KAZAKHSTAN

(Updated 2012)

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

1.1. Country overview

The Republic of Kazakhstan is a country located in the northern hemisphere, at the junction of the two continents of Europe and Asia. It is situated between 55 ° 26 'and 40 ° 56' north latitude and between 45 ° 27 'and 87 ° 18' east longitude, i.e. it extends into the central part of the Eurasian continent and the world in two parts. The smaller part (comprising about 5% of the country, representing 1.3% of the total area of Europe) is on the extreme eastern tip of Europe, while the majority of the country is in Asia. The area of the territory of Kazakhstan consists of a total 2% of the surface of the globe and more than 6% of Asia. The total length of the state border of the Republic of Kazakhstan is about 14,000 km. Kazakhstan is bordered at the north and west by the Russian Federation. The length of this border Russia is 7,591 km, and is the longest land border in the world between two countries. Eastern Kazakhstan borders with China for 1,782 km. On the south is Kyrgyzstan, with a 1,241.6 km border, Uzbekistan with a 2,354 km border and Turkmenistan with a 426 km border. By land area, Kazakhstan ranks 9th among the states in the world (2,724,900 km²). It has a coastline of 2,320 km at the Caspian Sea.

1.1.1 Governmental System

The Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary state with presidential form of administration. The head of State is the President. State authority in Kazakhstan is uniform and concludes legislative power, realized by the Parliament, executive power, realized by the Government (which consist of central organs (ministries, departments and agencies) and local organs (akimats)), and judicial power, realized by state courts (the Supreme Court and local courts). People are the only source of state power. Fundamental principles of the Republic are public concord and political stability, economic development for the benefit of all people, patriotism, and resolution of the most important issues of state by democratic methods including voting at the republican referendum or in Parliament. In Kazakhstan, public and private properties are recognized and equally protected.

1.1.2. Geography and Climate

The climate is strongly continental, but with wide variations throughout the territory. Average temperatures in January range from -19°C in the north to -3°C in the south. July averages are 19°C in the north and 30°C in the south. Temperatures can reach 49°C at South Kazakhstan, and fall as low as -57°C at Aqmola region. Levels of precipitation are equally varied, with average annual rainfall in mountainous regions reaching 1,600 mm and central desert areas averaging less than 100 mm. The lowest point is Vpadina Kaundy, at 132 m below sea level, and the highest point Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri), at 6,995 m above sea level.

The authoritative body within the sphere of atomic energy use is the Atomic Energy Committee, of the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies of the Republic Kazakhstan. In December of 2007, Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee moved from Almaty to Astana.

1.1.3 Population

Kazakhstan's population, according to the census of enumeration of 2009, is about 15.98 million. It comprises more than 100 nationalities, although inhabitants are mainly Kazakh and Russian.

TABLE 1. POPULATION INFORMATION

  Average annual growth rate (%)
  1990 2000 2005 2011 2000 to 2011
Population (millions) 16.298 14.902 15.075 16.675 1.03
Population density (inhabitants/km2) 6.15 5.468 5.532 6.12 1.03
Urban population as % of total 57.01 56.35 57.15 54.66 0.78
Area (1000 km2): 2724.9

 Source: Statistical Yearbook

1.1.4. Economic Data

Kazakhstan possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves, as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also is a large agricultural producer (livestock and grain). Kazakhstan’s industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector, specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. In 1995-97, the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. Kazakhstan enjoys a high rate of growth, thanks largely to its booming energy resources sector but also to economic reform, good harvests, and foreign investment.

The opening of the Caspian Consortium pipeline in 2001, from western Kazakhstan’s Tengiz oilfield to the Black Sea, substantially raised export capacity. For the last years, the volume of mined and exported hydrocarbon raw product has tripled. The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from over-dependence on the oil sector by developing light industry. The national economic development plan is focused on:

  1. The increase to the year 2015 of annual oil mining by up to 150 million tons, and the entering of the top five oil producing countries

  2. The construction (in Uralsk town) of a plant that will produce pipes for transcontinental oil and gas pipe lines

  3. The development of attendant mineral resources fields (sulphur, radium, bismuth etc.)

  4. The achievement in 2030 of an annual uranium mining level of 15 thousand tons, and becoming the world leader in that field

  5. The intensification of the cycle of uranium raw material processing, from fuel pellet production to the production and export of energy

Historical Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data are given in Table 2.

