1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. Country overview
Note: The content of this section, including Tables 1 and 2, has been removed by the IAEA to better focus the report on nuclear power.
1.2. Energy Information
1.2.1. Estimated available energy
Energy reserves are shown in Table 3. Fossil fuels form the basis for the Russian energy sector.
TABLE 3. ESTIMATED ENERGY RESERVES
|Estimated available energy sources|
|Total amount in specific units*||157.01||10.8||33.1||1000000||16000|
|Total amount in Exajoule (EJ)||4789||503.3||1274.1||157.6||57.6||6781|
* Solid. Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons; Hydro. Renewable: TW h. for a period of 10 years.
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base; Country Information.
1.2.2. Energy Statistics
Table 4 gives the historical energy data. The share of nuclear energy in the energy consumption is less 2%. Hydro energy is the only meaningful renewable energy resource in Russia. The share of hydro energy in the energy consumption is also less 2%.
TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS (EJ)
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|Year||1992||2000||2005||2006||2013||2014||2000 to 2014|
|- Other renewables|
|- Gases||20.9||19.7||21.6||22.18||22.59||21.62||0. 69|
|- Other renewables|
|Net import (Import - Export)|
(1) Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy.
(2) Solid fuels include coal, lignite and commercial wood.
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database; Country Information.
1.2.3. Energy policy
The Energy policy of Russia is contained in an Energy Strategy document, which sets out policy for the period up to 2020. In 2000, the Russian government approved the main provisions of the Russian energy strategy to 2020, and in 2003, the new Russian energy strategy was confirmed by the government. The Energy Strategy document outlines several main priorities: an increase in energy efficiency, reducing impact on the environment, sustainable development, energy development and technological development, as well as improved effectiveness and competitiveness.
The aims of the structural policy of the energy sector for the next 10-15 years include:
enhancement of the efficiency of natural gas utilization and an increase in its share of domestic consumption, especially in ecologically strained regions
in-depth processing and comprehensive utilization of hydrocarbon raw materials
enhancement of coal quality, as well as the stabilization of coal production volumes
intensification of local and renewable energy resource development (hydro and wind power, peat, etc.)
prioritizing electricity generation development, based on competitive and ecologically clean power plants
safety and reliability enhancement of the first generation NPPs and development of new, advanced nuclear power plants
The new technological energy policy is oriented towards:
radical enhancement of both the cost effectiveness and energy efficiency of all stages of the extraction, conversion, distribution, and utilization of energy resources
effective decentralization of the energy supply
ecological and accident safety, as well as the reliability of the energy supply
development of qualitatively new technologies for the stable evolution of the power industry: ecologically clean coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power plants, efficient processes for the utilization of new sources of power, etc.
Regional energy policy takes into account the existing principal differences in energy supply conditions and in the structures of the fuel resources of various parts of Russia. Regional energy self-governing and self-consistency is envisaged as a major challenge, i.e. the sustaining of the unified national energy sector through the development of federal energy systems, involving electricity, gas and oil supply networks.
1.3. The electricity system
1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process
Pricing and taxation constitute the core of the new energy policies. The liberalisation of oil, petroleum products and coal prices, which was undertaken in mid-1993, was not extended to the products of the so-called natural monopolies: natural gas, electric power, and heat from centralised sources. Prices for these energy sources are currently set by the federal regional government agencies responsible for the functions of the fuel and energy sector.
The creation of a competitive environment within the fuel and energy sector of the national economy will be directed towards reducing production costs and increasing the quality of energy-related services. This will be accomplished though industry denationalisation, primarily through the joint-stock companies.
A system of incentives and conditions for the conservation of energy, as well as the increase in energy production efficiency, is needed in order to realize Russia’s vast potential for energy conservation.
Economic policies will focus on the promotion of investment activities.
1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector
Transmission and Distribution Sector.
There are seven separate regional power systems in the Russian electricity sector: Northwest, Centre, Middle Volga, North Caucasus, Urals, Siberia, and Far East. The Far East region is the only one not connected to an integrated power system. Unified Energy System, which is 52% owned by the Russian government (Gazprom now has a 10% stake), controls most of the transmission and distribution in Russia. UES owns 96% of the transmission and distribution system, the central dispatch unit, and the federal wholesale electricity market (FOREM).
Unified Energy System
The UNIFIED ENERGY SYSTEM of RUSSIA (UESR) is a unique system which creates significant economic benefits for both the Russian people and Russia's industry. The technical basis of UES of Russia is comprised of:
700 electric power stations with a total installed capacity of 232.5 thousand MW, including 25.2 thousand MW at nuclear power stations, which produced 1024 billion kW·h of power in 2014
a total of 3.018 million km of electric power lines
a supply regulation system that physically unites all power installations with a single 50 Hz current frequency
The organisational basis of UES of Russia is comprised of:
RAO UESR, which acts as a central locus that implements the functioning and development criteria established by the government, based on effectiveness, and provides operational supply management aimed at increasing economic efficiency at UESR
74 power suppliers that supply electric and heat power to consumers throughout the Russian Federation
34 large electric power stations that operate independently on the federal (national) wholesale electric power market
over 300 organizations providing technological back up and development for UES of Russia, and which ensure the viability of the industry as a whole
Privatization and Electricity Market Reform
The restructuring of Russia's power generation sector was completed on July 1st 2008, when state monopoly RAO UESR was dissolved. The country's transmission grid remained under state control. The reform has created a generating sector divided into multiple wholesale electricity companies (commonly called OGKs), which participate in a new competitive wholesale market.
The main participants of wholesale market are:
Thermal wholesale generation companies (6);
Atomic generation company;
Hydro generation company;
Other generation companies;
Federal grid company;
Russia exports significant quantities of electricity to the countries of the former Soviet Union, as well as to China, Poland, Turkey and Finland. UESR also has plans to export electricity to Iran, and possibly to Afghanistan and Pakistan, from two hydroelectric stations it is currently building in Tajikistan. There are currently two efforts underway to integrate the Russian and Western European electricity grids. UESR is participating in the Baltrel program, designed to create an energy ring of power companies in the Baltic States. The Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE), of which 20 European countries are members, has also entered into discussions with Russian colleagues over the technological and operational aspects of interconnecting their systems. Export electricity from Russia in 2014 is equal 14.72 billion kW·h.
