(Updated 2014)


1.1. Country Overview

Note: The content of this section, including Tables 1 and 2, has been removed by the IAEA to better focus the report on nuclear power.

1.2. Energy Information

1.2.1. Estimated Available Energy

Pakistan’s energy resources consist of fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil), uranium and renewable energy (hydropower, wind, solar, wood, etc). The fossil fuels reserves and potential renewable energy of Pakistan are reported in Table 3. Pakistan does not have adequate oil reserves and has to import large quantities of crude oil and petroleum products to meet more than 80% of its oil requirements. The natural gas reserves of the country are limited, however the coal reserves are large but yet undeveloped.

The hydro power potential of Pakistan is estimated to be 50,000 MW. Around 13.7% of the estimated potential has been exploited. The hydro potential is located in mountainous regions, away from load centers. High investment cost (for electricity generation and transmission), socio-political issues, such as water allocation among the provinces and resettlement of people, are some of the reasons for not exploiting the potential to its full capacity. Pakistan has a considerable potential for wind energy. The economically exploitable wind potential is about 50,000 MW.


Fossil Fuels Nuclear Renewable
  Solid Liquid Gas Uranium Hydro Wind
Total amount in specific units 3,450 49.78 20.44 n.a. 50.0 50.0
Total amount in exajoule (EJ) 68.3 2.2 19.4 n.a. 2.3 1.4

n.a. not available


  1. Specific units for solid & liquid: million tonnes, gas: trillion cubic feet, hydro and wind: GW

  2. Solid consists of only coal. It has been converted to energy at 19.8 GJ/tonne.

  3. Liquid consists of crude only. It has been converted to energy at 44.2 GJ/tonne.

  4. Natural gas has been converted to energy at 950 GJ/million cubic feet.

  5. Hydro power potential has been converted to energy at 50% plant factor and 10,550 GJ/GWh.

  6. Wind power potential has been converted to energy at 30% capacity factor and 10,550 GJ/GWh.

Sources: (HDIP: 2013 and (WAPDA: 2011).

1.2.2. Energy Statistics

The energy supply statistics are given in Table 4. During the last decade, the indigenous oil production has been at a level of about 55,000-77,000 barrels per day (equivalent to about 16-21% of the country's oil consumption). Pakistan's natural gas production in year 2012-13 was 4,126 million cubic feet per day.


annual growth rate (%)
1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2013 2000 to 2013
Energy consumption
Total 0.33 0.67 1.24 1.90 2.45 2.77 2.85 3.2
Solid 0.02 0.06 0.09 0.09 0.19 0.20 0.17 5.0
Liquid 0.17 0.20 0.50 0.83 0.73 0.88 0.94 0.9
Gas 0.11 0.25 0.47 0.77 1.23 1.36 1.37 4.5
Nuclear - - - - 0.03 0.03 0.05 20.6
Hydro 0.03 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.27 0.30 0.32 3.6
Imported electricity 0.001 0.003 0.004 16.7**
Energy production
Total 0.18 0.46 0.83 1.16 1.77 1.91 1.98 4.1
Solid 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.03
Liquid 0.02 0.02 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.15 0.18 2.5
Gas 0.11 0.25 0.47 0.77 1.23 1.36 1.37 4.5
Nuclear - - - - 0.03 0.03 0.05 20.6
Hydro 0.03 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.27 0.30 0.32 3.5
Net Imports
Total 0.15 0.22 0.41 0.74 0.68 0.86 0.87 1.4
Solid 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.10 0.14 0.11 11.0
Liquid 0.15 0.19 0.38 0.71 0.58 0.73 0.76 0.6
Electricity 0.001 0.003 0.004 16.7**

*Nuclear power was introduced after 1970.

- Less than 0.005 exajoule

** Growth rate during the period 2005-2013.


  1. Years in this Table are financial (i.e. from 1st July – 30th June)

  2. Energy consumption = Primary energy production + Net import (import – export).

  3. Solid fuel consists of coal and lignite.

  4. Import of electricity was started in the year 2003

Sources: (GoP: 1978) and (HDIP: 2013).