TABLE 2. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)

Average annual growth rate (%)
  1990 2000 2005 2011 2000 to 2011
GDP (millions of current US$) 40304 18292 57123,7 184463.5 9.16
GDP per capita (current US$ per capita) 2.465 1.229 3.771 11.062 20,5
Dollar rate, tenge per 1 US dollar 142.13 132.88 146.62

Source: Statistical Yearbook

1.2. Energy Information

1.2.1. Estimated available energy

Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet republics in territory, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves (see Table 3) as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It is also a large agricultural producer (livestock and grain). Kazakhstan’s industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector, specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items.

TABLE 3. ESTIMATED ENERGY RESERVES

   Estimated energy reserves
Fossil Fuels Nuclear Renewables
Solid Liquid Gas Uranium
(1)
Hydro
(2)
Solar Total
Total amount in specific units* 170 200 6 500 1 820 1 500 000 2,350 3 900 000
Total amount in Exajoule (EJ) 942.20 31.16 66.28 328.31 47.2 5.525 1420.7

* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons; Hydro, Renewable: TW

(1) This total represents essentially recoverable reserves.

(2) For comparison purposes a rough attempt is made to convert hydro capacity to energy by multiplying the gross theoretical annual capability (World Energy Council – 2002) by a factor of 10.

Source: Statistical Yearbook.

Power plants fuelled with coal and black oil are the basis of Kazakhstan’s electrical energy. Coal is the country’s largest industry, with planned further development if corresponding investments are secured. Coal reserves are estimated at 64 billion tons. Annual hard coal production is about 111.8 million metric tons, and brown coal production is estimated at 4.6 million metric tons. Kazakhstan also has a well-developed oil and gas industry. More than 1,600 oil and gas fields have been located in Tengiz and Karachaganak, containing more than 2.9 billion tons of conditional fuel. Natural gas production was estimated at 5,416 million m3 in 1993. Kazakhstan has begun building a major oil pipeline, stretching 1,200 km from the west to the east. Construction of three new oil refineries is planned. Every year, about 25 million tons of liquid hydrocarbons and seven billion cubic meters of natural gas are extracted. About 20% of the world’s uranium reserves are in Kazakhstan.

1.2.2. Energy Statistics

TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS in Exajoule (EJ)

  
Average annual growth rate (%)
  1990 2000 2005 2010* 2000 to 2010*
 Energy consumption**        
       - Total 5,55 2,31 3,01 3,83 28
- Solids*** 1,62 0,84 1 1,11 15
- Liquids 0,74 0,28 0,38 0,53 37
- Gases 0,43 0,19 0,18 0,81 172
- Other 2,76 1,01 1,45 1,37 24,5
 Energy production
       - Total 6,42 4,67 6,33 8,33 34
- Solids*** 2,5 1,45 1,56 1,99 18
- Liquids 1,08 1,48 2,28 2,88 27
- Gases 0,24 0,31 0,33 1,02 108
- Other**** 2,6 1,44 2,16 2,44 31,5
 Net import (Import - Export)
       - Total -0,24 -1,63 -2,58 -3,12

 

* Latest available data

** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption in country.

*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite

**** - hydro, nuclear in 1990 year, and other

Source: The Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan on statistics

1.2.3. Energy Policy

Kazakhstan is a net energy exporter, with large reserves of uranium, oil and coal. Fossil-fired power plants are the basis of the electric energy. The energy policy aims to achieve energy independence through electric power production, with maximum use of cheap, low-grade coal. The introduction of nuclear power is included as the necessary option for energy security.