1.3.3. Main indicators
Table 5 shows the historical electricity production data and installed capacities, and Table 6 the energy-related ratios.
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|Year||1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2006||2013||2014||2000 to 2014
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|Electricity production (TW.h)|
|Total Electricity consumption (TW.h)||N/A||N/A||1073.8||863.7||939||962.5||1009||1014||1.24|
(1) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database; Russia in figures. Summary Statistical Transactions.
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||160||250||260||190||214||228||234||232|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kW.h/capita)||N/A||N/A||7311||5915||6544||6740||7026||7054|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||N/A||N/A||N/A||7.75||6.87||7.01||6.85||6.95|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||0.74||6.71||10.91||15||15.7||15.7||16.79||17.61|
|Ratio of external dependency (%) (1)||N/A||N/A||N/A||-48.1||-60||-58||-60||-59|
(1) Net import/Total energy consumption
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database; Russia in figures. Summary Statistical Transactions.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical Development and current nuclear power organizational structure
|1937||Commencement of active experimental studies on the structure of atomic nuclei. Production of “pulse” amount of neptunium and plutonium in Leningrad Radium Institute.|
|1939||Start of research into the feasibility of achieving a nuclear chain reaction. Installation of the largest cyclotron in Europe in the Leningrad Physical and Technical Institute.|
|1940||Discovery of phenomenon of spontaneous nuclear fission in uranium. Theoretical demonstration by Soviet scientists of the feasibility of energy release from a uranium nuclear fission chain reaction.|
|1942||Recommencement of work on the atomic problem interrupted by the outbreak of the war.|
|1943||Creation of a special physics laboratory - the No. 2 Laboratory in Moscow (now the Russian Scientific Centre “Kurchatov Institute”).|
|1945||Establishment of a governmental interdepartmental body - the First Chief Administration to coordinate all work in the field of atomic science and technology.|
|1945/46||Technology mastering and organization of the production of metallic uranium and high-purity reactor graphite in order to start up the first experimental reactor.|
|1946||Achievement of a controlled uranium fission chain reaction at the No. 2 Laboratory. |
|1948||Start up of the first industrial nuclear reactor.|
|1949||Testing of the Soviet Union’s first atomic bomb.|
|1953||Establishment of the USSR Ministry of Medium Machine Building as the authority dealing with nuclear science and technology.|
|1954||Start up of the world’s first nuclear power plant in Obninsk.|
|1957||Ratification of the Charter of IAEA by the USSR.|
|1964||Commissioning of the first commercial water-moderated, water-cooled vessel-type (WWER) reactor at Novo-Voronezh. Commissioning of the first commercial boiling water-cooled graphite moderated reactor with nuclear superheating of the steam at Beloyarsk.|
|1970||Establishment of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) with the active participation of the USSR.|
|1973||Commissioning of the first commercial water-cooled graphite-moderated channel-type (RBMK) reactor at Leningrad.|
|1973||Commissioning of the world’s first prototype-scale fast breeder reactor (BN-350) in Aktau for electricity generation and desalinated water production.|
|1976||Completion of the first nuclear central heating and power plant at Bilibino, in the far north-eastern part of Russia.|
|1977||Start up of the RT-1 plant for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.|
|1980||Start up of a commercial power-generating unit powered by BN-600 fast reactor at Beloyarsk. Commissioning of the 1000 MW(e) water moderated, water-cooled reactor (WWER-1000).|
|1984/86||Commissioning of the Zaporozhie and Balakovo NPPs with WWER-1000 serial reactors with full compliance to the new safety regulation.|
|1986||Accident at unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP. Ministry for Atomic Energy is organized to be responsible for Nuclear Power Plants operation.|
|1989||Reorganization of the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and Ministry for Atomic Energy as the USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry.|
|1992||Establishment of Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom of Russia, also known as Ministry for Nuclear Power), which replaced the USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry.|
|1993||President Yeltsin and President Bush sign SALT-2 Agreement, according to which the strategic offensive weapons should be reduced and limited over 7 years. Beginning of conversion of the Russian weapons-grade highly-enriched uranium (VOU) in compliance with the Russian-US Agreement on nuclear disarmament.|
|1994||The Russian Federation Government makes decision to cease production of weapons-grade plutonium.|
|1995||50th anniversary of the nuclear power industry of Russia. Beginning of commercial conversion of highly-enriched uranium into low-enriched uranium (the VOU-NOU project) at the Ural Electrochemical Combine (Novouralsk town, Sverdlovsk Region). The FEI RF SSC. Obninsk. Kaluga Region, puts into service the first phase of the Laser and Nuclear Center for nuclei fission energy direct-conversion into laser radiation. The first phase of the diamond production is put into service at the VNIIEF RF NC as part of the conversion program.|
|1996||Approval of programs for support of the industry’s major schools of thought. Sea trials of PETR VELIKY nuclear-powered cruiser are completed. Completion of the removal of the Soviet Nuclear weapons to be disassembled from the CIS countries to Russia.|
|1997||Beginning of batch production of a news header type of munitions for the SRF TOPOL-M missile complex.|
|1998||Decision-making on production of the first batch of pilot uranium-plutonium fuel assemblies. Fabrication of a pilot batch of ADE-2. -4. -5 reactor conversion fuel rods. Approval of the program to develop nuclear power engineering of the Russian Federation from 1998 to 2005 and to 2010. Activities to elaborate a draft “Strategy for Nuclear Power Development” (a 50 year forecast) are started.|
|1998||Process to fabricate weapons-grade plutonium base mixed fuel is devised and brought into commercial practice at the Research Institute of Nuclear Reactors State Research Center of the Russian Federation. A pilot batch of that fuel for BOR-60 and BN-600 reactors is fabricated.|