Coal Production in 2012-13 was 3.2 million tonnes, while 3.7 million tonnes of coal were imported to meet the industrial requirement. The development of the coal mining industry in Pakistan, particularly for power generation is hampered by many constraints relating to the quality of coal, mining difficulties and organizational constraints.

During the year 2012-13, hydropower provided 30.3% of electricity in Pakistan. Although Pakistan has relatively high endowment of hydropower potential, however only 6,826 MW (13.7%) has been exploited so far. Some small, mini and micro hydro projects are under construction and a number of medium and large size hydroelectric projects are either planned or proposed.

Nuclear power generation contributed 4.2% to the total electricity generation of Pakistan in the year 2012-13. The country has three operating nuclear power plants (NPPs); KANUPP, a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) of 137 MW (de-rated 100 MW), and two Pressurized Light Water Reactor (PWR) namely CHASNUPP unit-1 (C-1) of gross capacity 325 MW and CHASNUPP unit-2 (C-2) of gross capacity 330 MW. Two more PWR type nuclear units C-3 and C-4 each of 340 MW gross capacity are under construction at the Chashma site and are expected to be commissioned in 2016 and 2017, respectively.

1.2.3. Energy Policy

The energy sector, to a large extent, has been owned and operated by the Government of Pakistan (GoP). During the last two decades, GoP formulated various policies and programmes to reform the energy sector. Besides improving the efficiency of public sector institutions, policies have been formulated to increase the private sector participation in the development of the energy sector. The legal and institutional framework has been setup for restructuring of energy sector entities owned by the public sector and to create a market in which private companies can work under the regulatory authorities to provide energy/electricity on a competitive basis.

GoP formulated the Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-10 (GoP: 2005). The Framework translates the vision of long-term (2005-30) sustainable development into a mix of actions and policies to decide the role of the public sector in the development process, and to facilitate the private sector to play its role. The Framework identifies issues in the energy sector to formulate strategies for development and policies for their implementation. The aim of current energy policy is to ensure sustainable supply of energy to all sectors of economy at a competitive price through development of indigenous energy resources (coal, hydro, nuclear and renewables) and a reduction in energy import dependence.

GoP is preparing ‘The Pakistan Vision 2025’. Major themes of the Vision include an integrated energy plan, modernization of infrastructure, mobilization of indigenous resources, institutional reforms and governance, value addition in production sectors, growth led by export and private sector.

1.3. The Electricity System

1.3.1. Electricity Policy and Decision Making Process

The Pakistan power sector was owned and served by two public utilities; the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC). Over the years it was observed that these institutions were not able to meet the electricity demands of the country that resulted in a supply-demand gap. The performance of the power sector was continuously deteriorating due to institutional weaknesses, an irrational tariff structure and subsidies. To improve the performance of the power sector, the Regulation of Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power Act was passed in 1997 and a new institutional framework was setup.

In the new setup, National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) was established to function as an independent regulator and to ensure a transparent, competitive, commercially-oriented power market in Pakistan. The Power Wing of WAPDA was unbundled into four Generation Companies (GENCOs), eleven Distribution Companies (DISCOs) and one National Transmission and Despatch Company (NTDC). The KESC was privatized which is currently renamed as K-Electric. Planning and development of nuclear power is the responsibility of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The NPPs are under the ownership of PAEC. The Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB) was established to facilitate private investment in power sector. Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) was created for the exploitation of renewable energy resources.

Over the years, the GoP formulated many policies for power sector development. The aims of these policies were elimination of inefficiencies in existing generation, transmission and distribution system, and diversification of generation mix with maximum utilization of indigenous energy resources including hydro, coal, nuclear and renewable. However, shortcomings in implementation of these policies resulted a supply demand gap of up to 4,500 -5,500 MW. The GoP formulated National Power Policy 2013 for strategically development of power sector on the basis of three principles efficiency, competition, and sustainability.

The overall planning of the electricity system is under the control of The National Economic Council (NEC), which is the supreme body responsible for ensuring balanced development activities in the country. It was created in December 1962 under Article 145 of the Constitution of Pakistan. NEC is headed by the Head of the Government. Its members are some Federal Ministers, the Governors/Chief Ministers of the provinces, and the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission.