There are six gas pipelines that connect Kazakhstan to other central Asian republics and to Russia, but the gas producing regions in the western part of Kazakhstan are not connected to the populous southeast and industrial north parts of the country. Kazakhstan has a major need for more gas pipelines. Kazakhstan is rich in natural resources, but its power sector needs considerable rehabilitation and upgrading in order to improve the efficiency of energy production and use. The TRACECA Program (Transport System Europe-Caucasus-Asia) is developing an East-West corridor from Central Asia, through the Caucasus, and across the Black Sea to Europe.

Kazakhstan is in the process of transitioning toward a free market, privatization in energy, and encouraging foreign investment to exploit the oil and gas resources of the country. In 1997, the government of Kazakhstan issued a decree on privatization and restructuring in the energy sector. Through this decree, all companies in the energy sector have gone through an incorporation process and are legally prepared for future privatization and restructuring. The Ministry of Oil and Gas and Ministry of Industry and New Technologies of the Republic of Kazakhstan are the main government entities responsible for implementing the policy.

The energy policy of Kazakhstan aims to achieve energy independence through electric power production with maximum use of its cheap, low-grade coal. Table 4 shows the increase of the production of coal, oil and natural gas in the last few years.

TABLE 4. DOMESTIC COAL, OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

 Years Coal
(million tons)
Oil
(million tons)
Natural Gas
(billion cubic meters)
1995 83,3 18,1 5,9
1996 76,8 21,1 6,5
1997 72,6 23,4 8,1
1998 69.8 23.8 7,9
1999 58.4 26.7 9,9
2000 74.9 30.6 11,5
2001 79.1 36.1 11,6
2002 73.7 42.1 14,1
2003 84.9 45.4 16,6
2004 86.9 50.7 22,1
2006 96.2 54.3 26.38
2008 111.07 58.6 32.89
2010 103.51 67.9 36.2

Source: The Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan on statistics

1.3. The electricity system

1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process

Not available.

1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector

The total length of electric lines of all voltages is more than 460,000 km. The first section of the international Siberia-Kazakhstan-Ural transmission line (1,900 km) has been placed in operation. This line is expanded to the south, to connect north and south Kazakhstan and the power grids in Central and Middle Asian countries. Electricity production is given in Table 5.

The biggest producers of electricity in Kazakhstan are the "Euro-Asian Power Corporation" (in 1998 14% of total power production), the Joint-stock Company "GRES-2" Pavlodar Region (8.9%), the "Kazakhmis Corporation" (8.5%), the Closed Joint-stock Company "Almaty Power Consolidated" (7.8%), the Open Joint-stock Company "Ispat-Karmet" (6,8%), LLP "Karaganda Power" (4.4%) and the Joint-stock Company "Aluminium of Kazakhstan" (3.9%).

TABLE 5. PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2006 2008 2010
Electricity production (TW.h) 51.6 55.4 58.3 63.9 66.9 71.6 80.35 82.66
Electricity production per capita (GW.h)  3.48 3.73 3.92 4.27 4.44 4.7 5.03 5.03

Source: The Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan on statistics

1.3.3. Main indicators

TABLE 6. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY

2005 2010
Capacity of electrical plants (GWe) 18.993 19.128
Thermal 16.774
Hydro 2.314
Wind 0.04
Electricity production (TW*h) 67.847 82.629
Thermal 59.5 72.47
Hydro 8.21 10
Total electricity consumption (TW*h) 67.717 76.560

2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION

2.1. Historical Development and current organizational structure

2.1.1. Overview

The nuclear scientific industrial complex in Kazakhstan was established as part of the atomic industry and science in the former Soviet Union.

Kazakhstan's uranium industry consists of uranium prospecting firms, a number of natural mines using mining and underground leaching techniques, and a metallurgical plant producing fuel pellets for NPP fuel assemblies. The power plant at Aktau (MAEC) was shut down in June 1999. It consisted of natural gas units and a nuclear unit. The latter unit is a BN-350 fast neutron reactor with sodium coolant.