|1998||Establishment of the Information and Analytical Center of Minatom of Russia to ensure information and analytical support of the Ministry administration and of the Industry Emergency Commission, both under normal operation and in case of emergency at the industry enterprises.|
|1999||Commissioning of the Kursk NPP 2 power unit, upon completion of overhaul, with monitoring of all fuel channels and with their partial substitution according to the check results. That work is carried out in the industry for the first time.|
|1999||Start of implementation of wide-scale measures to accelerate utilization of nuclear-powered submarines removed from military service and to accelerate ecological recovery of sites of dangerous installation sites belonging to the Ministry of Defense, handed over to Minatom of Russia in compliance with the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation.|
|1999||50th anniversary of the nuclear weapons of Russia. The nuclear weapon system is now a model of Research and Development Associations, with the worldwide significance of high-capacity pilot-scale productions enabling it to tackle large-scale high-technology problems.|
|2001||Putting into operation of the first unit of the Volgodonsk (Rostov) NPP.|
|2002||25th anniversary of the putting into operation of PT-1 plant at “ MAYAK” Production. |
|2004||Nuclear Power of Russia - 50 Years of History. On June 27 1954, in the city of Obninsk, a nuclear power plant of the capacity 5.000 kW was put into operation and connected to the grid for the first time in the world's history. |
|2005||60 Years of Nuclear power in Russia. Nuclear Power of Russia dates from 20 August 1945, when First General Directorate was established.|
|2007||Russian President Vladimir Putin ratifies the new law on Rosatom state corporation.|
|2009||On 30 October, the ‘cold and hot’ pre-commissioning testing of reactor adjustment work is successfully completed at the second unit of the Rostov NPP. |
|10.12. 2010||Rostov NPP: Rosatom signs a permit for putting power unit No. 2 into operation.|
|27. 2. 2012||Baltic NPP: Construction of the nuclear island foundation has started|
|25.12.2013||Beloyarsk-4 started first criticality program at BN-800|
|12.02.2014||WANO conducting pre-start-up peer review of Beloyarsk-4|
|22.10.2015||Rostov NPP: there is a preparation for installation of the reactor vessel at power unit 4|
|18.09.2015||Rostov NPP: unit 3 accepted into commercial operation|
2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)
Figure 2 shows the structure of the nuclear industry in Russia.
Fig. 2. Structure of Nuclear Industry in Russia
Today Russian nuclear industry constitutes a powerful complex of over 250 enterprises and organizations employing over 250 thousand people. Industry structure includes four large-scale research and production complexes: enterprises of nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear power engineering, nuclear weapons application, and research institutes. JSC Atomenergoprom, which consolidates the civilian part of the nuclear industry, is a part of Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation. ROSATOM unites a number of enterprises of nuclear power engineering, as well as of nuclear and radiation safety, nuclear weapons complex, and fundamental research. Atomenergoprom is part of Rosatom State Nuclear Power Corporation. Atomenergoprom produces a wide range of nuclear and non-nuclear products, as well as providing full service in the area of nuclear power engineering. In particular, the company provides design and turn-key construction of a nuclear power plant, fuel supplies for the whole operation life of N-plant, upgrading and maintenance, as well as personnel training. The company structure consists of divisions formed according to the basic segments of the nuclear fuel cycle:
In addition, Atomenergoprom’s structure includes enterprises offering products and services in the following areas:
2.2. Nuclear power plants: Overview
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
Figure 3 shows the map of Russian nuclear power plants. Table 7 shows the current status of Russia’s nuclear power plants.
Russia's nuclear plants, with 35 operating reactors totalling 26.2 GWe, comprise:
4 first generation VVER-440-similar pressurized water reactors.
2 second generation VVER-440 pressurized water reactors.
12 third generation VVER-1000 pressurized water reactors with a full containment structure, mostly V-320 types.
11 RBMK light water graphite reactors now unique to Russia. The four oldest of these were commissioned in the 1970s at Kursk and Leningrad, and are of some concern to the Western world.
4 small graphite-moderated BWR reactors in eastern Siberia constructed in the 1970s for cogeneration (EGP-6 models on linked map).
BN-600 and BN-800 - fast reactors.
Fig. 3. Map of Russian Nuclear Power Plants
TABLE 7. STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|AKADEMIK LOMONOSOV-1||PWR||32||Under Construction||REA||ROSATOM||2007-04-15||2019-12-31|
|AKADEMIK LOMONOSOV-2||PWR||32||Under Construction||REA||ROSATOM||2007-04-15||2019-12-31|
|LENINGRAD 2-1||PWR||1085||Under Construction||REA||ROSATOM||2008-10-25||2016-07-10|
|LENINGRAD 2-2||PWR||1085||Under Construction||REA||ROSATOM||2010-04-15||2018-03-02|
|NOVOVORONEZH 2-2||PWR||1114||Under Construction||REA||ROSATOM||2009-07-12||2017-03-02|
|APS-1 OBNINSK||LWGR||5||Permanent Shutdown||MSM||MSM||1951-01-01||1954-05-06||1954-06-27||1954-12-01||2002-04-29|
|SOUTH URALSK-1||FBR||750||Suspended Constr.||REA||ROSATOM||1986-01-01|
|SOUTH URALSK-2||FBR||750||Suspended Constr.||REA||ROSATOM||1986-01-01|
|VORONEZH (HEAT ONLY)-1||BWR||0||Suspended Constr.||REA||1983-09-01|
|VORONEZH (HEAT ONLY)-2||BWR||0||Suspended Constr.||REA||1985-05-01|
|GORKIY (HEAT ONLY)||BWR||0||Cancelled Constr.||REA||1982-01-01||1993-12-01|
|TATAR-1 (KAMA)||PWR||950||Cancelled Constr.||REA||1987-04-01||1993-12-01|
|TATAR-2 (KAMA)||PWR||950||Cancelled Constr.||REA||1988-05-01||1993-12-01|
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table 7 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
In 2014, Russian nuclear power plants produced 180.5 terawatt hours of electricity, a new record. The most important achievement in 2014 was the connection to the grid of Rostov-3 unit on 27 December. Nuclear power generation comprised about 17.5% of the total country's electricity generation. Nuclear power plants are operated by Concern Rosenergoatom.
PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN 2014
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
The lifetime extension activities at the operation units of NPPs were initiated pursuant to the Programme of development of nuclear power industry in the Russian Federation in 1998-2005 and the period up to 2010 approved by the RF Government Decree No. 815 of 21.07.1998. The long term programme of activities of the Rosatom state atomic energy corporation for the period 2009-2015 approved by RF Government Decree No. 705 of 20.09.2008 calls for lifetime extension of operational nuclear power units. As of 2011, lifetime extension projects were accomplished for the following 15 power units with the total rate power 8.362 MW: Novovoronezh NPP Unit 3 and 4 (VVR-440), Kola NPP Unit 1 and 2 (VVR-440), Leningrad NPP Units 1-4 (RBMK-100), Kursk NPP Unit 1 and 2 (RBMK-100), Bilibino Npp Units 1-4 (EGP-6), Beloyarsk NPP Unit 3 (BN-600).
As a result of the accomplished large scale renovation, safety performance of the aforementioned units increased substantially, having reached the levels consistent with the applicable requirements of domestic regulatory documents (OPB 88/97) and IAEA recommendations for the NPP built to earlier standards. The possibility of safe operation of the 15 units beyond the originally assigned lifetime (over 15 additional years) has been demonstrated. Long term operating licenses were properly obtained from Rostekhnadzor, allowing operation of the units beyond the originally assigned lifetime. Based on the modern level of knowledge and regulatory requirements, the 15-years additional operation period is justified in terms of the residual life of the critical components (reactor vessel for VVER units and graphite stock for RBMK units). The results of assessments of economic efficiency of the NPP power unit life time extension projects are indicative of their commercial viability and high returns on investments. Implementation of such projects is quite an efficient financial investment provide that unconditional priority is given to ensuring safety of such units during the extended period of operation.
The July 2012 Energy Ministry plan confirmed the scheduled closure of ten reactors at Kola, Novovoronezh, Leningrad and Bilibino. However, Leningrad unit 1 was shut down in May 2012 due to deformation of the graphite moderator, and a decision is due in November 2013 on whether to fix or decommission it. Any repair will involve replacement of up to 350 fuel channels.
The Beloyarsk-3 BN-600 fast neutron reactor in Zarechny municipality of Sverdlovsk Region has been upgraded and prepared for 15-year life extension, to 2025. Its licence has been renewed to 2020. It achieved 30 years of operation to late 2011, producing 114 billion kWh with capacity factor of 76%. Due to progressive modification, its fuel burn up has increased from 7% (design value) to 11.4%. It provides heat for Zarechny town as well.
In May 2015, Rosenergoatom said it had completed uprating all VVER-1000 reactors to 104% of rated power, and was starting to take them to 107% using advanced TVS-2M fuel design, starting with Balakovo 4. Earlier, uprating of 5% for VVER-440 (but 7% for Kola 4) had been achieved. The overall cost was less than RUR 3 billion ($60.5 million), according to Rosenergoatom. The cost of this was earlier put at US$ 200 per kilowatt, compared with $2400/kW for construction of Rostov 2. Kalinin units 1-3 are quoted at 1075 MWe gross after uprate, and unit 4 started pilot commercial operation at 104% of rated power in February 2015.
2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
Rosatom's initial proposal for a rapid expansion of nuclear capacity was based on the cost effectiveness of completing the 9 GWe of then partially-built plants. To get the funds, Rosatom offered Gazprom the opportunity to invest in some of the partly-completed nuclear plants. The argument was that the US$ 7.3 billion required for the whole 10 GWe (including the just-completed Rostov 1) would be quickly recouped from gas exports if the new nuclear plant reduced the need to burn that gas domestically. In September 2006, Rosatom announced a target of nuclear power plants providing 23% of electricity by 2020, thus commissioning two 1.200 MWe plants per year from 2011 to 2014, and then three per year until 2020. In July 2009, a revised federal target program (FTP) for 2010-2015 and until 2020 was approved and signed by the President. Projected federal budget funding was reduced to RUR 110 billion ($3.5 billion), for 2010. The FTP program envisages a 25-30% nuclear share in electricity supply by 2030, 45-50% in 2050 and 70-80% by the end of century.
TABLE 8. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/Project Name||Type||Capacity MWe||Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|Vilyuchinsk||KLT-40S||40 x 2||Const 5/09||2016-2018|
|Novovoronezh II -1||VVER 1200/ V-392M||1200||Const 6/08||2017|
|Leningrad II-1||VVER 1200/ V-491||1200||Const 10/08||2018|
|Novovoronezh II -2||VVER 1200/ V-392M||1200||Const 7/09||2019|
|Leningrad II -2||VVER 1200||1200||Planned 2009||2020|
|Rostov 4||VVER 1000/ V-320||1100||Planned 2010||2017|
|Baltic 1 (Kaliningrad)||VVER 1200||1200||Planned 2010||Suspended|
|Leningrad II -3||VVER 1200||1200||Planned 2011||2021|
|Leningrad II -4||VVER 1200||1200||Planned 2014||2022|
|Baltic 2 (Kaliningrad)||VVER 1200||1200||Planned 2012||Suspended|
Note: VVER-1200 is the reactor portion of the AES-2006 nuclear power plant. Rostov is also known as Volgodonsk.
After the Fukushima accident, checks were made on Russian nuclear plants. Following these, in mid-June 2011, Rosenergoatom announced a RUR 15 billion ($530 million) safety upgrade program for additional power and water supply back-up. Rosenergoatom spent RUR 2.6 billion on 66 mobile diesel generator sets, 35 mobile pumping units and 80 other pumps.
2.3.2. Project management
The FTP programme is based on VVER technology, at least until roughly 2030. It highlights the goal of moving to fast neutron reactors and a closed fuel cycle, for which Rosatom proposed two options. The first is to select a fast neutron reactor with lead coolant as the basic technology, and to mobilize all available resources for this exclusively. This is expected to cost RUR 110 billion, mostly from the federal budget. The second option also provides for development of fast neutron reactors, cooled by sodium and lead-bismuth, with the related engineering designs of such reactors and closed fuel cycle technologies to be in place no later than 2014. A detailed design should be developed for the construction of a multi-purpose fast neutron research reactor (MBIR) by then also. This second option is designed to attract more funds aside from the federal budget allocation, and is the option favoured by Rosatom.