The Planning Commission is the chief instrument for formulating the national plans and Energy Wing of the Planning Commission estimates energy demand on the basis of information obtained from all concerned entities. The Energy Wing also formulates unified short- and long-term national energy plans. The NEC approves all plans and policies relating to energy/electricity sectors development. The Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC) supervises implementation of the energy policy laid down by the Government, and approves any energy sector project to be built by the public sector.

1.3.2. Structure of the Electric Power Sector

The Ministry of Water and Power is responsible for development of water and power resources in the country. It handles all issues related to electricity generation, transmission & distribution, pricing and consumption in the country. The Ministry exercises this function through respective organizations. It also performs certain specific functions such as coordination of power sector plans, formulation of policy and specific incentives, and liaisons with provincial governments on all related issues.

The following are the major stakeholders in the electricity sector.

Generation Companies (GENCOs)

  1. Jamshoro Power Company Ltd (GENCO-I) . It owns and operates two thermal power plants of 1,024 MW capacity; Jamshoro (850 MW) and Kotri (174 MW).

  2. Central Power Generation Company Ltd (GENCO-II). It owns and operates two thermal power plants of 2,437 MW capacity; Guddu (2,402 MW) and Quetta (35 MW). Guddu consists of existing power plant of 1655 MW and an additional unit of 747 MW, of which 486 MW has been commissioned on 21 April 2014 while 261 MW will be commissioned in May 2014.

  3. Northern Power Generation Company (GENCO-III). It owns and operates five thermal power plants of 1,900 MW capacity; Muzaffargarh (1,350 MW), Multan (130 MW), Faisalabad Steam (132 MW), Faisalabad Gas Turbine (244 MW) and Shahdra (44 MW).

  4. Lakhra Power Generation Company Ltd (GENCO-IV). It owns and operates a coal power plant at Lakhra of 150 MW capacity.

Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA)

WAPDA is responsible for planning and execution of large hydro power projects. At present, WAPDA is operating 6,612 MW hydro power capacity.

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

PAEC is responsible for planning, implementation, operation and maintenance of NPPs. Presently three NPPs, KANUPP (137 MW, de-rated to 100 MW), C-1 (325 MW) and C-2 (330 MW) are in operation.

National Transmission and Dispatch Company (NTDC)

NTDC is responsible for constructing, operating and maintaining the electricity transmission system of the country, which comprises transmission lines of 220 kV & 500 kV and grid stations linking all power plants of the country. It also provides services to the distribution companies in designing and construction of 132 kV transmission lines and grid stations.

Distribution Companies

The following are ten electricity distribution companies in Pakistan.

  1. Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO)

  2. Islamabad Electric Supply Company (IESCO)

  3. Gujranwala Electric Power Company (GEPCO)

  4. Lahore Electric Supply Company (LESCO)

  5. Faisalabad Electric Supply Company (FESCO)

  6. Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO)

  7. Hyderabad Electric Supply Company (HESCO)

  8. Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO)

  9. Sukkur Electric Power Company (SEPCO)

  10. Tribal Areas Electricity Supply Company Limited (TESCO)

  11. K-Electric

All the distribution companies, except K-Electric, are in the public domain. K-Electric is a privatized company responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of power to the city of Karachi and the surrounding area (Uthal and Bela district). The company owns and operates 2,381 MW electricity generation capacity.

Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB)

PPIB provides support to the private sector in implementing conventional power generation projects, including hydro power projects of more than 50 MW capacity. In the country, 29 thermal Independent Power Producers (IPPs) with total installed capacity of 8,575 MW and 3 hydro IPPs with total 214 MW installed capacity are operating.

Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB)

AEDB is responsible for promoting and facilitating exploitation of the renewable energy resources in Pakistan. Two wind power plants FFC Energy Limited of 50 MW and Zorlu Enerji Pakistan Limited of 56.4 MW have been connected to national grid respectively on 24 December 2012 and 26 July 2013 at Jhimpir, in Sindh province. Three more wind power plants of total capacity 150 MW are under construction (AEDB: 2014).


  1. National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA)

  2. NEPRA is responsible for: (i) granting licences for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power; (ii) determining electricity tariffs for the consumers, transmitters, distributers and producers; and (iii) prescribing and implementing performance standards for generation, transmission and distribution companies.