On the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, three research reactors are engaged in the testing and development of nuclear space engines and safe nuclear power plants. The fourth research reactor is located at the Institute of Nuclear Physics near Almaty. In 1992, "National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan" was created by government decree. There are currently four Research Institutes belonging to the Republic State Enterprise "National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan". They are:

  • Daughter State Enterprise "Institute of Nuclear Physics" Almaty

  • Daughter State Enterprise "Institute of Atomic Energy" situated in Kurchatov

  • Daughter State Enterprise "Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology" situated in KurchatovDaughter State Enterprise “Institute of Geophysical investigation” situated near Almaty

2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)

None available

 2.2. Nuclear Power Plants: Overview

2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants

TABLE 7. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Station Types Net
Capacity
Operator Status Reactor
Supplier
Criticality Construction
Date
Grid
Date
Commercial
Date
Shutdown
Date
UCF
for
year
2011
BN-350 FBR 52 Permanent Shutdown MAEC-KAZ MAEC-KAZ 1964-10-01 1972-11-01 1973-07-16 1973-07-16 1999-04-22

TABLE 7.1. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Type: BN-350, sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor
Location: Aktau (former Shevchenko) at the shore of the Caspian Sea, in western part of Kazakhstan
Operator: Owned by the National Atomic Company "KAZATOMPROM" and operated by its "MAEC-Kazatomprom" LLP.
Fuel: Uranium enriched to 17%, 21%, and 26%
Status: The plant was shut down since April 1999 and defuelling took place in October of 2000.

2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals

BN-350 reactor facility, a fast neutron sodium-cooled reactor, is located near Aktau city in the part of the eastern Caspian Sea shore belonging to the Republic of Kazakhstan. It was designed and built for electricity generation and seawater desalination for the Aktau region.

The BN-350 reactor was commissioned in 1973, and operated for its design life of 20 years.

In 1993, on the basis of estimation of actual reactor condition, qualified personnel availability, and taking into consideration significant progress in fulfillment of measures by safety enhancement, it was concluded that there was the possibility of extension of BN-350 reactor facility lifetime until 2003. Thereafter the reactor operated on the basis of annual licenses from the regulatory body, consisting of The Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC), and on the basis of positive conclusion of its safety level from General Designer (VNIPIET, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation), Chief Designer (OKBM, Nizhni Novgorod, Russian Federation) and Research Manager (FEI, Obninsk, Russian Federation) of the reactor facility.

Due to financial and technical problems, it was concluded that further use of the reactor is not safe. In April 1999, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted the Decree on the Decommission of BN-350 reactor.

As the decision on the reactor decommissioning was adopted before the end of scheduled operation (2003), the plan to decommission the BN-350 reactor had not yet been developed. To determine the activities required for ensuring reactor safety and preparation for decommissioning, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan developed and approved a "Plan of priority measures on BN-350 reactor decommissioning". This plan has the status of managerial and ruling document, and defines activity on provision for the safety BN-350 and activity in preparation for decommissioning during the period in which the "Project of BN-350 Decommissioning" has not been approved. By now, the following activities have been fulfilled:

  1. All spent nuclear fuel has been transferred from interim spent fuel storage facility at the BN-350 site to long-term spent fuel storage facility at Baikal-1 site.

2. Drainage of primary radioactive sodium has been carried out, and primary radioactive sodium is contained in storage vessels. Secondary nonradioactive sodium is drained and utilized.

3. Technical Design for Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing Facility has been developed.

4. Technical Task for Solid Radioactive Waste Processing Facility design has been developed.

5. The main work on Combined Engineering and Radiation Survey (KIRO) of the systems and components of 1 and 2 cooling circuits, as well as of other reactor plant engineering systems and external communications, have been completed.