2.3.3. Project funding
In mid-2009, the Russian government said that it would provide more than RUR 120 billion (about US$3.89 billion) over 2010 to 2012 for a new programme devoted to R&D on the next generation of nuclear power plants. It identified three priorities for the nuclear industry: improving the performance of light water reactors over the next two or three years, developing a closed fuel cycle based on deployment of fast reactors in the medium term, and developing nuclear fusion over the long term.
In February 2010, the government announced that Rosenergoatom’s investment programme for 2010 amounted to RUR 163.3 billion, of which RUR 53 billion would come from the federal budget. Of the total cost, RUR 101.7 billion is for nuclear plant construction, almost half of which is to come from Rosenergoatom’s funds. It includes the reactors listed higher as under construction, as well as Leningrad II-2 and the Baltic plant. In March, Rosatom said that it now intended to commission three new reactors per year from 2016.
In March 2011, the State Duma’s energy committee recommended construction of Kursk II with standard VVER-TOI reactors and the updating of FTP plans to have Units 1 and 2 put on line in 2020 and 2023. Rosatom was told to start engineering surveys for Kursk II in 2011. The committee has said that unit 1 must be in service by the time the first RBMK unit of phase I is closed. in order to ensure adequate supply to Moscow.
The Beloyarsk 4 BN-800 fast reactor designed by OKBM Afrikantov was intended to replace the BN-600 unit 3 at Beloyarsk. Rosenergoatom said that "for us, the BN-800 is not only the basis for development of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. It is also a test case for technical solutions that will later be used for commercial production of the BN-1200. Among other things, the BN-800 must answer questions about the economic viability of potential fast reactors ... if such a unit has more functions than to generate electricity, then it becomes economically attractive. That's what we have to find out.” The Beloyarsk plant director said “the main objective of the BN-800 is [to provide] operating experience and technological solutions that will be applied to the BN-1200.” Rosatom’s scientific and technology council was to review the situation by mid-2015. Uralenergostroy is the general civil contractor for both Beloyarsk reactors, and sees BN-800 as a bridge between past designs such as BN-600 and significantly different future ones such as BN-1200, which in 2015 Rosatom described as “by 2025 the first commercial fast neutron reactor.”
2.3.4. Electric grid development
The Russian Power Grid is the world's largest highly automated complex to generate, transmit, and distribute electric power and also to control these processes on a day-to-day basis. The power industry in Russia developed stepwise, by incorporating regional power systems, working in parallel, and forming interregional electric power pools, which merged to form a single Power Grid. The nation's Power Grid started to evolve as soon as the GOELRO plan was launched. Russia's Power Grid, the main component of the national power industry, is a complex network of power plants and mains, which have the same operating mode and centralized dispatching control. The transition to this form of organization of the power industry made it possible to make the most of power resources and to raise the economy and reliability of energy supply to both economy and population.
The control of this immense, synchronously operating system, which reaches 7 000 km west to east and over 3000 km north to south, is a very complex engineering task, which has no analogues anywhere in the world. Also, in its more than 40 years in operation, the Russian Power Grid has accumulated a wealth of experience in the reliable and efficient supply of quality energy to users. Of the total 74 power networks, the Power Grid of Russia comprises 69 power networks. Of the seven Integrated Power Systems (IPSs) six work in parallel as part of the Power Grid: the Centre, Middle Volga, Urals, Northwest, North Caucasus, and Siberia IPSs. The East IPS operates separately from the Siberia IPS. Working in parallel with the Russian Power Grid are the power systems of Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldovia, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and through the insertion of direct current, the power system of Finland.
2.3.5. Site selection
Placement of nuclear power plants in Russia performs accordance with resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation on October 17, 2009 No. 823 "On schemes for long-term development of electric power".
Basic Principles of the schemes and programs for long-term electric power development are next:
application of new technological solutions.
Coordination of schemes and programs of long-term development of electric power and the subjects of electricity.
publicity and openness of public investment strategies and solutions.
Unfavourable for the placement of NPP must be territory of active volcanoes, territory to be exposed to tsunamis, floods, catastrophic floods.
2.3.6. Public Acceptance
ROSATOM's comprehensive offerings include PR solutions that make it possible to obtain public acceptance of nuclear power viewed as a cornerstone of stability in the nuclear industry around the globe. ROSATOM adheres to principles of transparency, raising public awareness of Russian nuclear operations. This approach enables us to secure general public consensus (according to a survey conducted in 2013 by the Levada Analytical Centre, 71.5% of Russians support the continued development of nuclear power).
2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs
All-Russia Scientific Research and Design Institute of Power Technology (VNIPIET). St. Petersburg
Institute “Atomenergoproekt” (AEP), and its branches in Moscow. St. Petersburg. Nizhny Novgorod
State Institute of Construction and Design (GSPI). Moscow
NSS main suppliers:
"Atommash", an open-end joint stock company - NSS WWER-1000. BN and AST. Volgodonsk
“Izhorskie zavody”, an open-end joint stock company - NSS WWER-1000 and WWER-440. St. Petersburg
Main component suppliers:
“Leningradskiy metallicheskiy zavod”, an open-end joint stock company - turbines for NPPs. St. Petersburg
“Podolskiy mashinostroitelniy zavod”, an open-end joint stock company - steam generators, separators, piping, etc., Podolsk
2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs
The state enterprise “Russian state concern for generation of electric and thermal power at nuclear power plants” [“ROSENERGOATOM”] was founded in 1992, and up until 2002 executed centralized state management for 8 of the 9 Russian nuclear power plants. From 1 April 2002, “ROSENERGOATOM” was transformed into a generating company with a common rate. 10 NPPs were joined to it as junior branches, including Leningrad NPP and Volgodonsk NPP, which was commissioned in December 2001.
All NPPs have 33 energy units with a total rated power of 25.2 GWe. According to Russian federal laws in the area of atomic energy, “ROSENERGOATOM” performs the functions of the NPP operating utility and bears complete responsibility for maintaining nuclear and radiological safety at all stages of NPP operation including measures on the elimination of nuclear accident consequences. The ultimate goal of “ROSENERGOATOM” activities is to ensure the safe operation of Russian nuclear power plants.