  3. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA)

  4. PNRA is responsible for granting licences to all nuclear installations in the country, including NPPs. The Authority is formulating and implementing effective regulations to ensure safe operation of NPPs.

1.3.3. Main Indicators

Table 5 reports the data of electricity production and installed capacity in the country over the last four decades while Table 6 provides energy related ratios.


annual growth rate (%)
1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2013 2000 to 2013
Grid installed capacity (GW)
Thermal 1.05 1.79 4.83 12.44 12.42 13.32 16.00 2.0
Hydro 0.67 1.57 2.90 4.83 6.50 6.56 6.83 2.7
Nuclear * 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.43 0.43 0.75 14.0
Wind 0.05 -
Total 1.72 3.50 7.87 17.41 19.35 20.31 23.63 2.4
Grid electricity production (TWh)
Thermal 3.54 6.17 20.72 46.06 57.16 64.37 64.27 2.6
Hydro 2.92 8.72 16.93 19.29 25.67 28.51 30.03 3.5
Nuclear * - 0.29 0.40 2.80 2.89 4.18 19.8
Wind 0.03 -
Total 6.46 14.89 37.94 65.75 85.63 95.77 98.52 3.2
Grid electricity consumption (TWh) 4.62 10.35 28.77 45.59 61.33 74.35 80.30 4.5

* Nuclear power was introduced after 1970.

- Less than 0.01 TWh


  1. Years in this Table are fiscal (1 July – 30 June).

  2. Electricity transmission and distribution losses are not deducted.

Source: (NEPRA: 2013), (HDIP: 2013) and (NEPRA, 2013)


1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2013
Energy consumption (GJ/capita) 6 8 11 16 18 18 15
Grid electricity consumption (kWh/capita) 77 129 266 332 402 428 436
Grid electricity production/Energy production (%) 20 25 38 48 44 45 18
Nuclear/total grid electricity (%) * - 0.8 0.6 3.3 3.0 4.2
Ratio of external dependency (%) 31 25 28 34 25 28 31

* Nuclear power was introduced after 1970.

- Less than 0.1 %


  1. Years in this table are financial years (1 July – 30 June).

  2. Energy consumption does not include wood.

  3. Self-generation is not included in electricity production and consumption.

  4. Electricity has been converted to energy by using conversion factor 1 GWh=3.6 TJ

  5. External dependency is the ratio of net import to total energy consumption.

Sources: Based on Tables 1, 4 and 5.


2.1. Historical Development and Current Organizational Structure

2.1.1. Overview

The Pakistan Atomic Energy Committee was established in 1955. The Ordinance for PAEC was promulgated by the President of Pakistan and later approved by the National Assembly in 1965. The functions of PAEC include research work necessary for the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the fields of agriculture, medicine & industry and the execution of development projects including NPPs for the generation of electric power. In the performance of its functioning, the Commission is guided by the instructions, if any, given to it by the Government.

2.1.2. Current Organizational Chart

PAEC has a Chairman and nine full-time Members. The organizational chart of PAEC is shown in Figure 1.

FIG 1. Organizational Chart of PAEC

2.2. Nuclear Power Plants: Overview

Pakistan started construction of its first NPP, KANUPP, in 1966 at Karachi. The plant was connected to the national grid on 18 October 1971. KANUPP, a PHWR of 137 MW gross capacity was constructed by the Canadian General Electric (CGE) under a turnkey contract. In 1976, vendor support was withdrawn. Thereafter, PAEC undertook manufacturing of some spares and fuel on an emergency basis and KANUPP has been using indigenously manufactured fuel since 1980.

Despite the keen interest of Pakistan in building additional NPPs, it took more than two decades to start construction of the second NPP due to an unfavourable international environment coupled with lack of indigenous technological and industrial capabilities for design and construction of NPPs. The construction of Pakistan's second NPP, C-1, a PWR, started in 1993 with the help of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). It has a gross capacity of 325 MW. The plant was connected to the national grid on 13 June 2000. The third NPP C-2 of 330 MW gross capacity, an improved version of C-1, started commercial operation on 18 May 2011. The construction of fourth and fifth NPP, C-3 and C-4 at Chashma site, is ahead of the schedule. Both these plants are being supplied by China and each will have gross capacity of 340 MW. The groundbreaking ceremony of Karachi Coastal Power Project (2x1100 MW) was held on 26 November 2013.

