COUNTRY NUCLEAR POWER PROFILES
This is the fourth edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles, issued on CD-ROM only. It updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2001. In addition to the established 35 nuclear countries, Indonesia, which is involved with nuclear power programme planning, is also included here.
This edition covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in counties having operation nuclear plants and /or plants under construction as of 1 January 2002. It reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries for the same period and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. As in the previous edition (2001), it also compiles the changes in the new environment of the electricity and the nuclear sector, i.e. the impact of privatization and deregulation on these sectors, a situation that differs from country to country.
It is noted that there also exist other profiles on specific subjects of nuclear power in the Agency, e.g. Safety Profiles (NS Safety Co-ordination), Waste Management Profiles (NEFW), Fuel Cycle Profiles (NEFW).
The IAEA officers responsible for the overall co-ordination and preparation were
and R.Spiegelberg-Planer of the Nuclear Power Engineering
Section, Division of Nuclear Power. The Agency also
acknowledges the work of R.George in the preparation of
This publication compiles background information
on the status and development of nuclear power
programmes in countries having operating nuclear plants
and/or plants under construction as of 1 January 2002
and in countries actively engaged in planning such a
programme. It presents historical information on energy
supply and demand; reviews the organizational and
industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in
participating countries for the same period; and
provides information about the relevant legislative,
regulatory, and international framework in each
country. Topics such as reactor safety, the nuclear
fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research
programmes are for the most part not discussed in
detail. Statistical data about nuclear plant
operations, population, energy and electricity use are
largely drawn from the PRIS and EEDB sources as of
yearend 2001 and from the national contributions.
However, the 2000 and 2001 EEDB data are extrapolated
based on trends in the second half of the 90ties.
The compilation’s main objectives are to
consolidate information about the nuclear power
infrastructures in participating countries, and to
present factors related to the effective planning,
decision-making, and implementation of nuclear power
programmes that together lead to safe and economic
operations. Altogether 30 IAEA Member States having
operating nuclear power plants as of 1 January 2002 as
well as Italy, the Islamic Republic of Iran,
Kazakhstan, Turkey, Vietnam and Indonesia contributed
information to the document’s major sections.
Designated experts from these countries participated in
a series of advisory and consultants meetings covering
specific subject areas, as well as the structure,
scope, and preparation of the publication. Its
descriptive and statistical overview of the overall
economic, energy, and electricity situation in each
country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to
serve as an integrated source of key background
information about nuclear power programmes in the
world. Each of the 36 profiles in this publication is
self-standing and contains information officially
provided by the respective national authorities.
To facilitate reviewing information/performing analyses
by the reader, five annexes have been added to the
profiles: Annex I provides an overview of the global
development of advanced nuclear power plants covering
all reactor lines, i.e. water-cooled reactors,
gas-cooled reactors, and liquid metal cooled reactors.
Annex II provides 4 summary tables for the year 2001
with PRIS and EEDB data. It contains the status of
nuclear power reactors in Member States, individual
reactors connected to the grid and under construction
and the main EEDB data (population, economic, energy,
electricity and energy related ratio data). Annex III
is prepared in HTML format to facilitate easy and
direct access to web sites of nuclear related
organizations on the CD-ROM edition. However, each
country profile contains an Appendix “Directory of
the main organizations, institutions and companies
involved in nuclear power related activities”, with
addresses, telephone and facsimile numbers and web
sites. Annex IV contains information from Bangladesh.
These countries have submitted relevant information in
the framework of the IAEA activity on integrated
approach of nuclear power programme planning. In
addition, the Secretariat has added the EEDB data and
the international agreements.
An aspect of vital concern related to the future
perspectives of nuclear power is the impact of
deregulation of electricity market and privatization of
electric utilities. The electricity sector has changed
rapidly and dramatically during the last decade, marked
by the introduction of competition and privatization in
the electricity generation sector of many countries,
after many years of public service orientation,
monopolies domain and regulated markets. Changing
technology, public sector financial pressures, and
increased competition in other economic sectors can be
addressed as the causes of these changes that affect
the management of all generators, whether in developed,
developing countries, or economies in transition. The
details of particular impacts will vary from country to
country and the degree of change that is required will
differ. However, the basic trend of market changes and
the required adjustments by power companies has been
In this context nuclear generation must compete
for market favour with other fuels and generating
technologies: natural gas, coal, hydro and renewables.
These are all variously placed with regard to cost and
risk (risk here is commercial and financial risk), the
two most critical commercial considerations. How these
inter-fuel differences can be managed to advantage will
affect how various generating technologies are equipped
How risk and costs are managed in competitive
markets will govern which generating technologies will
be retained or phased out, dispatched or not, and
selected for future projects or not. The crux of the
matter for nuclear power is that long term financing
for capital-intensive investments requires rewards to
investors that are commensurate with long term
commercial risk. The key to a nuclear future is whether
the nuclear industry can afford the required rewards,
or can reduce investors’ commercial and financial
risks to affordable levels.
In the past 20 years, new safety goals and
requirements have generally been established for
nuclear power plants, with little clear consideration
of economic costs and benefits, or of alternative and
perhaps more cost effective ways of achieving desired
safety goals. This approach was encouraged by the fact
that most nuclear plants operated in monopoly markets
where costs were not necessarily a primary concern. But
times and markets have changed, and regulatory
approaches must also change, to permit a clear
definition of when a plant is safe enough, and some
degree of flexibility in achieving these goals. Of
course, arguing for some consideration of economic
consequences, for financial analysis of proposed safety
requirements, and for background analysis of costs and
benefits in the safety field does not in any way
constitute a judgment about what is appropriate in
terms of safety.
There is also a need for the application of
financial analysis and liability management for
decommissioning and waste disposal, particularly in the
face of increasingly stringent regulatory and political
requirements. Economic common sense, efficient cost
management, a degree of flexibility in meeting
standards and an appreciation of the costs of
uncertainty and of political and regulatory change must
all be cultivated.
Nuclear energy - worldwide - is able and ready
to compete with other energy sources in an open,
deregulated electricity market. Existing nuclear power
plants are extremely well positioned to compete in
deregulated markets, on the basis of their largely
amortized capital costs and relatively low variable
costs. Nuclear power offers considerable environmental
advantages compared to alternative mainstream energy
sources, and is the only energy source that has already
'internalized' the vast majority of its 'external'
costs - those costs, such as environmental impact
costs, that are not directly passed on to the consumer.
The biggest future challenge for the nuclear industry
will be to convince investors of the case for nuclear
new-build in a fully deregulated market. Nuclear plants
- like hydro-electric plants - have relatively high
capital costs, and investors therefore need to be
persuaded of the advantages of projects with relatively
long pay-back periods. Growing awareness of nuclear's
environmental benefits, combined with the need to
ensure long-term security of supply, could play a key
role here in years to come.
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. General Overview
· Geographic situation, climate, etc. (brief description covering only information which is relevant in connection with energy/nuclear power)1.
· Population (total, density, growth rate)2.
1.2. Economic Indicators 2
· Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (total, per capita, per sector, growth rate).
1.3. Energy Situation 2
· Primary energy resources and reserves (fossil fuels, renewable sources, uranium). For energy units, please refer to the Appendix at the end of this outline.
· · Primary energy consumption (energy supply/demand balance last year and time series, energy consumption per capita and per sector, import/export balance).
1.4. Energy Policy 1
Brief description of current energy policy in terms of independence of the sector, use of domestic resources, market driven, influence of climate change, impact of Kyoto in the energy policy, etc. Discussion on the country energy resources and its impact in the energy policy.
2. ELECTRICITY SECTOR
2.1. Structure of the Electricity Sector 1
Description of the overall structure of electricity sector (Utilities, Independent Producers, Transmission and Distribution), indicating whether centralized or decentralized, private or public owned.
2.2. Decision Making Process 1
General description of the decision making process in the electricity sector, including planning the electricity system expansion.
2.3.Main Indicators 2
· Total electricity production and consumption and per capita consumption.
· Installed generation capacity, production, load factor by source (fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, other renewable sources).
· Share of electricity in total energy consumption.
2.4. Impact of Open Electricity Market in the Nuclear Sector 1
General description of open market issues and its influence in the nuclear sector reorganization. Mention de-regulation, competition, privatization mergers and acquisitions affected or may affect the electricity and nuclear sector.
3. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
3.1. Historical Development 1
Brief overview on the main decisions and events related to the implementation and development of the nuclear programme.
· Nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, under construction, closed down.
· Performance of NPPs.
· Nuclear electricity generation, share in total electricity generation.
· Nuclear power development projections and plans.
· Include country’s map with location of nuclear power plant site.
3.3. Current Policy Issues 1
Main issues related to present nuclear power policy, e.g., moratorium, public acceptance, open market, privatization, safety and waste management issues, role of the government in the nuclear R& D, human resources development economic and financing issues, and impact of nuclear power in avoiding CO2 emissions, etc.
3.4. Organizational Chart(s) 1
The chart(s) might cover institutional relationships, e.g., licensing authorization, financial relationships, i.e., share holding, and technical/operational relationship, i.e., supply of equipment, materials or services.
4. NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY 1
Main organizations, institutes and companies involved in nuclear power related activities; the boundaries of 'nuclear power activities' might be adapted to the national situation according to the judgment of the drafter; whenever possible, organizational charts should be provided, a short text describing the various entities is desirable but not essential. Each country should indicate the criteria to choose the main organizations presented in this section. The activities performed by the organizations and institutions should also be mentioned here.
4.1. Supply of NPPs
Including architect engineer, NSS and main component suppliers.
4.2. Operation of NPPs
Indicating owners/operators if relevant, operation and maintenance service suppliers and operator training.
4.3. Fuel Cycle, Spent Fuel and Waste Management Service Supply
Covering all activities from uranium mining to spent fuel management and waste disposal.
4.4. Research and Development Activities
Institutes research centres, etc., independent from the companies listed above, eg., Atomic Energy commissions, National Laboratories. Mention also advanced reactor technologies activities in the country.
4.5. International Co-operation in the Field of Nuclear Power Development and Implementation
Brief description of research and development activities carried out jointly with other countries and/or within the framework of international projects, technical and industrial co-operation, transfer of know-how and technology.
5. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK 1
5.1. Safety Authority and the Licensing Process
Brief description of the role and responsibilities of the safety authority and the overall licensing process for nuclear facilities.
5.2. Main National Laws and Regulations
List of the essential legal texts regulating nuclear power in the country, with reference to the original publications; including a brief summary of the mechanisms in place for financing decommissioning and waste disposal.
5.3. International, Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements
List of international conventions, bilateral agreements, etc. signed/ratified by the country in the field of nuclear power.
Directory of the main organizations, institutions and companies involved in nuclear power related activities
mentioned in Chapter IV (name, address, i.e. telephone,
telefax, e-mail, web site, main activities, production
Annex I: Overview
of Global Development of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants
PREFIXES AND CONVERSION FACTORS
TABLE 1. PREFIXES
TABLE 2. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR ENERGY
TABLE 3. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR MASS
TABLE 4. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR VOLUME
Disclaimer: The views expressed in the documents available from this web server do not necessarily reflect those of the IAEA, the governments of the nominating Member States or the nominating organizations. Throughout the text names of Member States are retained as they were when the text was compiled. The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the IAEA.