"ROSENERGOATOM" IS ENTRUSTED TO PERFORM THE FOLLOWING MAIN FUNCTIONS:
Ensuring the NPP safe operation, namely:
development and implementation of NPP safety culture
performance of continuous surveillance over NPP safety
collection and analysis of the information on NPP accidents, equipment failures and human error for the development of corrective measures
management of physical protection and fire prevention at nuclear power plants
development and management of emergency preparedness plans
Support of NPP operation, namely:
providing nuclear power plants with necessary material and technical resources
development and performance control for the measures aimed at enhancement of NPP reliability, quality and safe operation
development of normative documentation and scientific support of NPP operation and of operation licensing
operating personnel recruiting, initial and continuous training
Nuclear power development, namely:
development and implementation of NPP erection and commissioning programs
modernization and upgrading of the operating nuclear power plants
resolution of the problems regarding lifetime extension of the operating nuclear power plants
design & development activities and NPP construction licensing
participation in resolution of social issues concerning nuclear industry employees
providing the general public with information on the issues of NPP ecological safety
2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs
The main organization involved in decommissioning process of NPPs is concern ROSENERGOATOM.
TABLE 9. REACTORS IN DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OR DECOMMISSIONED
|Reactor name||Shut down date||Shutdown reason||Decom. Strategy||Current decom. Phase||Current Fuel management phase||Decom. Licensee||License terminate|
|APS-1||2002/04/29||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|BELOYARSKY-1||1983/01/01||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|BELOYARSKY-2||1990/01/01||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|NOVOVORONEZH-1||1988/02/16||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|NOVOVORONEZH-2||1990/08/29||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
Source : PRIS database.
2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management
The Russian Federation has capabilities in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The excess capacities are offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis. Parts of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities are State-owned (Rosatom), while the other parts are managed by joint stock companies (TVEL, Rosenergoatom, Atomstroi, etc.), in which controlling interests are retained by the State.
Uranium mining and milling
The Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union has an annual capacity of 3.500 t U using open pit, underground and ISL extraction methods. This facility is operated by JSC TVEL.
Rosatom operates Angarsk and Tomsk conversion plants (conversion to UF6), which have a total annual capacity of 30.000 t U. The excess capacities are offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis.
The first civil uranium enrichment plant in the Russian Federation started operation in 1964, at Ekaterenburg. Three more plants came into operation later at Tomsk, Angarsk and Krasnoyarsk. At present, Rosatom operates all four plants, which have a total annual capacity of 15.000 t SWU. The excess capacities are offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis.
Nuclear fuel fabrication is carried out by JSL TVEL at two plants, Electrostal and Novosibirsk. Electrostal produces fuel elements, assemblies, powder and pellets for WWER 440, WWER 100, BN 600, RBMK and PWR reactors. The Novosibirsk plant manufactures fuel elements and assemblies for WWER 1000 reactors. In the production of fuel assemblies for RBMK and WWER 1000 reactors, a quantity of fuel pellets is supplied from the Ust Kamenogorsk plant (Kazahstan). However, new lines for powder and pellet production at the Novosibirsk plant started operation in 2000-2002. Zirconium production of JSC TVEL, for nuclear fuel fabrication capacity (fuel assemblies for different reactor types), is about 2600 t HM/a (ton of heavy metal per year). The excess capacities are offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis.
The reprocessing option is the chosen method for dealing with spent reactor fuel, with the exception of spent fuel originating from RBMKs, which should be disposed of. Rosatom operates the RT-1 Plant in Chelyabinsk for reprocessing fuel from WWER plants’ capacity for WWER 440 fuel is 400 t HM/a. The construction of a second reprocessing plant (RT-2) at Krasnoyarsk, which has a first line design capacity of 800 t HM/a, has been postponed indefinitely. Reprocessed uranium is used for RBMK fuel production. Plutonium obtained at RT-1 is temporarily stored on-site in dioxide form. Rosatom operates several wet AFR fuel storage facilities at RT-1 and RT-2, and at several nuclear power plants, with a total capacity of about 16.000 t HM/a.
2.8. Research and development
2.8.1. R&D Organizations and Institutes
Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow
Institute of High Energy Physics, Protvino
Institute of Innovation and Thermonuclear Research, Troitsk
These are major nuclear industry research centres that carry out extensive fundamental theoretical and experimental investigations into the properties of the atomic nucleus and elementary particles, plasma and laser physics, thermonuclear fusion, development of new types of accelerator and reactor technology, and into developing equipment and facilities for physical research.
Applied Research and Development (R&D)
The Russian Scientific Centre (RSC) “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow
The State Scientific Centre “Institute of Physics and Power Engineering” (SSC FEI), Obninsk
The State Scientific Centre "All-Russian Inorganic Materials Research Institute" (SSC VNIINM), Moscow
The State Scientific Centre Nuclear Reactor Research Institute (SSC NIIAR), Dimitrovgrad
Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET), Moscow
These are all major scientific centres in the field of nuclear science and technology. Theoretical and experimental research, performed at these institutes on nuclear and particle physics, neutron physics, thermophysics, hydraulics, material science and nuclear safety, has received world-wide recognition.
The All-Russian Research Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (VNIIAES) of Moscow is the scientific centre for Russian nuclear operating organizations. Principal attention is paid to assuring safe operation of the 1st and 2nd generation nuclear power plants.
Major reactor and NSSS design and research
Experimental Design Bureau "Gidropress" (OKB GP), Podolsk
Experimental Design Bureau of Machine Building (OKBM), Nizhny Novgorod
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
The leading 3rd generation medium- and large-scale power units of improved safety now include advanced WWER 1000 (for domestic market and export), WWER 1500 (replacement of the 1st generation units and capacity growths), BN-800 (for plutonium utilization and solving of environmental problem) and BREST (nuclear technology of the 4th generation).
2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives
Rosatom of Russia co-operates with other countries in many fields of activities, for example:
fundamental research into matter properties
controlled thermonuclear fusion
physics of semiconductors and high-temperature superconductivity
technologies of elementary particle accelerators and electrophysical equipment
atomic energy generation and nuclear fuel cycle
radioactive waste management
Rosatom’s scientists and researchers are engaged in a wide range of studies, conducted by the various international centres for nuclear research, that is, the European Organization of Nuclear Research (CERN), the National Accelerator Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. Russia participates in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor quadripartite project. Rosatom scientists and engineers participate actively in both national and the international symposia, seminars and conferences. Rosatom of Russia is engaged in the intensive sharing and exchange of information at a bilateral level and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Within the Rosatom structure there is a special Institute (Atominform), merging all information flows of the industry and dealing with the problems associated with protection of Rosatom’s rights to the objects of intellectual property resulting from activities financed by the Ministry, as well as legal aspects of the transfer of these rights to third parties.