Scheduled decommissioning phases

DECOMMISSIONNING PHASE

Dates
From To
Reactor core defuelling 1999 2000
Partial dismantling 2000 Continued
Spent fuel packaging period 1999 2001
Spent fuel store period in the reactor pool 2001 Finished November 2010

Management of fuel removal

FUEL MANAGEMENT

Dates
From To
Transfer to at-reactor facility 1999 2001
Storage in on-site facility 2001 Continued
Under water storage 2001 Continued
Encapsulation 1999 2001
“Cold run” with TUK-123 December of 2009
TUKs with spent nuclear fuel have been transferred to long-term spent fuel storage facility at Baikal-1 site January of 2010 November 2010
TUKs with spent nuclear fuel are set to long-term spent fuel storage facility at Baikal-1 site November 2010 Continued

Research reactors

Type: WWR-K, water cooled, moderated and reflected tank-type reactor
Location: Alatau, near Almaty
Operator: Owned by the National Nuclear Centre (NNC) and operated by its Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP)
Total capacity: 10 MW
Start of operation: 1967
Fuel: U-Al fuel with a U235 enrichment of 36%
Status In operation

 

WWR-K is currently in a stage of converting nuclear fuel to low-enriched nuclear fuel. 278 fuel assemblies were returned to the Russian Federation between December 2008 and May 2009. Testing of experimental fuel assemblies with low-enrichment fuel will take place after it is given approval by the Atomic Energy Committee.

Type: IGR, impulse homogeneous uranium-graphite thermal neutron reactor with graphite reflector
Location: Kurchatov
Operator: Owned by the National Nuclear Centre and operated by its Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE)
Start of operation: 1961
Fuel: Enriched to over 90% U
Capacity In steady-state conditions, 1*106 KW; in pulse condition, 1*107 KW
Heat release: Maximum energy-release: in steady-state conditions, 5,2 Gjoules; 1 GJ in a pulse
Neutron flux: Maximum thermal 0.7*1017cm-2 s-1
Status In operation

 

Type: EWG-1M, thermal light water heterogeneous vessel reactor with light water Moderator and coolant, beryllium reflector
Location: Kurchatov
Operator: Owned by NNC and operated by its IAE
Total capacity: 60 MW (thermal)
First criticality: 1972
Fuel: U-Zr fuel with U235 enrichment of 90%
Neutron flux: 1.7-3.4*1014cm-2 s-1
Status In operation

 

Type: RA thermal neutron high-temperature gas heterogeneous reactor with air coolant, zirconium hydride moderator, beryllium reflector
Location: Kurchatov
Operator: Owned by NNC and operated by its IAE
Total capacity: Up to 0.4 MW
First criticality: 1986
Fuel: Ampoule bodies with 90% U235 enrichment
Neutron flux: Up to 5*1012cm-2 s-1
Status Fuel is unloaded
Source: Country Information

 

2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power

The current policy in the field of atomic energy emphasizes:

  1. maintenance of existing facilities in accordance with international safety standards;

  2. support of scientific, technical, design and construction connections with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries, and the establishing contacts with international organizations;

  3. creation of a state system of accountancy and control of nuclear materials, in accordance with Non-Proliferation Treaty obligations and with the Agreement on Safeguards that is expected to be ratified by Presidential Decree in the near future;

  4. improvement of regulations for congruence with other CIS regulations;

  5. liquidation of results of nuclear explosions; and

  6. creation of a radioactive waste storage and disposal system.

2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs

A joint resolution on nuclear safety and technical support for nuclear energy facilities in Kazakhstan, between Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency (KAEA) and the Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy, was signed in the 1990ss.

The BN-350 reactor was designed and constructed by organizations of the former Soviet Union, under the supervision of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM). The chief scientific supervisor is the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE, Obninsk). The chief designer is the Experimental Design Bureau on Machinery Building (OKBM-N, Novgorod), and the main constructor is the All Russian Scientific Research and Design Institute for Power Technologies (VNIIPIET, Moscow). The plant is operated by "MAEC-Kazatomprom" LLP, which is an affiliated enterprise of the National Atomic Company "KAZATOMPROM". At present, the regulatory body supervising the plant safety is the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC).