2.2.1. Status and Performance of Nuclear Power Plants

Table 7 reports the status and performance of NPPs in Pakistan. KANUPP completed its design life of 30 years in 2002. After necessary refurbishments and upgrades undertaken by PAEC, KANUPP is now operating on 15-year extended life at a de-rated gross capacity of 100 MW. The second NPP, C-1, completed thirteen years of safe commercial operation in September 2013. The third NPP C-2 is operating well since its commercial operation in May 2011. The three operating NPPs, KANUPP, C-1 and C-2, respectively sent 12.95 billion kWh, 26.19 billion kWh and 5.49 billion kWh of electricity to the grid up to 31 December 2013. The availability factor of these NPPs during (January to December) 2013 were; KANUPP (77.66%), C-1 (85.41%) and C-2 (72.0%).


Reactor Unit Type Net
Status Operator Reactor
First Grid
CHASNUPP-1 PWR 300 Operational PAEC CNNC 1993-08-01 2000-05-03 2000-06-13 2000-09-15 65.4
CHASNUPP-2 PWR 300 Operational PAEC CNNC 2005-12-28 2011-02-22 2011-03-14 2011-05-18 89.7
CHASNUPP-3 PWR 315 Operational PAEC CNNC 2011-05-28 2016-08-01 2016-10-15 0.0
KANUPP-1 PHWR 90 Operational PAEC CGE 1966-08-01 1971-08-01 1971-10-18 1972-12-07 46.8
CHASNUPP-4 PWR 315 Under Construction PAEC CNNC 2011-12-18 2017-06-01 2017-07-01
KANUPP-2 PWR 1014 Under Construction PAEC CZEC 2015-08-20 2020-06-01 2020-07-31 2020-07-31
KANUPP-3 PWR 1014 Under Construction PAEC CZEC 2016-05-31
Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
Note: Table 7 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.

( Target

2.2.2. Plant Upgrading, Plant Life Management and License Renewals

The first NPP of Pakistan, KANUPP began commercial operation in 1972. Before the completion of design life of KANUPP in 2002, PAEC initiated work on its life extension. Plant monitoring and periodic inspection indicated that major plant equipment including fuel channels, steam generators, steam condensers, turbine, generator, primary heat transport pumping; feeders etc. were in good condition.

A project, “Safe operation of KANUPP” (SOK), was undertaken with technical support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to ensure safe operation by averting plant degradation due to aging, introducing and adopting modern operational practices, and improving the design to some extent. This project later extended to “Improve Safety Features of KANUPP” (ISFK) and finally to “Long term Safety of KANUPP” (LSFK).

Under a comprehensive Balancing, Modernization and Rehabilitation (BMR) project, KANUPP upgraded its conventional equipment, such as Building Chillers, Service Air Compressors, Power Cables, Condenser Tubing, Boiler Cleaning and Rehabilitation etc. KANUPP also undertook the replacement of its obsolete regulating computers, control and instrumentation under the Technological Up-gradation Project (TUP), under which most of the critical control and instrumentation loops and computers were replaced.

Various inspections and reviews of KANUPP were carried out after rehabilitation by international experts. On fulfilling the regulatory requirements of PNRA, a license was granted to KANUPP at a reduced power level of 90 MW up to 31 December 2010. KANUPP operated safely since it was restarted in January 2004.

The plant was shut down on 20 November 2010 for planned maintenance outages. The shutdown period was later extended to 6 June 2011 to carry out license renewal jobs. The major jobs carried out were: Fuel Channel Integrity Assessment (FCIA), habitability of Emergency Control Centre (ECC), Steam generator water lacing and availability of critical safety parameter display system. After completion of the specific jobs, PNRA issued a permit on 6 June 2011 to allow KANUPP operating up to a power level of 98 MW. In May 2013, KANUPP gross capacity was formally de-rated from 137 MW to 100 MW with effect from January 2004.

After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP, Fukushima Response Action Plan was formulated for all NPPs. Under the Plan; internal safety reviews have been carried out, design safety of future plants is being enhanced, safety against external hazards is being further upgraded and emergency response programs are being strengthened.