Recently, the problems of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, of NPP safety and of environment protection have been gaining in importance. Russia co-operates with the US Department of Energy to establish the International Centre of Ecological Safety in Russia (Rosatom of Russia) and in the USA (the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). Co-operation started in 1993, in management of spent nuclear fuel and of radioactive waste and in co-operation in rehabilitation of contaminated territories at the northwest of the Russian Federation with Norway, the European Commission, France, Sweden and USA, and these initiatives are still in progress. In 1998, through the Minatom initiative, Russia began to co-operate with France and Germany to construct reactor EPR in Russia. The joint working–group was formed, including experts from Minatom, Framatome and Siemens Company. The European Commission, rendering technical assistance on a gratuitous basis within the frameworks of TACIS Program, is one of the leading western partners. In 1998, the implementation of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between Russia and the European Union was started. Throughout recent years, Russia has taken part in activities in compliance with the Agreement on ISTC.
Extensive activities to tackle problems of non-proliferation and safe dismantling of the Russian nuclear weapons and of weapons-grade plutonium and uranium conversion are in progress. For example, throughout 1994-1997, research and development activities to fabricate uranium-plutonium fuel for CANDU reactors from weapons-grade plutonium were carried out in co-operation with Canada. In 1999, Russia continued co-operation with Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Italy and France, with US participation, to ensure safe dismantling of nuclear weapons within the frameworks of the intergovernmental agreements on rendering assistance to Russia. At present, the joint Russian-US efforts are focussed on decommissioning of weapons-grade plutonium production reactors. In 1999, a draft Intergovernmental Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Netherlands on co-operation in safe dismantling of nuclear weapons in the Russian Federation and in utilization of removed nuclear-powered submarines was elaborated.
By convention, the designing, mounting and commissioning of NPPs and large-scale production installations at the territories of the CIS and of the other countries form essential part of the international co-operation of Rosatom of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan are the most active partners of Russia. A draft Agreement on co-operation in nuclear fuel cycle has been elaborated and coordinated recently with Ukraine. Activities to complete construction and to put into operation the Rovno and the Khmelnitsky NPPs are in progress. Russia supplies nuclear fuel to Ukraine, and transports spent nuclear fuel out of the country. Russia co-operates with Kazakhstan in production of nuclear fuel and in other aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. An NPP is planned to be constructed on the territory of Kazakhstan.
Rosatom co-operates with China, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Cuba, India, Syrian Arab Republic and Egypt in construction and operation of NPPs and large-scale production installations. We can note certain progress in the Russian-Japanese relations.
Russia takes part in the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The objective of INPRO is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation-resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs of the 21st century. INPRO provides an open international forum for studying the nuclear power option and associated requirements, and its potential application in IAEA Member States. INPRO helps to make adequate competence available for the development and deployment of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (INSs), and helps to assist Member States in the coordination of related collaborative projects.
2.9. Human resources development
The industry personnel policy serves to keep and add to the personnel potential. There are 6 centres and Institutes for Advanced Professional Training of managerial and engineering staff, where up to 10.000 persons per year may be trained. The young personnel are trained in 20 high educational institutions, including 7 industrial ones, and in 21 technical colleges, professional and technical schools. The total number of persons trained in the industry educational institutions constitutes over 18 500, including over 6 000 students of high educational institutions.
Training of the industry’s scientific personnel, in 30 post-graduate schools established on the basis of the industry enterprises and in Institutes where up to 500 engineers are trained annually, occupies a highly important place.
Changeover from focusing on the solution of individual problems to the combined implementation of the complex program of job-security, social and economic development, social insurance, etc., is in progress, in co-operation with the local self-administration bodies and involving interaction with close administrative and territorial entities.
The training and procedure papers, simulators and training equipment have been developed within the frameworks of international scientific and engineering co-operation with the USA, Japan, Germany, France, Great Britain and Syria. Over 350 Russian engineers were trained abroad, and the training of foreign students in the industry base institutes was arranged.
2.10. Stakeholder Communication
Rosenergoatom fulfils the policy of transparency as a key element in all stakeholder communication.
2.11. Emergency Preparedness
As an operator, under the Use of Nuclear Energy Federal Act, Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC assumes total responsibility and ensures nuclear and radiation safety for all stages of the nuclear plant life cycle. Therefore, the Concern has achieved a high level in management of nuclear and radiation risks, environmental and physical safety. As part of ensuring nuclear plant safety, the Concern pays a great deal of attention to industrial safety of dangerous production facilities that run as components of the NPP.
Special safety measures, including anti-terrorist resistance of nuclear plants with robust physical protections at every stage of the life cycle (project design, construction, operation, decommissioning), are needed as nuclear materials are involved. Integrity of the state secrets, commercial and executive secrets, corporate business security while enforcing the law and protecting the Concern’s corporate interests, are of high priority for a corporate operator.
The active nuclear plants have created: systems of communication, alerting and information support; coordination services; standing executive bodies; routine management bodies; forces and equipment to contain and eliminate emergencies. Detailed information about the system to prevent and eliminate emergencies is available in Section 3.3 “Safety of Russian NPPs. Radiation impact on personnel and citizens”. (www.rosenergoatom.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosenergoatom_copy/site_en/safety-and-ecology/nuclear-and-radiation/)
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory framework
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
The Russian Federal Supervision of Nuclear and Radiological Safety (Gosatomnadzor) is the Nuclear Regulatory Body of the Russian Federation, with the headquarters in Moscow and seven regional offices throughout the country.
The following regulations determine the procedure for nuclear power plant licensing:
Regulations on the order of special permission, issued by Gosatomnadzor of Russia for examination of design and other materials and documents, substantiating safety of nuclear and radiologically dangerous installations and works: RD-03-12-94.
Regulations on arranging and carrying out examination of design and other materials and documents, substantiating safety of nuclear and radiologically dangerous installations and works: RD-03-13-94.
