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INDONESIA

(updated on July 2009)


1. GENERAL INFORMATION

 

1.1. Country overview

1.1.1. Governmental System

As in other democratic countries, the Republic of Indonesia applies the Trias Politica that recognizes the separation of the legislative, executive and judicial bodies. The legislative authority is under the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) that consists of two bodies namely the Parliament composed of members of political parties (DPR), and the Regional Representative Council (DPD) composed of representatives from each province in Indonesia.  Each province is represented by 4 delegates that are elected by the people in the respective region.

The People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) is the highest state institution. Upon the Amendment of the 1945 Constitution, the membership of the MPR starting the period of 1999-2004, was amended to include not only the members of the parliament (DPR) but also the members of the DPD. Formerly the MPR consisted of the parliament members and group representatives. Currently, the MPR has 550 members from the parliament and 128 members from the Regional Representative Council (DPD). The parliament members and the DPD members are elected every five years. Since 2004, the MPR has become a bi-chamber parliament with the DPD as second chamber.

The executive institution is centralized under the president, vice president, and the cabinet of ministers.  The cabinet is a presidential cabinet in which the ministers report to the president and do not represent the political parties. Presidential election is also held every five years. Since 2004, president of the Republic of Indonesia is elected through direct election by the people.

The judicial institution - since the reform era and upon the amendment of the 1945 Constitution - is administered by the Supreme Court including the administration of the judges.

 

1.1.2 Geography and Climate

Indonesia is one of the largest archipelagos in the world that has 17,508 islands, situated between 6 degrees northern latitude and 11 degrees southern latitude and spreading from 97 degrees to 141 degrees eastern longitude and it is located between two continents – Asia and Australia/Oceania. This strategic position greatly influences the country’s culture, social, politics and economy.

Stretching along 3,977 miles between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.  Indonesia has a total area of 1.9 million square miles (4,92 million square kilometres) including the ocean. The water area is about two-third of total area.

The five large islands of Indonesia are: Sumatra covering 473.606 square km, Java with 132.107 square km, Kalimantan (the third largest island in the world) with an area of 539.460 square km, Sulawesi with 189.216 square km, and Papua with an area of 421.981 square km. Indonesia has 33 provinces (including 2 Special Territories of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and Yogyakarta) and one Special Capital Region of Jakarta (DKI).

The islands of Indonesia were formed in the Palaeocene age (70 million years BC); Eocene age (30 million years BC); Oligocene age (25 million years BC), Miocene age (12 million years BC), and Pleistocene age (4 million years BC). The Australian and Pacific tectonic plate have a great effect on the change of the islands. The Australian plate changes slowly with an upward movement into the small plates of the Pacific plate that moves southward. Between these lines, the islands of Indonesia are stretched out.

This makes Indonesia as one of the most changing geological area in the world. There are 400 volcanic mountains – which 100 of them are active- that dot the islands of Indonesia.  Every day Indonesia experiences three vibrations, at least one earthquake a day and one volcanic eruption in a year.

Most of the islands are hot and humid throughout the year. Temperature ranges from 27.6 to 36.8 C during the day and from 14.6 to 24.6 C during the night.  Humidity ranges from 63% to 83%. Rain falls primarily from December to March, when the winter monsoon dominates. Only western Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands have a dry season, from June to September.

Like in many rainy tropical areas, soils are predominantly infertile in Indonesia because of leaching. However, the soils of Java and adjacent islands such as Bali are more fertile. Soil nutrients are replenished by frequent volcanic eruptions, and the lava's alkalinity is conducive to plant growth. Java alone is home to 112 volcanoes, fifteen of which are still active.

Forests cover more than half of Indonesia's land area, which is mostly mountainous.

 

       

                                        

Figure 1. Map of Indonesia

 

 

TABLE 1. POPULATION INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average annual growth rate (%)

 

1970

1980

1990

2000

2005

2006

2000

to

2006

Population (millions)

117.5

148.3

178.2

206.3

220.6

223

1.3

Population density (inhabitants/km2)

64.9

81.9

98.4

113.9

121.7

123.1

 

 

 

 

Urban population (% of total)

17.1

22.1

30.6

42

48.1

49.2

 

 

 

 

Land Area(1000 km2)

 

 

 

 

 

1811.6

 

 

 

 

Source: World Bank World Development Indicators

 

The results of the 2000 National Population Census also shows that Java Islands, which accounts for 7% of the total area, is resided by around 59% of the population, while Maluku and Papua which account for 25% of the total area, are inhabited by 2% of the total population. Population density of Java is thus around 945 persons per square kilometres, Bali 555 persons per square kilometres, and Papua 5 person per square kilometres. Jakarta is the most crowded city with a population density near to 13 thousand persons per square kilometres. The largest cities are Jakarta (the capital), Bandung, Surabaya, Semarang, Malang, Surakarta, and Yogyakarta, all of which are in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The Statistics Indonesia published that the figure of population in 2006 was 222.7 millions, while the number for 2009 was projected to be 231.3 millions.