2.3. Future Development of Nuclear Power

2.3.1. Nuclear Power Development Strategy

The Energy Security Plan of Pakistan set a target of 8,800 MW nuclear power generation capacity by 2030 (GoP: 2005). PAEC strategy for nuclear power programme is development of indigenous capability in NPP technology to reduce dependence on imported plants and fuel, conserve the foreign exchange component and to reduce total cost, by expanding the level of the nation’s industrial and technological base.

2.3.2. Project Management

The existing and under construction NPPs of Pakistan are turn-key projects. During construction and installation of KANUPP, C-1 and C-2, PAEC has been involved in various project management activities. This experience will help PAEC to manage future NPPs. An Engineering Design Organization (EDO) has been established for providing design and engineering services to the operational and under construction NPPs which will act as Architect Engineer for future NPPs.

2.3.3. Project Funding

The existing and under construction NPPs of Pakistan have been funded through the Public Sector Development Programme (PSDP) of the Government. The funding for future NPPs will be available from; (i) PSDP allocation for power sector, (ii) income from sale of electricity from operational NPPs and, (iii) export credit from the supplier(s)

2.3.4. Electric Grid Development

The construction, expansion and upgrade of the national electric grid are the responsibilities of NTDC.

2.3.5. Site Selection

PAEC has conducted detailed studies for sites of existing NPPs; KANUPP, C-1 and C-2. These sites meet regulatory requirements of PNRA and can accommodate additional nuclear units. However, more sites are also being investigated for the expanded nuclear power programme.

2.4. Organizations Involved in the Construction of NPPs

PAEC, CNNC and PNRA are involved at various phases in construction of NPPs in Pakistan.

2.5. Organizations Involved in Operation of NPPs

PAEC, PNRA, NTDC and NEPRA are involved in the operations of NPPs in Pakistan.

2.6. Organizations involved in Decommissioning of NPPs

PAEC and PNRA will be involved in decommissioning of NPPs in Pakistan.

2.7. Fuel Cycle Including Waste Management

PAEC initiated nuclear fuel cycle activities with a modest prospecting programme in early 1960s. A number of promising areas were located, some of which are presently being explored. The ore processing plant using the indigenous ore is in operation. Essential laboratory facilities have also been set up to support the exploration and ore process development work. Fuel for KANUPP is being fabricated by PAEC.

Appropriate radioactive waste management systems have been designed for KANUPP and CHASNUPP sites to remove radioactive liquid, gaseous and solid wastes arising from the plants. These radioactive waste management systems collect, store, allow sufficient radioactive decay and process the waste through filtration, ion exchange, evaporation, solidification, vitrification and drumming.

A project has been started to develop spent fuel dry storage facility for extended life of KANUPP. This facility will also provide interim spent fuel storage of future NPPs of this site.

2.8. Research and Development

2.8.1. R & D Organizations

  • Research Institutes/Centers

  • PAEC has the following research institutes/centers.

    • Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) established for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, materials, safety, radioisotope applications and radiation protection.

    • Instrumentation, Control and Computers Complex (ICCC) established for Instrumentation and Control of NPPs, simulators, plant computer systems, etc.

    • Engineering Design Organization (EDO) has been established for providing design and engineering services to the operational, under construction and future NPPs.

  • Research Reactor Facilities

  • Pakistan has two research reactors:

    • PARR-1, Swimming Pool type, 10 MW.

    • PARR-2, Tank in Pool type, 30 kW.

2.8.2. Development of Advanced Nuclear Technologies

Pakistan is contributing significantly in developing capacity building of Small and Medium Sized Reactor (SMR) technology. In this regards, so far three Cost Free Expert (CFE) from PAEC have been posted for 6-12 months at IAEA.

Recently Pakistan hosted a technical meeting (TM) on SMRs in Islamabad from 12-16 May, 2014 on Operating Fundamentals of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) – Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs). Eight Participants from Member States and two IAEA officials attended the TM. The main purpose of the meeting was to enable developing countries embarking upon nuclear power programme to apprehend operating fundamentals of water cooled SMRs by understanding the general design features, systems/component descriptions, parameter and integrated plant operation training programme of 300 MW nuclear power plant.