2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs

The BN-350 reactor is owned by National Atomic Company "KAZATOMPROM" and operated by LLP "MAEC-Kazatomprom". The reactor was shut down according to the decree of the Kazakhstan Government on April 22, 1999. The decision was made to place it into SAFSTOR state for 50 years with subsequent final dismantling. The activities involved in putting the reactor into SAFSTOR are currently being carried out. The fuel has been unloaded and packaged into canisters which are now in a temporary store in the reactor cooling ponds. TUKs with spent fuel were transferred from BN-350 site to long-term spent fuel storage facility at Baikal-1 site.

About 220 people work at the power plant. There are 5 shifts. The task of these shifts is the maintaining of the reactor in nuclear, radiation and fire safety conditions.

2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs

No information available

2.7. Fuel Cycle including Waste Management

Kazakhstan has more than 50 uranium deposits in six provinces. The Kokshetau province in the north and the Pribalkhashsky province in the south have endogenetic-type uranium deposits. Iliskaya, Chu-Sarysu, Syr-Dariya, and Prikaspiy provinces have endogenic-type deposits. Deposits in Chu-Sayusu and Syr-Dariya provinces are located in sand penetrating sediments, and are useful for in-situ leaching processes.

Waste from uranium mining and milling constitutes more than 90% of all radioactive waste in Kazakhstan. Implementation of the Republic's Concept on the radioactive waste management is therefore the main task.

The Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMZ) started production of UO2 fuel pellets in 1976. Physical and chemical technologies are used at all stages of production, from treatment of UF6 material, to conversion into UO2, production of UO2 pellets, and sintering of the pellets. Quality control is maintained during all process stages. The design capacity of the plant is 2,000 tons of pellets per year. Fuel assemblies from UMZ are used at nuclear power plants in Russia, the Ukraine, and other countries. The U235 content is 1.6-5 %. UMZ also produces rare earth metal products and super conducting materials.

2.8. Research and Development

2.8.1. R&D organizations

Not available

2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies

Kazakhstan has four research reactors at the National Nuclear Centre, where the following research is carried out:

  1. radiation material science; study of the interaction between construction materials and coolants; investigation of fission-produced emission from fuel rods, its precipitation and filtration under different conditions;

  2. safety of nuclear power plants; fuel assemblies and rod tests at transition and break-down modes of operation; simulation of reactor core fragment melting and interaction of melted material with coolant;

  3. development and implementation of nuclear physics methods and technologies; production of isotopes for different applications, for example, thallium-201 chloride for early diagnostics of heart disease.

2.8.3. International Co-operation and Initiatives

Kazakhstan national projects under the program of technical cooperation with

IAEA for 2009-2011

1Nuclear Knowledge Management and Preservation in Kazakhstan. KAZ/0/003
4High-Performance Neutron Activation Analysis for Needs of Kazakhstan Industry. KAZ/8/006
5Supporting Upgrades and Conversion of WWR-K Reactor to Low-enriched Uranium Fuel. KAZ/9/010
6Supporting Radioecological Monitoring. KAZ/9/011

European Regional projects of IAEA for 2009-2011 in which Kazakhstan is taking part