According to the UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008, the life expectancy at birth for all population of Indonesia is 69.7 years (2005) increased from 66.2 years in 2001. The Human Development Index trend of Indonesia is continuously increasing, and the value for 2005 is 0.728 which gives the country a rank of 107th out of 177 countries.

 

1.1.4. Economic Data

The Republic of Indonesia achieved remarkable economic development success over the past three decades and was considered to be among the best performing East Asian economies until the regional financial crisis of 1997. Indonesia had an average real gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of 7.1 percent between 1985 and 1995, and 7.8 percent in 1996 and during the period, the rate of poverty was reduced from 60 percent of the population to 11 percent with a significant improvement of the overall standard of living. However, during the first two years of the crisis, Indonesia was subjected to unprecedented economic pressures.


TABLE 2. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average annual growth rate (%)

1970

1980

1990

2000

2005

2006**

2000 to 2006

 GDP (millions of current US$)

9,656

78,013

114,426

144,843

277,691

370,088

25.9

 GDP (millions of constant 2000 US$)

27,581

58,821

109,150

144,843

247,642

318,910

20.0

 GDP per capita (PPP* US$/capita)

-

727.179

1,537.79

2,435.31

3,216.91

3,458.61

7.02

 GDP per capita (current US$/capita)

82

526

642

704

1,263

1,666

22.8

* PPP: Purchasing Power Parity

** Latest available data

Source: http://www.economywatch.com/economic-statistics/Indonesia/GDP_Per_Capita_PPP_US_Dollars

 

1.2. Energy Information

1.2.1. Estimated available energy

In 2007, Indonesia’s proven and potential reserves of oil and gas were about 8.4 billion barrels of oil and 167 TCF gas. This is a decline of 14% of oil reserves compared to that of 2001. At today’s rates production of around one million barrels per day, Indonesia’s current oil reserve has a life-time of about 24 years.

Potential coal resources around 93.4 billion tonnes with the biggest resources located in South Sumatra, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. The export quality coal is mainly found in East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan.

Hydropower has high potential energy resources but has not been effectively harnessed except in Java Island. The potential is estimated at 75,7 GWe, mini and with micro-hydro installed capacity it is 86 GWe: 17.2% of total identified potential are about a  500 MWe capacity. Java Island is almost fully harnessed with installed capacity of about 2.4 GWe. The highest potential energy resources of hydropower is around 25 GWe located in Papua Island.

Geothermal resource has been estimated to be about 27 GWe of power in which only 1, GWe is being utilized.

 

1.2.2. Energy Statistics


TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS

 

Exajoule

Annual Average Growth Rate (%)

Energy Consumption

2000

2003

2004

2005

2006

2000 to 2006

Total

4.51

4.52

4.42

4.77

4.79

1.0

Solid

1.78

2.05

1.85

1.92

2.09

2.9

Liquid

1.97

1.75

1.81

1.98

1.84

-1.1

Gases

0.47

0.42

0.45

0.49

0.48

0.4

Electricity

0.29

0.3

0.31

0.37

0.39

5.7

Others

..

..

..

..

..

..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Energy Production

2000

2003

2004

2005

2006

 

Total

9.54

10.24

10.6

11.11

11.76

3.9

Solid

3.16

4.13

4.72

5.19

6.23

16.2

Liquid

3.1

2.51

2.39

2.41

2.24

-4.6

Gases

3.08

3.33

3.16

3.16

3.09

0.1

Geothermal

0.05

0.13

0.14

0.14

0.06

3.3

Hydro

0.14

0.13

0.19

0.2

0.14

..

Nuclear

-

-

-

-

-

-

Other

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Export-Import

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

-3.942

-4.234

-4.336

-3.615

-4.378

1.8

Solid

-1.672

-2.606

-3.091

-2.546

-3.443

17.7

Liquid

-0.705

-0.0086

0.303

0.414

0.448

-27.3

Gases

-1.561

-1.537

-1.544

-1.484

-1.383

-1.9

Other renewable and waste

-0.004

-0.004

-0.004

0

0

..

 

Source: Country Information
 

1.2.3. Energy policy

The President of the Republic of Indonesia issued a Presidential Regulation No. 5 of 2006 that outlined the National Energy Policy (NEP). This NEP is a comprehensive policy which covers both the supply and the demand-side policy. The NEP also underlines the need that energy conversion in all sectors has to be implemented immediately, not only to reduce the dependence on oil fuel, but also to diversify energy, alleviate poverty, increase economic growth, and promote environmentally-friendly development.

The aforementioned Presidential Regulation serves as the main guideline in the national energy management to achieve the security of domestic energy supply. This regulation sets a clear target of the share of each type of energy up to the year 2025, as follows: oil supply will be reduced to share only up to 20%, natural gas increases to 30%, coal should be more than 33%, and new and renewable energy sets at 17%.

With a clear and consistent policy in creating much needed conducive investment climate, as well as with the support and participation of all national stakeholders, this target may be achieved. The Presidential Regulation also supports the development of various sources of energy, including new and renewable energy by the end of 2025.

All aspects related to the resources, use and arrangement of energy in Indonesia has then been regulated by the Act No. 30 of 2007 on Energy, including new and renewable energy resources. According to this Act, among others, new energy resources can be produced by new technology, either from renewable or non-renewable energy such as nuclear for hydrogen, coal bed methane, liquefied coal and gasified coal. These new energy resources should be managed by the state and utilized for the prosperity of the people.

In addition to the Presidential Regulation No. 5/2006, the Indonesian Government also issued several other regulations and policies on new and renewable energy, such as Geothermal Law, Green Energy Policy, and Small Distributed Power Generation using Renewable Energy.

There are five main energy policy measures:

        Diversification: to maximize and economize the supply of energy, to curb the rate of excessive use of hydrocarbon resources, to reduce the dependence on a single type of fuel (i.e. petroleum) and later to replace it with other available fuels. In 1995 oil shares was around 60%, and in 2020 is projected to be around 40%;

        Intensification: to increase and expand the exploration of the available energy sources aiming to secure sufficient supply of energy;

        Conservation: to economize energy production and utilization;

        Energy Price: to formulate energy prices based on economic values and by taking into consideration its environmental cost;

        Clean Energy Technologies: to support the environmental programme and towards a sustainable development.

The focuses of the energy policy are as follows:

        Supporting national stability and fuelling macro economic recovery by ensuring the availability of energy in enough number and realistic price, which is efficient, safe, reliable and environment-friendly.

        Conducting energy sector restructuring through regulation and legislation.

        Improving the efficiency of the State-owned companies.

        Improving bureaucracy efficiency.

        Supporting the implementation of Regional Autonomy based on legislation and its rule of implementation.

The goals of the policy are outlined as the following:

        Supporting to increase private companies' role in energy business that leads to establishing free market mechanism.

        Reaching electrification ratio of 90% in the year 2020.

        Increasing the share of renewable energy which consists of geothermal, biomass and micro/mini-hydro, to be at least 5% in the year 2020.

        Increasing strategic partnership between domestic and international companies to explore and/or exploit energy source in the country and abroad.

        Supporting domestic energy companies to "go international" to compete in global market.

        Decreasing energy intensity to 1% per year so that the energy intensity becomes 3 BOE/ thousand USD, and its elasticity becomes less than 1 in the year 2025.

        Increasing the domestic manpower share/role in energy industry so that the dependence on foreign companies and or manpower can be minimized.

The implementation of the energy policy covers several aspects such as the issuance of regulations, standards, energy-pricing incentives and disincentives, and the application of appropriate technologies. The technologies that would be considered are identified as follows:

        Technologies to produce substitutes for oil, as oil are non-renewable and are a very limited resource.

        Technologies to support a more sustainable energy supply.

        Technologies for clean and efficient energy to support environmental programmes and towards sustainable development.

Nuclear energy is a viable option within an optimum energy mix to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Furthermore, nuclear energy may provide a secured long-term energy supply as well as supporting the reduction of potential of air pollution.

 

According to the results of the study on the Comprehensive Assessment of Different Energy Sources (CADES) for Electricity Demand (2001-2002), it is reasonable to operate nuclear power plant in about 2016. The Act No. 17 year 2007 concerning the National Long-Term Development Planning 2005 – 2025 notes that utilization of nuclear power for electricity generation may be performed in this period.