2.8.3. International Co-operation and Initiatives

Pakistan is a member of IAEA, World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and Candu Owners Group (COG) and is getting assistance from their programmes for enhancement of safety and reliability of NPPs.

IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions to KANUPP were conducted in 1985 and 1989. WANO Peer Reviews of KANUPP were conducted in 1994, 1996, 2000, 2010 and 2013. IAEA OSART mission to C-1 was conducted in 2004 and 2006. WANO Peer Review of C-1 was conducted in 2006 and 2012. WANO pre-startup Peer Review of C-2 was conducted in July 2010 and follow-up in November 2010. The recommendations of these missions were very beneficial for improving safety and performance of the NPPs.

2.9. Human Resources Development (HRD)

PAEC continues to invest in HR capacity building initiatives and has made steadfast progress in strengthening its Human Resource Development Institutes (HRDIs) to fulfill the manpower requirements of the expanding nuclear power programme of the country. The HRDIs of PAEC have been making a significant contribution to development of human resource in the field of science and technology in the country, in particular, in applications of nuclear science and technology. PAEC hires the talent from a pool of nationally approved and chartered universities and technical and vocational training institutes. The following HRDIs of PAEC turn out the recruited young scientists, engineers and technicians from various disciplines every year with award of post-graduate degrees and training certificates/diplomas.

The Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) is the major HR provider for PAEC programmes in science and engineering as well as in the medical sector. PIEAS offers Master and Ph.D. degree programmes in Nuclear Engineering, Systems Engineering, Process Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Medical Physics, Radiation Physics, Computer Science, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation & Medical Oncology. PIEAS also offers BS programs in electrical and mechanical engineering. Besides the degree programmes, PIEAS also conducts management courses for both middle and senior management officials and organizes training courses in various specialized areas. PIEAS is ranked as No. 1 engineering institution by Higher Education Commission Pakistan, while having a ranking of 106th place in QS Asian University Rankings 2014.

The Karachi Institute of Power Engineering (KINPOE) offers Master Degree programme in nuclear power engineering and one year diploma in nuclear technology to engineering and science graduates. It also offers a post diploma training programme in nuclear technology for technicians.

The CHASNUPP Centre of Nuclear Training (CHASCENT) provides one year training in NPP technology to engineers and technicians. It also provides post diploma training programmes to technicians. The retraining of plant operation personnel is being conducted in this centre on regular basis to refresh their knowledge and licensing requirements.

The National Centre for Non-Destructive Testing (NCNDT) provides training in non-destructive testing techniques to engineers and technicians of PAEC and industry.

The Pakistan Welding Institute (PWI) provides training in industrial welding techniques to professionals of PAEC and industry.

The School of Mineral Technology (SMT) is providing training in the field of drilling, mining, logging and prospecting of minerals.

The Directorate of Human Resource Development (DHRD) imparts orientation training programmes for all the officers recruited in PAEC to acquaint them with the working of PAEC, its organizational structure, its policies/procedures and to impart better understanding about their future work and responsibilities, and associated benefits.

PAEC also conducts career development and leaning programme namely ‘4 Q Training’ for junior management officials in technical and non-technical cadres to groom and prepare them for senior level technical and management positions.

2.10. Stakeholder Communication

PAEC has well established communication with IAEA, PNRA and NEPRA and other stakeholders.


3.1. Regulatory Framework

3.1.1. Regulatory Authority

With the promulgation of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Ordinance in January 2001, the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) was established as an independent nuclear regulatory body for regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection in Pakistan. PNRA Ordinance empowers it to devise, adopt, make and enforce regulations for the protection of workers, public and the environment against harmful effects of ionizing radiations.

3.1.2. Licensing Process

PNRA has very elaborate licensing process which includes following Nine (09) steps as per "Regulations for Licensing of Nuclear Installations in Pakistan-PAK/909 (Rev. 1)”.