Regulations on the order of issuing of special temporary permissions for designing nuclear and radiologically dangerous installations and works: RD-03-14-94.
3.1.2. Licensing Process
The stages of obtaining the temporary permission (license) for NPP unit operation can be represented in brief:
License demand (submission of application documents)
Gosatomnadzor decision on the demand control
Analysis of substantiating materials of demand
Inspection at the NPP
Conclusion on substantiating materials examination
Conclusion on NPP inspection
General conclusion on obtaining temporary permission (license)
License (temporary permission)
3.2. Main National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power
The main laws controlling nuclear power in Russia are the law "About utilization of atomic energy" and the law "About state policy in the field of radioactive waste management".
Technical regulations created by Gosatomnadzor of Russia, which are in force today, are the legal framework for nuclear energy utilization. These regulations and rules address the aspects of safety assurance during site selection, designing, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear installations. All regulating documents developed by Gosatomnadzor have been compiled into “List of main scientific and technical documents, used by Gosatomnadzor for safety regulation and supervision during production and utilization of atomic energy, handling of nuclear materials, radioactive substances and articles on their base”. P-01-01-03, Gosatomnadzor of Russia, 2003.
Some aspects of nuclear related activity are regulated by decrees of the President or Government of the Russian Federation.
Decrees of the President:
"About the control of export of nuclear materials, equipment and technologies" of 27 March 1992
"About the utilities with nuclear power plants " of 7 September 1992
"About privatization of enterprises under the authority of Ministry for Atomic Energy, and their management in a market economy" of 15 April 1993, etc.
Decrees of the Government:
"About approval of documents, regulating export of equipment and materials and of corresponding technology, used for nuclear purposes" of 29 May 1992
“About measures of protection of the population living adjacent to nuclear power installations" of 15 October 1992
“On Reorganization of the Nuclear Power Industry of the Russian Federation” of 17 April 2007, etc.
Annual Report of the UES of Russia in 2013. http://so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2014/ups_rep2013.pdf
Annual Report of the UES of Russia in 2012. http://so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2013/ues_rep2012.pdf
The main results of JSC "Concern Rosenergoatom" for January-December 2012 http://www.rosenergoatom.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosenergoatom/site/about/work/16f469004e4445038b3c8b8cb8b4ed30
"Russia in figures" – 2011. http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b11_12/Main.htm
Russia in figures – 2010. http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b10_11/Main.htm
Russia in figures – 2009. http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b09_12/Main.htm
Russia in figures – 2009. http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b09_12/Main.htm
Nuclear Power in Russia. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf45.html
Annual Report – 2009 of Concern Rosenergoatom. http://atomenergoprom.ru/en/org/npp/
CIS Countries Economics. Moscow. Finstatinform. (1993) (in Russian).
CIS Countries in 1991. Annual Statistic Report. Moscow. Finstatinform. (1992) (in Russian).
Energy Strategy of Russia. Main Concepts. Moscow. (1995) (in Russian).
Annual Report of Mintopenergo of Russia 1993. Moscow. (1993) (in Russian).
Technical and Economic Characteristics of Electric Power in Russia. NIIEE. Moscow. (1992) (in Russian).
Data of the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation. (1993).
Fuel and Power in Russia. VNIIKTEP. Moscow. (1992) (in Russian).
Strategy of Nuclear Power Development in Russia. Moscow. (1994) (in Russian).
Performance Indicators of Russian NPPs in 1993. “Rosenergoatom” Concern. (1994).
Minatom of Russia. Atominform. (1992).
International Affairs. Special Issue. Russian Nuclear Complex Opens to the Country and the World. (1994).
NPP operation in the Russian Federation. The 1993 Report. “Rosenergoatom” Concern. (1994).
On the Activity Related to the Future Development of the Russian Electric Energy Sector in the New Economic Conditions. Energy Construction. Vol 11. (1994) (in Russian).
Programme of Russian Federation Nuclear Power Development in 1998-2005 and for perspective up to 2010. Moscow. (July 21. 1998).
About Status and Perspective of Nuclear Power Development. Rosenergoatom. (1999).
National Report of Russian Federation about Realization of Obligations of Nuclear Safety Convention. Moscow. (1998).
Russian Annual Statistical Transactions. Moscow (1998).
Russian Annual Statistical Transactions. Moscow (1999).
Russian Annual Statistical Transactions. Moscow (2000).
Russian nuclear power plants. Rosenergoatom. Moscow (2001) IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB).
IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
Russia in figures. Summary Statistical Transactions. Moscow (2002).
Country Nuclear Fuel Cycle Profiles. IAEA.
Russian nuclear power plants. Rosenergoatom. Moscow (2002).
Unified Energy System of Russia (UES). Annual Report 2003.
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA
MAIN INTERNATIONAL TREATIES
OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL TREATIES/UNDERTAKINGS
Bilateral agreements on the peaceful use of atomic energy have been signed with USA, UK, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Republic of Korea, Switzerland and other countries.
“Bilateral Agreement between Governments of the Russian Federation and the United States of America on Scientific and Technical Co-operation in the Field of Management of Plutonium Withdrawn from Nuclear Military Programmes”. Moscow, July 24, 1998.
“Threelateral Agreement between Governments of Russian Federation and Federal Republic of Germany and Republic of France on Co-operation in the Field of Peaceful Utilization of Plutonium Being Released as a Results of Dismantling of Russian Nuclear Weapons”. Moscow, November 28, 2001.
Russia-US: “Agreement on Co-operation in Research on Radiation Effects for the Purpose of minimize the consequences of the Radioactive Contamination on Health and environment”. Moscow, January 14, 1994.
Russia-US: “Agreement on Increasing of Operational Safety. Measures to Decrease Risk and on Nuclear Safety Standards of Civil Nuclear Facilities in Russian Federation”. Moscow, December 16, 1993.
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|Name of report coordinator ||Valeriy Korobeynikov|
|Institution:||State Scientific Center |
Institute of Physics and Power Engineering
|Contacts: ||249020 Obninsk. Kaluga region. Bondarenko Sq.1 |
Tel: +7 48439 982 76
Fax : +7 48439 682 25. +7 48439 584 77