CADES was initiated by a visit of the Director General of IAEA to Indonesia in December 1999. The President of Indonesia stated that the country should keep an open mind to all energy sources and that the analysis of energy options should be an open and transparent process, giving due consideration to issues concerning safety and the environment. As a follow-up of this meeting, the Minister of Science and Technology requested the Agency assistance to conduct a comparative assessment of different energy sources. A pre-project mission was conducted in Indonesia in April 2000. The mission worked with the local counterparts and identified the priority energy and environmental issues to be addressed under the project, which included energy pricing policy, economic development, restructuring and privatization in the energy sector, environmental concern, and social implications of an energy policy decision. The mission also assisted local counterparts to reformulate their original IAEA Technical Cooperation (TC) project request. The main counterpart institutions for this project are National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Ministry of Science and Technology (BPPT), and National Electric Company (PLN). While BATAN Staff provided technical input to BPPT regarding the characterization of Nuclear Power, staff from BPPT conducted the energy system studies, and staff from PLN conducted analysis related to electricity system expansion. The specified project counterparts and support staff from BATAN, BPPT, and PLN formed a capable core team for the project. However, the project steering committee and work team should be expanded to include staff from the Ministry of Environment. The composition of the project steering committee and work team should be defined by the Government.

1.3. The electricity system

1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process

The Directorate General of Electricity and Energy Utilization (DGEEU) under the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources is primarily responsible to formulate electricity policy and regulation. One responsibility of DGEEU is to prepare   general national electricity planning to meet electricity power demand in a reliable and sustainable way. The National Electricity General Planning is an integrated policy in the electricity sector comprising projection of electricity demand and supply of power generation, investment and financing, utilization of primary energy resources, as well as new and renewable energy for power generation.

According to Act No. 15 on Electricity (1985) and the Government Regulation No. 26 on supply and utilization of power generation (2006), the electricity utility should undertake planning and have a general Power Generation Master-plan.

On August 1998, the Government of Republic of Indonesia has implemented a policy on restructuring of the electric power sector. The main target of this restructuring of the power generation industry, which was formerly a monopoly in nature, is to develop a competitive market, where the price of electric power is determined by market.

In September 2002, the government endorsed the new legislation aimed at strengthening regulatory guidance in the power sector and promoting new investments in power projects. According to the 2002 Electricity Act No. 20, certain markets for power generation were opened for competition in 2007. The basic objective of the Act was to push the multi- generations, and multi-transmission and distribution companies into competition to improve operational efficiencies. Now the transmission companies sell the electric power to the distribution companies (Disco) and Distribution Companies sell to the retailer, which connects directly to the consumer. This concept is known as Multi-Buyer-Multi-Seller (MBMS).

On 15 December 2004 the 2002 Electricity Act No. 20was revoked by the Supreme Constitutional Court which directed that the former 1985 Electricity Act No. 15  be re-enforced to govern the power sector.  Under this Act, PT PLN is the single supplier of electricity to all people in the whole country. Accordingly, PT PLN should provide electricity to meet the national electricity demand.

 

1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector

Concerning electricity generation, PT. PLN has established two generation companies i.e. PT. Indonesia Power and Java-Bali Electric Company (PJB) which are all in Java and Bali grid system. Any private company has the chance for establishing a generation company (GenCo) but should sell power to PT.PLN. 

Furthermore, PT PLN established 5 subsidiaries and 1 joint venture as the following:

  1. PT. Indonesia Power, whose main business is electricity generation. It was established on 3 October 1995 named PT PJB I that later became PT Indonesia Power on 1 September 2000.
  2. PT. Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (PT PJB), whose main business is electricity generation. It was established on 3 October 1995 named PT PJB II. The name was changed to PT Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (PT PJB) on 22 September 2000.
  3. PT. National Electricity Service of Batam Island (PT. Pelayanan Listrik Nasional Batam - PLN Batam), that engaged in business of electricity provision for public purposes in the Region Batam Island, was established on 3 October 2000.
  4. PT. Indonesia Comnets Plus, whose main business is telecommunications business, was established on 3 October 2000.
  5. PT. Prima Layanan Nasional Enjiniring (PT. PLN Enjiniring), a company on engineering, consultant, and construction supervision. It was established on 3 October 2002.
  6. PT. National Electricity Service Tarakan (PT PLN Tarakan), a provider of electricity for public purposes in Tarakan Island of East Kalimantan.
  7. PT. Geo Dipa Energi, a joint venture between PT.PLN and PT. PERTAMINA , whose business is in electricity generation, especially geothermal power plant.

 

1.3.3. Main indicators

Installed Capacity

As of December 2007, PT. PLN and its subsidiary companies owned and operated about 5,072 generating units with total installed capacity of 25.2 GWe, of which 18.5 GWe (73.36%) was installed in Java. There is also captive power with total capacity of 3.6 GWe.

The system peak-load of Indonesia in 2007 was 21.3 GWe, and of Java-Bali system was 16.3 GWe. The peak load of Indonesia increased 4.68% over the previous year, while of Java-Bali system 5.6%.

PT. PLN produced electricity of about 111.2 TWh in 2007 including those produced from power generation units rented from other companies. Of this energy production, 18.1 TWh (18%) was produced with natural gas, 41.9 TWh (42%) with coal , 37.2 TWh (37%) with oil, 10.6 TWh (11%) by from hydropower generation, and the remaining 3.2 TWh (3%) geothermal.

 Total energy production (including those purchased from other IPPs) during year 2007 was 142.4 TWh. Energy purchased from independent power producer (IPP) was 9.6 TWh from PT. Paiton Energy Company and 9.2 TWh from PT. Jawa Power in East Java.


TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND INSTALLED CAPACITY

 

 

 

Annual Average

 

 

Growth Rate (%)

Electricity Generation

1970

1980

1990

2000

2003

2004

2005

2006

2000 to 2006

Total

4.67

14.23

48.9

99.51

101.4

103.5

144.7

149.4

1.00

Nuclear

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Hydro

1.44

3.01

10.24

13.72

11.07

12.24

10.76

9.623

-2.82

Geothermal

0

0

1.12

2.65

2.96

           3.00

6.604

6.658

3.16

Wind

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Other renewable

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Thermal

3.23

11.22

37.53

83.14

87.35

88.3

127.36

133.109

1.52

 

 

 

Installed Capacity

1970

1980

1990

2000

2003

2004

2005

2006

2000 to 2006

Total

1.6

4.88

12.9

25.4

25.8

26.1

27.6

31.0

0.65

Nuclear

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Hydro

0.31

0.98

3.15

4.39

4.54

4.57

3.22

3.53

0.97

Geothermal

0

0

0.14

0.36

0.38

0.38

0.8

0.8

1.03

Wind

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Other renewable

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Thermal

1.29

3.9

9.63

20.65

20.9

21.13

23.62

26.63

0.58

Source: Country Information

For power generation programme, according to the 2006 Government Regulation No. 71, PT. PLN should build 10 GWe under an Acceleration Programme based on PT. PLN’s financial strength. The target should be achieved in 2009, which is likely to be delayed until 2010. The focus of the programme is for regions:

The programme consists of 10 projects totalling 6.9 GWe for Java-Bali-Madura grid system, and another 30 projects totalling 3.1 GWe for outside Java.

Considering the large geothermal and hydro energy resources in Indonesia of about 29 GWe and 42.8 GWe respectively, a great effort is needed to accelerate the construction of power plants to harness these resources. The Government of Indonesia therefore launched a programme called the Crash Programme Step II dedicated to increase the share of geothermal in the total generation mix between 2014 and 2016.

TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS

 

Annual Average

Growth Rate (%)

 

1970

1980

1990

2000

2003

2004

2005

2006

1980 to 2000

2000 to 2006

Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)

11.5

16.1

25.4

31.1

30.7

         29.0

         23.5

         23.2

4.75

-4.2%

Electricity per capita (KW.h/capita)

39.7

96

274.3

482.4

472.3

475.8

    489.02

    504.95

20.1

0.8%

Nuclear/Total electricity (%)

..

..

..

..

..

..

 

 

..

..

Annual capacity factor - Total (%)

33.2

33.3

43.2

44.7

44.8

45.3

52.15

         48.0

1.7

1.2%

Annual capacity factor - Thermal (%)

28.5

32.9

44.5

46

47.7

47.7

      53.39

       50.51

2.0

1.6%

Annual capacity factor - Hydro (%)

52.7

35.1

37.2

35.7

27.9

30.6

      34.84

      28.33

0.09

-3.4%

Annual capacity factor - Nuclear (%)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Annual capacity factor - Wind (%)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Annual capacity factor - Geothermal (%)

..

..

91.7

84

88.9

91.3

      86.87

      90.78

..

1.3%

Annual capacity factor - Other renewable (%)

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

 

Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database.

2.1. Historical development and current organizational structure

2.1.1. Overview

Nuclear activities in Indonesia began with the establishment of the State Committee for the Investigation of Radioactivity in 1954. The Committee was assigned to investigate the possibility of radioactive fall-out in Indonesian territory due to nuclear weapon test in the Pacific Ocean.

Noting that the development and application of atomic energy could enhance the welfare of the people, the Government on December 5, 1958 issued Government Regulation No. 65 establishing the Atomic Energy Council and the Atomic Energy Institute. This Government Regulation was then followed by the enactment of the Act No. 31 in 1964 regarding the Basic Stipulations on Atomic Energy.  In 1965 Government Regulation No. 33 renamed the Atomic Energy Institute as the National Atomic Energy Agency (Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional or BATAN). However, the 5th of December has been retained as the date of anniversary of BATAN.

In 1965, the operation of the first research reactor (Triga Mark II, 100 KWt later upgraded to 1 MWt in 1971 and 2 MWt in 2000) was inaugurated in Bandung. In order to improve mastery of nuclear science and technology, several research & development and engineering facilities were built, among others are the Nuclear Technology Research Center of Pasar Jumat, Jakarta in 1966, and the Nuclear Technology Research Center of GAMA, Yogyakarta in 1967. In this last one, the Kartini research reactor was in 1979 with a capacity of 100 KWt. To further support the nuclear energy programme, research & development and engineering facilities, the 30 MWt Multipurpose Research Reactor was inaugurated in 1987. To support this last reactor’s activities,  laboratories, including facilities for fuel fabrication of research and power reactors, reactor safety testing, production of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical, management of radioactive wastes and other nuclear facilities have been built in the PUSPIPTEK science and technology research complex in Serpong.

Further development saw the enactment of Act No. 10 on Nuclear Energy in 1997, which stipulated among others the separation of the executing function on the beneficial applications of nuclear energy (BATAN), from the regulatory function held by the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN).

According to the Act No. 10 in 1997 on Nuclear Energy and the  Presidential Decree No. 64 in 2005, BATAN has been stipulated as a Non Departmental Government Institution which is under and responsible to the President. BATAN is led by a Chairman and its programme is under the coordination of the Minister for Research and Technology. The main duties of BATAN are to conduct research, development and the beneficial applications of nuclear energy in accordance with the laws and regulations.

In conducting its duties, BATAN has the following functions:

      To assess and prepare the national policy in the field of research, development, and the beneficial uses of nuclear energy,

      To coordinate functional activities in implementing the all duties of BATAN,

      To support and foster activities of government institutions in the field of research, development and beneficial uses of nuclear energy,

      To conduct general administrative services in the field of general planning, administration, organization and procedures, personnel management, financing, archiving, procurement as well as education and training.


 

2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)

 

2.2. Nuclear power plants: Overview

2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants

N/A

 TABLE 7. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Station

Type

Net Capacity

Operator

Status

Reactor Supplier

Construction Date

Grid

Date

Commercial Date

Shutdown Date

UCF

for year **

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*UCF (Unit Capability Factor) for the latest available year (only applicable to reactors in operation).

** Latest available data

Source: PRIS database (www.iaea.org/pris).

2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals

NA

2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power

2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy

Utilization of NPPs as a part of national energy mix was noted in the Presidential Regulation No. 5 in 2006 on the National Energy Policy, as well as in the Act No.17 in 2007 on the National Long-term Development Plan for 2005-2025. This last Act of 2007 mentions that the introduction of nuclear power should be utilized with high consideration of safety factor. According to these two legal documents, NPPs utilization may be initiated within the period mentioned.

The strategy for introducing nuclear energy system in Indonesia includes preparation of nuclear infrastructure covering nuclear regulatory framework in order to support the safe, reliable and peaceful use of nuclear energy system.  Indonesia, through its nuclear energy agency – BATAN, has made and devoted special effort to build a nuclear science and technology base for conducting research and development of nuclear energy system and to prepare highly competent personnel to support its endeavour in the introduction of nuclear energy system. Indonesia, as one of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle (INPRO) Members, continues to support the IAEA’s INPRO activities to meet the global energy demand and promote sustainable economic and social development. BATAN considers that intensive bilateral and multilateral cooperation, within the framework of the existing international instruments, with countries that are already more advanced and experienced in developing and managing nuclear energy system is a necessity. Indonesia has been carrying out cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy with many countries such as South Korea, Japan, USA, Russia, etc., as well as with the IAEA.

Indonesia is considering having NPP project through an open bids mechanism. Regarding to the nuclear fuel cycle, an open cycle is for the moment a preferred option.

According to the BAPETEN Chairman Regulation No. 4 on Nuclear Reactor Decommissioning of 2009, the Owner has responsibility for decommissioning of NPP including provision for financial guarantee. 

It is indicated in the draft of User Consideration Document of Indonesia, developed with the assistance of IAEA, that NPP to be constructed in Indonesia should be designed to allow co-generation application. Co-generation application includes desalination, coal liquefaction, coal gasification, hydrogen production, etc.

Table 8 below shows the planned reactor to be built.

 

TABLE 8. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Station/Project Name

Type

Net Capacity

Expected Connection to the Grid

Expected Commercial Date

 

Java-1

PWR

1000 MWe

Before 2020

Before 2020

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.3.2. Project management

Commercial construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear reactor shall be performed by any company, State Company, co-operative, and/or private company, as mentioned in the Act No 10 of 1997.  Regarding the operation of NPP, the operator should apply for licence or permit from BAPETEN for each site, for construction, for commissioning, for operation and for decommissioning.

The owner is responsible for the type of contract suitable for the implementing each NPP project. Presently, no organization has been established to own the first NPP. A study report  on project management for NPP done by BATAN and KHNP shows that turnkey contract approach is the suitable one for the first NPP project.

As it is the case for all industrial construction projects in Indonesia, local participation and local content should be maximized.   Local participation in the construction of a nuclear power plant would mean the use of material and manpower resources within Indonesia. A study recommends the target for localization: 20% of equipment localization at the first 2 units, 50% at the next 4 units and 70% at the other 4 units.

Policies and requirements for purchasing nuclear equipment and services are not considered yet, but it should follow any existing related regulations.

2.3.3. Project funding

Funding scheme for the project is still under consideration. Regarding the financial scheme, a study undertaken by BATAN, PLN and KHNP proposed a financing scheme and ownership structure for the first NPP in Indonesia. The funding for the construction of the first NPP may be a combination of long term loans and equity. The loan would be used mostly to finance procurement of foreign contents, most likely obtained from ECA (Export Credit Agency) and commercial bank through loan agreement with the ‘NPP company’ that could be owned by the government. Most of the equity portion would be used to finance local capital expenditure, such as land acquisition, professional fee, mobilization, certification, etc. The equity will be sourced partly from the public utility's own funds, which might be PLN or another state owned enterprise, and from private investors who can be partners.

Funding for spent fuel handling, waste management and decommissioning and final disposal is the responsibility of the owner.

2.3.4. Electric Grid development

Presently, an integrated system exists in Java-Bali-Madura and Sumatera. The Java-Bali-Madura system has been interconnected with 500 kV and 150 kV lines, Sumatra with 275 kV and 150 kV lines. There is a plan in place to interconnect these two grid systems with a HVDC submarine cable by the end of 2016. Currently Kalimantan Island, provinces of Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan have been interconnected with 150 kV lines, while West Kalimantan province is still isolated from others.

2.3.5. Site selection and environmental protection

The following three (3) candidate sites i.e. Ujung Lemahabang (ULA), Ujung Watu and Ujung Grenggengan have been selected. These sites which lie on the north coast of Java Sea of Muria Peninsula, Central Java are similar in nature.

 

                                                Location of NPP selected sites

 

Nature of the Sites

Geology of these three sites is mostly composed of primary volcanic products (lava, tuff, agglomerate) and secondary volcanic products (lahar, and sandstone, and conglomerate).  It has been hypothesised that the geology of the western sites are related to Karimunjawa of middle-to-upper tertiary volcanic system and not belonging  to Muria system, whilst the eastern part of Muria volcanic system is Quaternary. Karimunjawa islands lie on the north of the sites at about 75 km offshore of Muria Peninsula. Mt. Muria lies on the center of Muria Peninsula in a range of 20 – 25 km from the sites.

Probabilistic assessment for Muria volcanic system based on the Poisson distribution reveals that the probability of forthcoming eruptions is 2.7 x 10-5 per 100 years. On the other hand, an assessment of spatial-temporal probability based on the Bayesian inference indicates that the value is in a range of 9.809x10-9 - 3.335x10-6   per 100 years.

Concerning the seismotectonics, there is a record of big earthquake occurrence in 1890 called Pati earthquake. The source of Pati earthquake seems to be located in the offshore area where a supposed capable fault (AF-3) is assumed to exist. Taking into account the fact that the iso-seismal map of the quake is open toward the sea and that there is a record of tsunami wave triggered by the quake which the epicenter is related to the Lasem Fault on the land area, it is supposed that the Pati earthquake has a deep relation to the AF-3.