1Supporting Quality Assurance for the Measurement and Monitoring of Radioactivity in the EnvironmentRER0033
2Enhancing the Characterization, Preservation and Protection of Cultural Heritage ArtefactsRER0034
3Enhancing Use and Safety of Research Reactors through Networking, Coalitions and Shared Best PracticesRER1007
4Supporting Air Quality ManagementRER1008
5Developing Coordinated Non-Destructive Testing Activities to Comply with International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Codes for Training, Certification and HarmonizationRER1009
6Introducing and Harmonizing Standardized Quality Control Procedures for Radiation TechnologiesRER1011
7Establishing a Safety Infrastructure for a National Nuclear Power ProgrammeRER2006
8Enhancing Nuclear Power Infrastructures for Countries Considering Developing or Expanding Nuclear Power ProgrammesRER2007
9Strengthening Regulatory Capabilities for Licensing and Overseeing New Designs of Generation III and III+ Nuclear Power PlantsRER2008
10Strengthening Capabilities for Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management for Long Term OperationRER2009
11Supporting Coordinated Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases with Socioeconomic Impact and that Affect Human HealthRER5016
12Supporting Fruit Fly Pest Prevention and Management in the Balkans and the Eastern MediterraneanRER5018
13Strengthening Knowledge of Radiation Oncologists and Radiation TherapistsRER6022
14Strengthening Medical Physics in Radiation MedicineRER6023
15Building Capacity for Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology at the International Training Centre (EARTH) for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) RegionRER6025
16Strengthening Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/CT Hybrid Imaging Applications for Chronic Disease DiagnosisRER6026
17Supporting Comprehensive Cancer ControlRER6027
18Establishing National Legal FrameworksRER9105
19Supporting Decommissioning and Waste Management for the Chernobyl, Ignalina and A1 Nuclear Power PlantsRER9106
20Strengthening Radioactive Waste Management CapabilitiesRER9107
21Strengthening Education and Training Infrastructures and Building Competence in Radiation SafetyRER9109
22Strengthening the Inspection Capabilities and Programmes of the Regulatory AuthoritiesRER9110
23Establishing a Sustainable National Regulatory Infrastructure for Nuclear and Radiation SafetyRER9111
24Enhancing Management, Organization and Effectiveness of the Regulatory AuthoritiesRER9112
25Upgrading National Capabilities for Controlling Public ExposureRER9117
26Strengthening and Harmonizing National Capabilities for Response to Nuclear and Radiological EmergenciesRER9118
27Supporting Human Resource Development in Nuclear SecurityRER9119
28Supporting Decommissioning Implementation for Facilities Using Radioactive MaterialRER9120
29Supporting Environmental Remediation ProgrammesRER9121
30Supporting Safe Management of Uranium Production Legacy SitesRER9122
31Supporting the Return to Normal Radiological Environmental Conditions for the Territories Affected by the Chernobyl AccidentRER9123
32Improving Operational Safety of Nuclear Power PlantsRER9124
33Strengthening Nuclear Safety Assessment Capabilities Through the use of the Safety Assessment, Education and Training (SAET) ProgrammeRER9125
34Advancing Safety Assessment Capabilities, Harmonizing Safety Assessments and Creating Synergy between Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety AnalysesRER9126

2.9. Human resources development

No information

2.10. Stakeholder Communication

No information

3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS

3.1. Regulatory framework

3.1.1 Regulatory Authority(s)

The Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC) is the Nuclear Regulatory Body of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

3.1.2. Licensing Process

The following laws and regulations determine the procedure for licensing:

  1. Law on licensing

  2. Law on use of atomic energy

  3. Provision on licensing rules and qualifying requirements claimed to licensable kinds of activities in the sphere of atomic energy use

The licensing stages for nuclear installations can be briefly represented as follows:

  1. Application for the License;

  2. Analysis of application materials;

  3. Inspection at the nuclear installation;

  4. Conclusion on application materials examination;

  5. Conclusion on nuclear installation inspection;

  6. General conclusion on obtaining license; License.

3.2. Main national laws and regulations in nuclear power

The following laws are relevant for nuclear energy:

  1. Law on use of atomic energy

  2. Law on radiation safety of population

  3. Law on licensing

  4. Ecology Code

  5. Provision on licensing rules and qualifying requirements claimed to licensable kinds of activities in the sphere of atomic energy use

  6. Regulation on the Atomic Energy Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan

  7. Technical rules “Nuclear and radiation safety of research nuclear facilities”, adopted by the Government Provision, July 1, 2010

  8. Technical rules “Nuclear and radiation safety of NPP”, adopted by the Government Provision, July 1, 2010

  9. Technical rules “Nuclear and radiation safety”, adopted by the Government Provision, July 30, 2010

All regulating documents have been compiled into "List of main technical documents of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of atomic energy use”.

REFERENCES

None provided

APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

  • NPT related agreement INFCIRC/504
  • Entry into force11.08.1995
  • Additional protocol
  • Signed6.02.2004
  • Supplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA
  • Entry into force25.03.1997
  • Agreement on privileges and immunities
  • Entry into force9.04.1998
  • NPT
  • Entry into force14.02.1994
  • Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material
  • Entry into force 22.12.2004
  • Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident
  • Entry into force 08.04.2010
  • Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency
  • Entry into force  08.04.2010
  • Convention on nuclear safety
  • Entry into force08.06.2010
  • Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management
  • Entry into force08.06.2010
  • Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage
  • Entry into force10.02.2011
  • Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
  • Signed19.03.2011
  • ZANGGER Committee
  • Member 18.11.2008
  • Nuclear Export Guidelines
  • Signed 13.05.2002
  • International Convention on Struggle with Acts of Nuclear Terrorism
  • Ratified14.05.2008

    BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

    1. The Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan on the Peaceful use of Atomic Energy.

    2. The Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan on Transportation of fission materials.

    3. Agreement of KAEA and GAN of the Russian Federation on co-operation in the field of nuclear safety.

    4. Agreement of KAEA and NRC of the USA on technical information exchange and co-operation in the field of nuclear safety.

    5. The Agreement for Co-operation between the United States of America and the Republic of Kazakhstan concerning Peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

    6. The Agreement for co-operation between European Atomic Energy Community and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of nuclear safety.

    7. The Agreement for co-operation between European Atomic Energy Community and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of guided nuclear fusion.

    8. The Agreement for cooperation between the Republic of Korea and the Republic of Kazakhstan concerning Peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

     

    APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES

    NATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITIES
    Atomic Energy Committee
    of the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies of the Republic of Kazakhstan
    Orynbor St. 10, House of Ministries
    Astana, 010000
    Tel: 7 7172 50 29 53
    Fax: 7 7172 50 30 73
    E-mail: [email protected]
    http://www.kaec.kz
    OTHER RELEVANT ORGANIZATIONS
    Nuclear Technology Safety Centre
    Lisa Chaikinoi St. 4
    Almaty, 050020
    Tel: 7 7272 646 801
    Fax: 7 7272 646 803
    http://www.ntsc.kz
    Republican State Enterprise “National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan”
    Lenin St. 6, Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya oblast, 071100
    Tel: 7 722-51-2-33-33,
    Fax: 7 722-51 2-38-58
    Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology
    of the National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan
    Krasnoarmejskaya St. 4
    Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya oblast, 071100
    Tel/Fax: 7 7225 123 413
    Institute of Atomic Energy
    of the National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan
    Krasnoarmejskaya St. 10
    Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya oblast, , 071100
    Tel: 7 7225 123 202
    Fax: 7 7225 123 125
    Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan
    Ibragimova St.1, Almaty , 050032
    Tel: 7 7272 546 467
    Fax: 7 7272 546 517
    "MAEC-Kazatomprom" LLP
    Aktau
    Mangistauskaya oblast, 130000
    Tel: 7 7292 564 821
    Fax: 7 7292 334 364
    National Atomic Company
    "KAZATOMPROM"
    Kunaev st. 10
    Astana, 010000
    Tel: 7 7272 615 425
    Fax: 7 7272 503 541
    http://www.kazatomprom.kz
    “Institute for High Technologies” LLP
    Bogenbai Batyr St. 168
    Almaty, 050012
    Tel: 7 727 226 93 31
    Fax: 7 727 226 93 61
    Joint Stock Company ”Volkovgeologiya”
    Bogenbai Batyr St. 168
    Almaty, 050012
    Tel: 7 727 250 13 59
    Fax: 7 727 250 13 59
    Joint Stock Company
    "UMZ"
    Abai St. 102
    Ust-Kamenogorsk, 071100
    Tel: 7 7232 298 009
    Fax: 7 7232 240 683
    http://www.pjsc-ulba.com/eng/index.htm

    Name of report coordinator:

    Mr Tulegenov Murat

    Institution:

    Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee

    Contacts:

    L. Chaikinoi St. 4, ALMATY 480020 KAZAKHSTAN

    Tel: +7 3272 60 73 30

    Fax: +7 3272 60 72 20 Email: [email protected]

    Attached files

    Kazakhstan CNPP.pdf