  1. Site Registration

  2. Construction License

  3. Permission for Commissioning

  4. Permission to Introduce Nuclear Material into the Installation

  5. Operating License

  6. Revalidation of Operating License

  7. Licensing Beyond Design Life

  8. License for Decommissioning of a Nuclear Installation or Closure of a Waste Repository

  9. Removal from Regulatory Control

3.2. Main National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power

National Laws

  • Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Ordinance 2001


  • Pakistan Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Regulations 1990

  • Regulations on Licensing Fee by Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority – (PAK/900)

  • Regulations on Transaction of Business of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority - (PAK/901)

  • Regulations on Radiation Protection -(PAK/904)

  • Regulations for Licensing of Nuclear Safety Class Equipment and Components Manufacturers – (PAK/907)

  • Regulations for the Licensing of Radiation Facilities other than Nuclear Installations -(PAK/908)

  • Regulation for Licensing of Nuclear Installation(s) in Pakistan -(PAK/909)

  • Regulations on the Safety of Nuclear Installations – Site Evaluation -(PAK/910)

  • Regulation on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Design- (PAK/911)

  • Regulations on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants-Quality Assurance (PAK/912)

  • Regulations on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants-Operation- (PAK/913)

  • Regulations on Management of a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency - (PAK/914)

  • Regulations on Radioactive Waste Management -(PAK/915)

  • Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material - (PAK/916)

  • Regulations on the Safety of Nuclear Research Reactor(s) Operation- (PAK/923)

  • Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Enforcement Regulation -(PAK/950)

  • Trade Policy: 2012-15, Ministry of Commerce, Import Policy Order 2013, Export Policy Order 2013 and Import and Export Control Act 1950.


(AEDB, 2014), Alternative Energy Development Board website, accessed on April 10, 2014.

(GoP: 1978), Energy Data Book, Energy Resources Cell, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1978.

(GoP: 2005), Medium Term Development Framework 2005-2010, Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, May 2005.

(GoP: 2014), Pakistan Economic Survey 2013-14 and earlier issues, Economic Adviser’s Wing, Finance Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2014.

(HDIP: 2013), Pakistan Energy Yearbook 2013 and earlier issues, Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2013.

(NEPRA: 2013), State of Industry Report 2013, National Electric Power Regulatory Authority, April 2014.

(WAPDA: 2011), Hydro Potential in Pakistan, Water and Power Development Authority, November 2011.


Pakistan became a Member State of the IAEA on 2 May 1957 and has actively participated in the Agency's activities. Pakistan has benefited from the IAEA's Technical Assistance and Co-operation Programme (TACP), and has also provided training to many scientists and engineers from other developing countries through TACP.

Agreements with the IAEA

Project/Supply Related Safeguards Agreements


Research reactor
5 March 1962
Project agreements
17 June 1968
NPP Project/Canada
17 October 1969
Reprocessing Plant/France
18 March 1976
Supply of Nuclear Power Station from PR of China
24 February 1993
Supply of Nuclear Power Station from PR of China
22 February 2007
Supply of two Nuclear Power Stations from PR of China
17 May 2011

Unilateral Safeguards Submissions


Supply of U-Concentrate
2 March 1977
Supply of miniature source reactor from PR of China
10 September 1991

Other Agreements

Additional Protocol:
Not signed
Improved procedure for designation of safeguard inspector
Prefers the present system
Letter of 20 December 1988
Supplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA
22 September 1994

6 September 1974
Agreement on privileges and immunities with IAEA
16 April 1963

Other Relevant International Conventions/Arrangements etc.

Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident
Entry into force
12 October 1989
Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency
Entry into force
12 October 1989
Convention on nuclear safety
Entry into force
29 December 1997
Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material
Entry into force
12 October 2000
Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management
Not signed
Vienna Convention on Civil liability for nuclear damage
Joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention

Protocol to amend the Vienna Convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

Not signed
ZANGGER Committee

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
Acceptance of NUSS codes
Decision on adoption of IAEA NUSS
May 1981


Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC),
P.O. Box 1114,
Tel: +92-51-9204276
Fax: +92-51-9204908
Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority,
P.O.Box 1912,
Tel: +92-51-9263001-6
Fax: :+92-51-9263007

Name of report coordinator:

Mr Arshad Rashid Bhatti


Director (International Affairs) Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission P.O. Box No. 1114 ISLAMABAD PAKISTAN


Tel.: + 92-51-9204853 Fax: + 92-51-9204908 Email: