the E plant. The Feldioara processing plant has been qualified by AECL as a CANDU UO2 fuel supplier.
Spent fuel produced by Cernavoda NPPs is not reprocessed
The Nuclearelectrica S.A. operates FCN Pitesti. The present capacity of FCN Pitesti (110 t U/y) will be increased in accordance with Cernavoda NPP requirements. FCN Pitesti has been qualified by AECL as a CANDU fuel supplier.
The nuclear fuel needed for operation of the Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2 is supplied by the Nuclear Fuel Plant from Pitesti. In 2007, FCN obtained the TUV EN ISO 14001:2004 certificate for its management system. The capacity of the plant enables it to provide the annual amount of fuel necessary for Unit 1 and 2 operation. With small investment to extend its production capacity, it will be able to meet the requirements of the operation of four units.
Heavy water production:
The Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities operates the ROMAG PROD Heavy Water Plant (design capacity 360 t/y).
Spent fuel management:
Romania’s objective is to ensure the safe management of radioactive waste, including spent fuel, according to the provision of laws and regulations assuring the protection of human health and the environment, including the protection of future generations.
Romanian radioactive waste producers are:
- Unit 1 - in operation since December 1996
- Unit 2 – commissioned in 2007
- Nuclear Research Institute (SCN) from Pitesti
3. Medicine, agriculture, industry
Cernavoda NPP current waste management:
- The gaseous and aqueous liquid waste is collected, filtered/purified by designed systems and then safely released/discharged into the environment.
- Organic liquid waste is pretreated (collection and segregation by interim storage criteria), treated (absorption into polymeric structure), packaged in stainless steel drums and stored in an interim storage facility.
- Solid radioactive waste management at CNE Cernavoda includes the pretreatment (collection, segregation), treatment (volume reduction by compaction or shredding) and safe storage of the waste.
The current capacity of the concrete building that accommodates solid radioactive waste (storage facility at Cernavoda NPP) is for 46 reactor-years.
After extraction from the nuclear reactor and during the first “cooling down” stage, spent fuel is stored on racks under water in the spent fuel bay, placed near the reactor building. After 6 years, the spent fuel can be transferred to a dry place, the Intermediate Spent Fuel Storage facility (DICA).
The Cernavoda NPP DICA has been constructed based on AECL technology, adapted to the Cernavoda conditions. The first module was commissioned in May 2003, and at present there are 3 modules already erected on the site. The site is licensed so that the total storage capacity (27 MACSTOR modules) can accommodate the spent fuel produced by Unit 1 and Unit 2 for a 50 year storage period. The site could be extended to accommodate the spent fuel produced by all 4 units from Cernavoda NPP.
Research reactors radioactive waste:
Nuclear Research Institute (SCN) from Pitesti: According to the Agreement signed between Romania and USA, the HEU type fuel has already been returned to USA.
Institutional radioactive waste:
The processing and conditioning of the institutional radioactive waste is done by IFIN-HH and SCN Pitesti on the research reactor sites at Bucharest and Pitesti, in the respective Treatment and Conditioning facilities. IFIN-HH is responsible for the transport of conditioned institutional radioactive waste to the National Repository for Radioactive Waste (DNDR), which is located at Baita Bihor. The first waste disposals were made in 1986, and the current estimate is that disposals will continue until 2040. The repository is currently operated by IFIN-HH.
The National Strategy on Medium and Long Term Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste, including the Disposal and the Decommissioning of Nuclear and Radiological Facilities, provides:
- L&ILW Surface Repository by the end of 2020
- HLW Deep Geological Repository Facility by the end of 2055
- safety and technical characteristics of BAITA-BIHOR Repository improvement
In the long–term, the liability concerning the final repository for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel rests with the “Nuclear Agency & Radioactive Waste”, set up in 2009.
2.8. Research and development
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports, the new governmental organization, co-ordinates the activity of most R&D organizations and institutes through the National Authority for Scientific Research.
The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Business Environment is the responsible authority for the definition of national participation policies and strategies, for planning and co-ordination of the national nuclear industry activity, representing the State as a shareholder of nuclear assets, and for co-ordination of part of major R&D and engineering facilities. It also has primary responsibility for the safety of its nuclear installations, which is assured through the following organizations:
Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities (RAAN), through the Nuclear Research Institute (SCN) Pitesti, is the operator of the TRIGA type research reactor, the hot cell facility and the radioactive waste treatment facility at the Pitesti-Colibasi site. RAAN, through the Center of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects (SITON), is also in charge with support design activities in the nuclear field and, through the Heavy Water Plant (ROMAG-PROD) located in Drobeta Turnu-Severin, of covering the heavy water needs of the Cernavoda NPP.
Nuclear Research Institute (SCN) Pitesti, under the Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities (RAAN)
The Nuclear Research Institute (SCN) is consistently involved in the work associated with the national nuclear safety programs: nuclear fuel, reactor physics, radiation protection, generic CANDU technologies, management of radioactive waste and TRIGA reactor conversion. Almost all of the Institute’s activities were oriented towards providing scientific and technical support for the Nuclear Power Program in Romania. The major SCN R&D Programs are focused on:
Nuclear safety, to ensure the technical and scientific support needed for the safety assessment of Cernavoda NPP during its lifetime
Nuclear fuel, to elaborate technology and new methods to optimize fuel utilization in Cernavoda NPP
Radiation protection, to integrate all aspects regarding ecological impact of nuclear power and to develop techniques for operating nuclear installations based on ALARA principles
CANDU technologies intended to ensure an optimized maintenance of NPP systems and components;
Radioactive waste management, to solve the problem of radioactive waste generated by nuclear facilities in accordance with national legislation and international standards
Radioisotopes and irradiation techniques
Center of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects (SITON) Bucuresti-Magurele, under the Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities (RAAN)
SITON supports the nuclear programme in Romania with a large range of services under a regime of quality assurance, through using internationally-recognized codes and standards (ASTM, ASME, IEEE, ISI, IEC, CSA series and IAEA guidelines etc.). SITON services cover the following:
detail design for process and support systems associated with a CANDU-600 NPP, as well as civil design for the reactor building, the turbine hall, the service building, spent fuel and waste management and detail design for adjacent installations and support systems for nuclear research reactors and labs
reliability and probabilistic assessment studies
nuclear safety analyses, including environmental impact analyses in case of accidents, fires, earthquakes, flooding etc.
thermohydraulic calculations and stress analyses for various working regimes, using specialized computer programmes
methodologies for computation and computer-assisted design
technical and economic studies for siting as well as cost estimates for new designs and for operational design modifications for NPP systems and components
technical assistance for equipment fabrication, installation, testing and commissioning as well as for the testing and commissioning of process systems
land registering and requirements for area classification
analyses and optimizations of power consumption
prognoses regarding the national power-system development, especially nuclear power trends
Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering “Horia Hulubei” (IFIN-HH) Bucuresti-Magurele, under the co-ordination of the National Authority for Scientific Research (ANCS)
The Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering performs research activities in the nuclear field and on radioactive waste treatment, and is the owner of the type VVR-S research reactor and the national LL and IL radioactive waste repository. It also operates the multi-purpose irradiation facility. Its main activities are focused on:
Technological irradiation using neutrons, gamma rays and charged particles
Neutron activation analysis; X-ray fluorescence
Magnetic resonance and tomography
Methods, instruments and devices using radioactive sources
Tracer applications to hydrology and geology
Radiochemistry; polymerization in radiation fields
Nuclear radiation metrology
Primary and secondary standards
Etalons for use in the field of nuclear radiation research and applications
Quality assurance and control
Radiation biophysics and biochemistry
Low-dose irradiation effects on biological systems
Interaction of nonionising radiation with living systems
Cytotoxic effects due to internal contamination with tritium
Non conventional biochemical techniques: RIA, EIA, ELISA, biosensors
Pharmacology of labeled components of medical use and of U and Th compounds
Metallic pollutants in biological structures
Biokinetics of radionuclides and whole body monitoring
Development of a decision support system for nuclear emergency
Techniques and procedures for radioactive and chemical pollutants
Transfer mechanisms and ecological lifetime of radionuclides
Models for transfer and dose prediction of radionuclides
Use of radioactive tracers in agriculture and the environment
Environmental transfer and conversion of tritium from CANDU reactor
Nuclear risk assessment for the public and environment
Automatic systems for medical diagnosis
Apparatus and devices for nuclear medicine and environment monitoring
Software for nuclear medicine and environmental applications
Non-fuel cycle radioactive waste collection, treatment, conditioning, interim, storage and disposal
Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities
Instrumentation for nuclear research and technologies
Gas detectors for applications in industry and medicine
Detectors for radiation dosimetry and environmental radioactivity
Data acquisition systems
Modular electronic equipment for research and application in industry
NMR and EPR methods and instrumentation
Magnetometers for space applications
National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (ITIM), Cluj-Napoca
ITIM is an institute for scientific research and technological development, under the co-ordination of the National Authority for Scientific Research (ANCS).
The research activities of the Institute for Isotopic and Molecular Technology are pointed in several significant directions:
Stable isotope physics
Selective excitation in laser radiation field
Low temperature distillation (-196°C, liquid nitrogen) for the separation of oxygen, carbon and boron isotopes
Chemical isotopic exchange
Synthesis of stable isotopes labeled
Analytical methods and instrumentation
Stable isotopes separation and labeled compounds
Separation of oxygen and carbon isotopes by cryogenic distillation
15N Labeled compounds
Environment survey and protection
Separation of uranium from radiation-contaminated waters
Methods for geological characterization of rocks, with stable isotopes
Determination of highly sensitive counting technique for long-life radionuclides, determination applied in radioecology and dating
National Research Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Separations (ICSI), Ramnicu Valcea
ICSI is an institute for scientific research and technological development, under the co-ordination of the National Authority for Scientific Research (ANCS). It was founded with the aim of researching and verifying the technologies for heavy-water separation and further treatment of tritium. The principal directions of its activities are:
Research into equilibrium and hydrogen isotope (tritium, deuterium) separation processes, inclusive of the industrial pilot plant level
Research and development of cryogenic processes, equipment, and, specifically technologies and experimental stands
Research into the equilibrium and gases separation process of purification and forward recovery technology
Achievement and development of advanced materials as adsorbents, catalysts, composites and fullereness
Development of methods, apparatus and equipment for control of isotopic separation processes and achievement of cryogenic temperatures
Development of static and dynamic equipment specifically for isotopic separation processes
Direct utilization of own research in production (ultra pure gases, gases and gas mixtures, equipment, sodium sulphide, analysis apparatus, risk studies, expertise)
National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Bucuresti-Magurele
The National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics performs research activities in laser physics, plasma physics, and physics of electron beams, under the co-ordination of the National Authority for Scientific Research (ANCS). The main research and development activities are focused on:
Fusion plasma physics, theoretical studies and numerical simulations of the plasma evolution in tokamak devices
Physics and technology of plasma produced by high-power particle beams and X-radiation in ultra fast transient plasmas
Plasma surface engineering
Crystal growth by plasma methods
National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics (IFT), Iasi
The research activity of the National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, under the co-ordination of the National Authority for Scientific Research (ANCS), is directed in several significant directions:
Magnetic materials and devices
Special alloys and hard magnetic materials
Magnetic separation and high Tc superconductivity
Magnetometry and magnetic detection
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
Taking into consideration the selection of a proper site for a new nuclear power plant in Romania, the construction of a Generation III reactor is most likely. Furthermore, all studies concerning the new site selection and future technology are still in progress.
Romania also participates in international programs concerning advanced reactor systems, such as INPRO.
2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives
In the nuclear field, international co-operation mainly aims at ensuring the safety and reliability of nuclear facilities. For this goal, Romania is carrying out active co-operation activities consisting of: information exchange, training courses and international meetings, elaboration of studies, expertise, design, tests, research and common regulations, thereby enhancing and sharing their experience and know-how. All these contribute to a permanent improvement of the qualifications of personnel.
IAEA provides Romania with technical assistance through a Country Programme Framework, aiming to identify and address short- and medium-term objectives and interests, and national development priorities. Nuclear Agency is the National Contact Point for the Technical Co-operation with IAEA.
Romania is an active participant in the technical co-operation regional, European and international programmes in the following areas: strategic planning for sustainable development of nuclear institutions, research reactors, radiation medicine, isotopic technologies for water resources, NPP Probabilistic Safety Assessment, radioprotection and nuclear techniques used in agriculture. Romania participated in the 2009-2011 TC Cycle in 35 regional projects, and is co-ordinator for three of them. Some of the beneficiary institutions are: IFIN-HH, CNCAN, AN&DR, Nuclearelectrica and SCN-Pitesti.
Following the U.S. Secretary of Energy’s announcement of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in 2004, the IAEA initiated a Technical Co-operation project ROM/4/024 to enable the safe operation of the TRIGA 14-MW reactor from SCN Pitesti during the gradual and complete conversion from HEU to LEU fuel. The IAEA project was originally approved in 1999, but became active in 2003, with the receipt of extra budgetary contributions totaling $3.6 million from the U.S. and $0.5 Million from Romania. The total project cost was $4.4 million, with IAEA contributing $0.3 Million and taking the co-ordinating role.
In September 2007, Romania became an active member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) by signing the Declaration of Principles. The outstanding importance of this Partnership resides in the strengthening of nuclear safety and nuclear risk mitigation through a balanced promotion of R&D development and partnership in international policy. Romania is represented in the steering committee and working groups.
Romania also joined the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GI), in 2007. Signing the GI Declaration of Principles, Romania ceded all legal instruments needed for prevention of nuclear terrorism acts: prevention, early detection, combating and investigation. Romania is represented in the organizing committees of the working groups. Romanian scientists are actively involved in international research projects, such as: INPRO, ITER, GIF, Framework Programme 7 EURATOM, JRC and CERN. Many of them are also associated with projects developed within the international research network or in co-operation with international research institutes (e.g. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research DUBNA).
Nuclearelectica SA is an active member of international specialized organizations and entities, such as WANO-Atlanta Center (World Association of Nuclear Operators) and COG (CANDU Owners Group), benefiting from a continuous exchange of experience in the field.
Nuclearelectrica SA is also a member of the World Nuclear Association (WNA) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It has developed an effective and large partnership within IAEA European regional co-operation programs.
Under IAEA’s aegis, Romania grants technical assistance to nuclear specialists from developing countries that operate CANDU nuclear power plants or intend to start or enlarge nuclear programs.
2.9. Human resources development
The complexity and risk level of the facilities and equipment of a nuclear power plant require high-quality manpower and its preservation throughout time. To this end, Romania considers the work performed in the human resources field a priority. Special attention is paid to the strategy relating to personnel recruitment and personnel loyalty/job stability, as well as to the sustained improvement of training and specialization quality. This is accomplished both through analyzing the work of that particular domain and through application of the provisions under the Collective Labor Agreement, that is adapted to the relevant requirements and to the laws in force.
The main activity and concern within the human resources area has been and continues to be personnel recruiting and job stability. This has been alleviated by applying some strictly-established selection criteria regarding personnel specialization, as well as by applying a remuneration system focused mainly on jobs specific to the nuclear domain.
The training of personnel working in the nuclear field is focused on the attributions of each category of jobs, and provides the knowledge necessary for performing activities safely and efficiently. The personnel are trained both inside the companies/institutions, through on-the-job training courses and workshops, and outside them, through participation in national and international conferences, symposia, workshops and other events within the programs organized by IAEA-Vienna and by other national and international organizations.
Two personnel training centers have been established:
Nuclear Training Centre - Department within IFIN-HH, Magurele, Bucharest. Develops activities related to the qualification and/or specialization of personnel for nuclear applications or other related fields. CPSDN activity is carried out in compliance with a Quality Management System certified in accordance with EN ISO 9001:2000 by TUV HESSEN, through TUV CERT certification body.
Cernavoda Training Center at Cernavoda NPP, developed with IAEA technical support, runs nuclear safety and security training programs
2.10. Stakeholder Communication
No available data
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory framework
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national competent authority in the nuclear field, exercising the powers of regulation, authorization and control, as provided under the Law 111/1996 (on the safe deployment of nuclear activities, republished).
The Ministry of Environment and Forests is responsible for environmental protection legislation and regulations, and for the licensing process from an environmental protection point of view.
The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Business Environment co-ordinates the Pressure Vessel Authority (ISCIR), which is responsible for licensing and control of pressure vessels, boilers and other pressure installations, including those from the nuclear field.
The Ministry of Public Health is the authority responsible for organizing the monitoring network for contamination with radioactive materials of food products throughout the whole food chain, including drinking water as well as other goods designated to be used by the population, according to the law. It is also responsible for the epidemiological surveillance system of the health conditions of personnel who are professionally exposed, and of the hygiene conditions in units in which nuclear activities are deployed.
The Ministry of Administration and the Interior is responsible for control of fire protection at nuclear installations and for supervision of the physical protection of nuclear installations and nuclear material.
The Ministry of Public Finance is the authority in charge of providing and controlling financial support from governmental budgetary funds.
3.1.2. Licensing Process
Since December 2000, CNCAN is an independent governmental body. The president of CNCAN is a Secretary of State. CNCAN is responsible for full surveillance and control in all issues relevant to nuclear safety regarding siting, construction, commissioning, operation of nuclear plants, research reactors and all nuclear facilities in Romania. In addition, CNCAN is charged with full surveillance and control in all issues relevant to quality assurance, radiation safety, safeguards, export/import control, physical protection and emergency preparedness, and monitoring the radioactivity of the environment. CNCAN is the National Counterpart to the IAEA for nuclear safety, radiation safety, safeguards, physical protection, emergency preparedness, illicit trafficking events reporting, IRS and INES reporting systems and Safety Convention reporting activities. CNCAN plays the role of regulatory body integrator in the licensing process of nuclear installations.
3.2. Main national laws and regulations in nuclear power
Law no. 43/1995 for ratification of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, adopted by IAEA in June 17, 1994
Government’s Ordinance no. 195/2005 on environmental protection, with the subsequent changes and completions
Law no. 111/1996 on the safe deployment, regulation, authorization and control of nuclear activities, republished
Law no. 105/1999 for ratification of the Joint Convention on Safety of Spent Fuel and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management
Law no. 100/2000 for the ratification of the Protocol between Romania and IAEA, additional to the Agreement between Romania and IAEA for the application of the safeguards connected to the Treaty for the nonproliferation of the nuclear weapons
Law no. 703/2001 regarding the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages, with the subsequent changes and completions
Government’s Decision no. 1259/2002 for the approval of the National Strategy for the development of the Nuclear Field in Romania and of the Plan of Action for the Strategy
Government’s Decision no. 437/2002 for the approval of the setting up of Interdepartmental Committee to restart and to complete the workings regarding Unit 3 and 4 from CNE Cernavoda, with the subsequent changes and completions
Government’s Decision no. 890/2003 regarding the approval of the “road map of the power field in Romania”, with the subsequent changes and completions
Law no. 193/2003 for the completion of Law no. 111/1996 on the safe development of nuclear activities
Government’s Ordinance no. 11/2003 on the safe management of radioactive waste – republished
Government’s Decision no. 1568/2003 regarding the amount of direct annual contributions of nuclear permit holders and the deadline for their payments
Government’s Decision no. 1627/2003 for the approval of the Regulations of organization and functioning of the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, with the subsequent changes and completions
Government’s Decision no. 1601/2003 regarding the organization and functioning of the National Agency for Radioactive Waste
Government’s Ordinance no. 7/2003 regarding the use of nuclear energy in exclusively peaceful purposes, with the subsequent changes and completions
Government’s Decision no. 97/2005 for the approval of the Agreement between the Nuclear Agency of Romania and the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and the Department of Energy of the United States of America concerning co-operation in the area of countering the proliferation of nuclear materials and technologies
Law no. 360/2005 regarding the payment of the financial obligation of Romania to the International Atomic Energy Agency
Law no. 57/2006 for changing and completions of the Government’s Ordinance no. 7/2003 regarding the use of nuclear energy in exclusively peaceful purposes
Government’s Decision no. 267/2007 for the approval of the Regulations of organization and functioning and of the structure of the Nuclear Agency
Government’s Decision no. 643/2007 regarding the approval of the Strategy for selecting the investors for Unit 3 and 4 from CNE Cernavoda
Government’s Decision no. 957/2007 regarding the changing and completions of the Government’s Decision no. 437/2002 for the approval of the setting up of Interdepartmental Committee to restart and to complete the workings regarding Unit 3 and 4 from CNE Cernavoda
Government’s Decision no. 923/2008 regarding the changing of the Government’s Decision no. 267/2007 for the approval of the Regulations of organization and functioning and of the structure of the Nuclear Agency
Government’s Decision no. 691/2008 for changing and completions of the Government’s Decision no. 634/2007 regarding the approval of the Strategy for selecting the investors for Unit 3 and 4 from CNE Cernavoda
Government’s Decision no. 1437 of 2009, November 18, regarding the approval of the organization and functioning Regulation and of the organizational structure of Nuclear Agency & Radioactive Waste
1. SC Transelectrica S.A. – Annual report 2005-2007
2. SC Transelectrica S.A. – Technical Results of the Romanian Electricity Sector in 2007
3. SC Transelectrica S.A. – Technical Report 2007-2008
4. SC Transelectrica S.A. – Annual Report 2007-2008.
5. Nuclearelectrica S.A. – Semnal "N" (in Romanian), 2000-2008.
6. Romanian Government Program 2009-2012
7. The Romanian Strategy of the energy sector for the period 2007-2020, issued by the Ministry of Economy and approved by Governmental Decision no 1069/2007
8. Statistics Year Book of Romania 2000-2008, Statistics National Commission (CNS)
9. “Statistical Bulletin – Industry”, CNS, 2000-2008
10. “Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei” (in Romanian), 1996-2008
11. Data & Statistics/The World Bank, www.worldbank.org/data
12. IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB)
13. IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)
14. Nuclear Energy and the Kyoto Protocol, OECD/NEA, 2002
15. AREN, "Nuclear Energy" Magazine, 2007-2008
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
List of international conventions and bilateral agreements signed/ratified by Romania in the field of nuclear power:
Main International Treaties
|Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)||1970-02-04||Signature: 1968-07-01|
|Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the IAEA||1970-10-07||Acceptance: 1970-10-07|
|Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||1993-12-23||Signature: 1981-01-15|
|Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||1993-03-29||Accession: 1992-12-29|
|Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||1990-07-13||Accession: 1990-06-12|
|Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||1990-07-13||Accession: 1990-06-12|
|Convention on Nuclear Safety||1996-10-24||Signature: 1994-09-20|
|Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention||1993-03-29||Accession: 1992-12-29|
|Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||2001-06-18||Signature: 1997-09-30|
|Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||2003-10-04||Signature: 1997-09-30|
|Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage||Signature: 1997-09-30|
|Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA (RSA)||1981-10-28||Signature: 1981-10-28|
|Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||Ratification: 2007-02-06|
|Euratom Treaty||2007-01-01||Since January 1st 2007 |
Romania is member of EU
|IFNEC Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Steering Group Members Approve Transformation to the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Department of Energy - U.S. Department of Energy||Approved: June 18 2010|
|Application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||1972-10-27||Signature: 1972-03-08|
|Protocol between Romania and the IAEA Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Romania and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||2000-07-07||Signature: 1999-06-11|
Other relevant international treaties and documents
|Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water||In force:||23 December 1963|
|Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof||In force:||10 July 1072|
|Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty||In force:||5 October 1999|
|Improved procedures for designation of safeguards inspectors||Accepted in statement to Board of Governors:||22 February 1990|
|Nuclear Export Guidelines||Adopted|
Committees and Groups
1. Zangger Committee – Member
2. Wassenaar Arrangement – Member
3. Australia Group – Member
4. Nuclear Suppliers Group – Member
5. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russian Federation
6. International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) – member
7. Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism – member
|1. Agreement between the Popular Republic of Romania and the Union of the Socialist Soviet Republics regarding the further development of cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy – Bucharest, 19 April 1962||In force:||1962|
|2. Agreement between the Government of Socialist Republic of Romania and the Government of India in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy – Bucharest, 30 August 1971||In force:||13 November 1971|
|3. Agreement between Government of Socialist Republic of Romania and Government of the Kingdom of Belgium on cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy – Bucharest, 29 January 1974||In force:||16 April 1974|
|4. Agreement between the Government of Socialist Republic of Romania and Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on cooperation in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy – Bucharest, 18 September 1975||In force:||30 December 1975|
|5. Agreement between the Government of the Socialist Republic of Romania and the Government of Canada for co-operation in the development and application of atomic energy for peaceful purposes||In force:||1977|
|6. Agreement between Governments of Romania and Argentina for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy||In force:||27 November 1990|
|7. Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context – Espoo, 25 February 1991||In force:||22 February 2001|
|8. Agreement between Governments of Romania and the Hellenic Republic on early notification of a nuclear accident and information exchange on nuclear facilities – Athens, 10 March 1995||In force:||23 March 1995|
|9. Protocol of understanding on co-operation in the nuclear safety domain between CNCAN of Romania and the Institute for Nuclear Safety of Republic of Korea (KINS) – Bucharest, 21 September 1996||In force:||11 November 1996|
|10. Agreement between Governments of Romania and Hungarian Republic on early notification of nuclear accidents – Bucharest, 26 May 1997||In force:||3 October 1997|
|11. Agreement between CNCAN of Romania and Greek Commission for Atomic Energy on early notification of a nuclear accident and on information exchange about nuclear facilities – Bucharest, 22 December 1997||In force:||25 May 1998|
|12. Agreement between Governments of Romania and Bulgarian Republic on early notification of a nuclear accident and information exchange on nuclear facilities – Kozlodui, 28 May 1997||In force:||25 November 1997|
|13. Protocol of understanding on co-operation in the nuclear safety domain between CNCAN of Romania and Atomic Energy Control Board(AECB) of Canada – Ottawa, 23 June 1997||In force:||25 May 1998|
|14. Protocol on co-operation and information exchange in the nuclear safety domain between CNCAN and Hungarian Authority for Atomic Energy – Budapest, 12 June 1997||In force:||25 May 1998|
|15. Agreement between Governments of Romania and USA on peaceful applications of nuclear energy – Washington D.C., 15 July 1998||In force:||25 June 1999|
|16. Agreement of co-operation and information exchange in the nuclear safety domain between CNCAN of Romania and the Society for Nuclear Safety of Facilities and Reactors of Germany – Berlin||In force:||23 February 1999|
|17. Agreement between Governments of Romania and the United States on cooperation in counteracting the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and to promote military relations and defense – Washington D.C., 30 March 1998||In force:||26 January 1999|
|18. Memorandum of Understanding for co-operation between CNCAN of Romania and the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina||In force:||8 May 2000|
|19. Administrative Understanding between Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and CNCAN implementing the Agreement for Co-operation in the Development and Application of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes||In force:||29 May 2000|
|20. Agreement between Governments of Romania and the Slovakian Republic on early notification of a nuclear accident and information exchange on nuclear facilities – Bucharest, 19 February 2002||In force:||14 May 2002|
|21. Agreement between Governments of Romania and the Russian Federation on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Information Exchange on Nuclear Facilities – Moscow, 21 February 2002||In force:||15 May 2002|
|22. Cooperation Agreement between the Romanian Government and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) on the further development of scientific and technical cooperation in the research projects of CERN – Geneva, 25 March 2002||In force:||14 November 2002|
|23. Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in nuclear energy project between the Ministry of Economy and Commerce from Romania and the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy from the Republic of Korea – Seul, 21 July 2003||In force:||1 October 2003|
|24. Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of Republic of Korea for cooperation in order to use peaceful nuclear energy in industry, research and development – Bucharest, 3 February 2004||In force:||25 May 2004|
|25. Agreement between the Romanian Government and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents and Exchanging of Information on nuclear and radiological safety – Vienna, 22 September 2004||In force:||29 December 2004|
|26. Agreement between the Nuclear Agency of Romania and the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control from Romania and the Department of Energy from the United States of America on cooperation in combating the proliferation of nuclear weapons and technology – New York, 19 July 2004||In force:||1 March 2005|
|27. Agreement between the parties to the North Atlantic Treaty for cooperation regarding atomic information field – 14 February 2006||In force:||12 January 2007|
|28. Agreement between the Kingdom of Belgium, Kingdom of Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italian Republic, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency, on the application of Article III. 1 and Paragraph 4 of the Treaty on nuclear non-proliferation (78/164/EURATOM) – Bruxelles, 5 April 1973||In force:||11 July 2007|
|29. Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of Republic of Turkey on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident – Bucharest, 3 March 2008||In force:||12 September 2008|
|30. Agreement between the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform from Romania and the Department of Energy from the United States of America on Cooperation in Preventing Illicit Trafficking with Nuclear Substances and Radioactive Materials – Bucharest, 15 September 2008||25 September 2008|
|31. Agreement between Governments of Romania and Russian Federation on cooperation for the transfer of spent nuclear fuel from a research reactor to Russian Federartion – Bucharest, 19 February 2009||In force:||15 June 2009|
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
A. Romanian Academies
|address125, Calea Victoriei St., 1-st District, Bucharest RO-010071 ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 212 86 40facsimile number+ 40 21 211 66 08e-mail address web site addresswww.academiaromana.ropresidentacademician Ionel HAIDUC|
|2.||Academy of Technical Sciences|
addresssector 1, Cod 000000, Bucuresti, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 722 215 100facsimile number e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.astr.ropresidentacademician Gheorghe BUZDUGAN
|3.||Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences "Gheorghe Ionescu-Sisesti"|
address61 B-dul. Marasti, 1-st District, Bucharest, RO- 011464, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 318 44 50facsimile number+ 40 21 318 44 51e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.asas.ropresidentacademician Cristian HERA
|1.||Ministry of Economy, Trade and Business Environment|
address152, Calea Victoriei St., 1-st District, Bucharest RO-010096 ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 202 53 99, + 40 21 202 51 53facsimile number+ 40 21 202 51 08e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.minind.ro
|2.||Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports|
address28-30, General Berthelot St, 1-st District, Bucharest RO-010168, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 405 62 00, + 40 21 405 63 00facsimile number+ 40 21 405 62 00e-mail address web site addresswww.edu.ro
|3.||Ministry of Environment and Forests|
address12, Libertarii Blvd., 5-st District, Bucharest, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 316 02 15, + 40 21 316 61 38facsimile number+ 40 21 316 61 38e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.mmediu.ro
|4.||Ministry of Foreign Affairs|
address31, Aleea Alexandru St., 1-st District, Bucharest RO-011822, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 319 21 08, + 40 21 319 21 25facsimile number+ 40 21 319 68 62e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.mae.ro
|5.||Ministry of Justice|
address17 Apolodor St., sector 5, Bucharest, RO-010366, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 372 04 10 46facsimile number+ 40 372 04 10 46e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.just.ro
|6.||Ministry of National Defence|
address3-5 Izvor St, 5 District, RO- 050561 Bucharest, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 402 34 00facsimile number+ 40 21 319 56 98e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.mapn.ro
|7.||Ministry of Administration and the Interior|
addressPiata Revolutiei nr. 1A, 1-st District, Bucharest, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 307 25 00, + 40 21 307 26 00facsimile number+ 40 21 307 25 00e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.mira.gov.ro
|8.||General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations|
address46 Banu Dumitrache St., 2-st District, Bucharest, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 208 61 50facsimile number+ 40 21 242 09 90e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.igsu.ro, www.mira.gov.ro
|9.||Ministry of Public Finance|
address17, Apolodor St., 5-st District, Bucharest, RO-050741, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 319 97 59facsimile number+ 40 21 312 25 09e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.mfinante.ro
|10.||Ministry of Public Health|
address1-3, Cristian Popisteanu St., 1-st District,
Bucharest RO-010024, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 307 25 00, + 40 21 307 26 00facsimile number+ 40 21 307 25 00e-mail address web site addresswww.ms.ro
|11.||Institute for Public Health Bucharest|
address1-3 Dr. Leonte St., 5 District, RO-050463
Bucharest ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 318 36 20facsimile number+ 40 21 312 34 26e-mail address web site addresswww.ispb.ro
C. National Nuclear Authorities
|1.||Nuclear Agency and for Radioactive Waste – AN&DR|
address21-25, Mendeleev St., 1-st District, Bucharest RO-010362, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 316 80 01, + 40 21 316 80 02, + 40 21 316 80 03fax+ 40 21 312 14 10e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.agentianucleara.ro, www.nuclearagency.ro
|2.||National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control – CNCAN|
|address14, Libertarii Blvd., 5-st District, Bucharest, ROMANIA telephone number+ 40 21 316 05 72, + 40 21 317 38 15facsimile number+ 40 21 317 38 87e-mail email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.cncan.ro|
|3.||National Authority for Scientific Research – ANCS|
address21-25, Mendeleev St., 1-st District, Bucharest RO-010362 ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 319 23 26, + 40 21 319 23 27facsimile number+ 40 21 312 66 17e-mail email@example.com site address www.mct.ro
|4.||Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority – ANRE|
addressStr. Constantin Nacu nr. 3, Bucuresti,
Sector 2, Cod postal 020995, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 21 311 22 44facsimile number+ 40 21 312 43 65e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.anre.ro
D. National Nuclear Companies
|National Uranium Company CNU>||address68, Dionisie Lupu St.,1-st District, Bucharest RO-010458, ROMANIA telephone number+ 40 21 318 52 58facsimile number+ 40 21 312 91 46e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.cnu.ro|
|Uranium ore extraction||Suceava Branch|
Crucea – Botusana Mines
|address1 Minei St., Crucea, Suceava County, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 230 57 56 30,|
+ 40 230 57 57 31facsimile number+ 40 230 57 56 30,
+ 40 230 57 57 31e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.cnu.ro,http://www.cnu.ro/feldioara.html
|UO2 powder production||Feldioara Branch||address1 Dumbravii St., Feldioara, Brasov County, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 268 26 51 37,|
+ 40 268 26 54 45facsimile number+ 40 268 26 51 37,
+ 40 268 26 54 45e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.cnu.ro,http://www.cnu.ro/feldioara.html
|Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities – RAAN >||address1 Nicolae Iorga St., Drobeta Turnu Severin RO-220236, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 252 32 38 48facsimile number+ 40 252 32 36 85e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.raan.ro|
|Heavy Water Production||ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant||addressCalea Tg-Jiului, Km.7, Dr.Tr.Severin, Mehedinti, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 252 31 12 50facsimile number+40 252 31 79 08e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.romag.ro|
|Societatea Nationala NUCLEARELECTRICA S.A Headquarters |
|Nuclear Fuel Production||Nuclear Fuel Plant FCN - Pitesti||address1 Campului St., Mioveni, Arges County, O.P.Mioveni, C.P.nr.1, RO-115400, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 248 20 77 00facsimile number+ 40 248 26 24 99e-mail address web site addresswww.fcn.ro|
|Nuclear Electricity Producer||Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant>||address2, Medgidiei St, Cernavoda, CP 42, RO-905200, Cernavoda , ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 241 23 93 37, + 40 241 23 93 38facsimile number+ 40 241 23 92 66e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com site addresswww.cne.ro|
|1.||Transilvania University of Brasov|
|address39 Eroilor Blvd., Brasov, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 268 14 46 34facsimile number+40 268 41 05 25e-mail address web site addresswww.unibv.ro|
|2.||University Politehnica of Bucharest - Power Engineering Faculty|
address313 Splaiul Independentei St, 6-st District,
Bucharest RO-060042, ROMANIAtelephone number+40-21-402 94 01; +40-21-402 94 62, +40-21-318 10 22facsimile number+40-21-402 96 75e-mail address web site addresswww.pub.ro, www.energpub.ro
|3.||University of Bucharest - Faculty of Physics|
addressPlatforma Magurele, Str. Fizicienilor nr. 1, CP Mg - 11, Bucharest-Magurele, RO - 76900, Buchares, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 21 780 47 70, +40 21 780 78 80facsimile number+40 21 420 86 25e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.fizica.unibuc.ro/
|4.|| Technical University of Cluj Napoca|
addressStr. Constantin Daicoviciu nr 15, 400020 Cluj - Napoca,
ROMANIAtelephone number+40 264 40 12 00, +40 264 40 12 48facsimile number+40 264 59 20 55e-mail address web site addresswww.utcluj.ro
|5.||University of Craiova - Faculty of Physics|
address13 A. I. Cuza Street, 200585 Craiova , ROMANIAtelephone number+40 251 41 50 77facsimile number+40 251 41 50 77e-mail email@example.com site addresshttp://cis01.central.ucv.ro/physics/physics.htm
|6.||Ovidius University of Constanta|
address124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta, 8700, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 241 61 83 72facsimile number+40 241 61 83 72e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.univ-ovidius.ro/
|7.||"Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi |
addressBd. Dimitrie Mangeron, nr. 53A, 700050 Iasi, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 232 21 23 26facsimile number+40 232 21 23 26e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.tuiasi.ro
|8.||“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi - Faculty of Physics|
address11, Carol I Boulevard, Iasi RO-700506, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 232 20 10 50facsimile number+40 232 20 11 50e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.phys.uaic.ro
|9.||University of Pitesti - Faculty of Sciences|
address1 Târgul din Vale St., Pitesti,
Arges county, RO-110040, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 248 21 88 04facsimile number+40 248 21 64 48e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.upit.ro
|10.||“Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu - Faculty of Sciences|
address5-7, Ion Ratiu Street, Sibiu, 550012, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 232 20 10 50facsimile number+40 232 20 11 50e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.ulbsibiu.ro
|11.||University Politehnica of Timisoara|
address2 Pta Victoriei St., RO-300006, Timisoara , ROMANIAtelephone number+40 256 40 30 00facsimile number+40 256 40 30 21e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.upt.ro
F. National Institutes of Research & Development
|1.||Center of Technology And Engineering for Nuclear Projects (SITON)|
address409 Atomistilor St., Magurele, Judet Ilfov Bucharest – Magurele, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 21 457 44 31facsimile number+40 21 457 44 29e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.citon.ro
|2.||“Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH)|
addressStr. Atomistilor no.407, P.O.BOX MG-6, Bucharest – Magurele, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 21 404 23 00facsimile number+40 21 457 44 40e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.nipne.ro
|3.||Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (SCN Pitesti)|
address1 Campului St., POB 78, Mioveni, Arges County, RO-115400, ROMANIA telephone number+ 40 248 21 34 00facsimile number+ 40 248 26 24 49e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.nuclear.ro
|4.||National Research Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Separations|
addressUzinei Street 4, PO Box 10, Post Office 4 Ramnicu Valcea RO-240050, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 250 73 27 44, +40 250 73 38 90facsimile number+40 250 73 27 46e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.icsi.ro
|5.||National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics INFLPR|
addressStr. Atomistilor no.409, P.O.BOX MG-36, Bucharest – Magurele RO-077125, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 21 457 44 89facsimile number+40 21 457 44 89e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.inflpr.ro
|6.||National Institute of Materials Physics NIMP|
addressStr. Atomistilor no.105bis, P.O.BOX MG-7, Bucharest – Magurele, RO-077125, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 21 369 01 85facsimile number+40 21 369 01 77e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.infim.ro
|7.||National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic |
and Molecular Technologies
address65-103 Donath St., P.O.Box 700, Post Office 5 Cluj-Napoca RO-400293, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 264 58 40 37facsimile number+40 264 42 00 42e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.itim-cj.ro
|8.||National Institute of Research & Development for Technical Physics (IFT) Iasi|
|address47 Mangeron Boulevard, Iasi, RO-700050, ROMANIAtelephone number+ 40 23 243 06 80facsimile number+ 40 23 223 11 32e-mail address web site addresswww.phys-iasi.ro|
|9.||Research and National Institute for Metals and Radioactive Resources |
address70 Carol I Blvd., Bucharest RO-020917, ROMANIAtelephone number+40 21 315 23 42facsimile number+40 21 313 12 58e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.icpmrr.ro
G. Non-Governmental Organizations
|1.||Romanian Associations “Nuclear Energy”|
|address65 Polona St., 1-st District, Bucharest, ROMANIAtelephone number+40-21-203 82 53facsimile number+40-21-211 98 04e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.aren.ro|
|address33 Gh Magheru Blvd., 1-st District, Bucharest, RO-010325, ROMANIAtelephone number+40-21-203 82 52facsimile number+40-21-311 94 00e-mail email@example.com site addresswww.romatom.ro|
|3.||Romanian National Committee of World Energy Council|
address1-3 Lacul Tei Blvd, 2-st District, Bucharest, ROMANIAtelephone number+40-21-211 41 55, +40-21-211 41 56facsimile number+40-21-211 41 57e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org site addresswww.cnr-cme.ro
Name of report coordinator: Augustin Aculai
Institution: Nuclear Agency & Radioactive Waste