Referring to the seismic zoning, the Muria Peninsula is located in the zone of estimated PGA= 0.05 – 0.15 g. The historical earthquake data shows that the Pati earthquake is the largest earthquake occurred near Muria Peninsula with assumed magnitude of M=6.8 and MMI=VIII.

There are at least 10 supposed capable faults identified in the Muria Peninsula and its surrounding.  Maximum acceleration in the selected site due to those faults is calculated to be in a range of 0.102 – 0.29 g. 

Geotechnical conditions can be divided into two groups i.e. offshore and onshore. The description of the off-shore conditions are as follows. Wet  density  of siltstone or  sandstone  is in a range of  1.45 t/m3 to 1.75  t/m3, and of  1.75 t/m3 to 2.14 t/m3 ; specific  gravity value is mostly more than 2.5; liquid  limit  mostly over 70 %; porosity in a range of 50 % and 70 %. 

The description of the onshore geotechnical conditions are as follows. Unit weight of the upper tuff is approximately 1.56 g/cm3 as a mean value; the sandstone, siltstone, conglomerate and claystone  from 1.02 g/cm3 to 2.39 g/cm3;  the lower tuff about 1.63 g/cm3; the specific gravity for the rocks ranges from 2.60 to 2.90, which is independent of the elevation; the moisture content of  sandstone and conglomerate is in a range of 10 - 20 %; the lower tuff has higher moisture content;  the  claystone  46.8 %; porosity from EL.-5 m to EL.-15 m is in a range of 26.9 % to 67.9 %; EL.-15 m and EL.-68 m 22.7 % to 67.2 %;  EL.-68 m  48.9 % to 68.6 %.  In addition, the standard penetration test (SPT) value is found to be more than 40 which are found at the average minimum depth of about 18.5 m from the ground surface.

The characteristics of the coast line and marine condition are as follows. In general the seabed has a gentle slope from the coastal line to the sea. The slope is less than 8O up to a distance of several kilometres, except in the western area with a slightly steep locally.  According to the tide observation, the highest water level is 0.70 m and the lowest water level is -0.74 m. The maximum significant wave height is 3.03 m, and the significant wave period is 7.7 second.   The dominant direction of the tidal current is WSW - ENE and the velocity ranges from 0 cm/s to 70 cm/s at a depth of 2 m and from 0 cm/s to 50 cm/s at a depth of 8 m. The velocity of the littoral current in the dry season is approximately 4 cm/s to 12 cm/s with a direction of SW at the spring tide and 8 cm/s to 19 cm/s with the same direction at the neap tide.  The velocity in the rainy season is approximately 1 cm/s to 36 cm/s with a direction of E - SE at the spring tide and 1 cm/s to 40 cm/s with the same direction at the neap tide. The sea water temperature ranges approximately from 28˚C to 33˚C, while the salinity is approximately in the range of 25 % to 34 %.

Meteorology monitoring has been implementing since 1981 until now. The maximum wind speed per month is between 6.5 m/s and 9.4 m/s at the height of 10m. At the height of 40m, the maximum wind speed per month is between 10.6 m/s and 14.8 m/s. Wind speed at 40m is generally greater than that of 10m. There is no occurrence of wind speed of greater than 10 m/s at 10 m elevation. However, at 40 m elevation there is about 108 days of occurrence of wind with velocity more than 10m/s in a year. The wind flow regime in the site area is governed by slightly stronger west monsoon in the rainy/wet season and east monsoon in dry season.

Annual average temperature in the site at the height of 2m, 10m, 50m, and 100m are 27.5, 29.1, 28.6, and 27.7 centigrade respectively. The maximum temperature per month for the height of 2m, 10m, 50m, and 100m is 33.4, 32.4, 33.1 and 32.6 respectively. Minimum temperature for the height of 2m, 10m, 50m and 100m are 20.5, 25.3, 25.0, and 23.9 respectively.

Monthly relative humidity ranges between 73% and 91% for the maximum. Annual average RH is 65%. Maximum and minimum recorded monthly averages are 91% and 19% respectively.

There is plenty of rain in the wet season at the northern part of Java Island. The rainfall is brought mainly by the west monsoon. Rainfall is measured by on-site weather station at the height of 2 meters. The annual precipitation recorded during the period of observation was 2,355.4 mm with the monthly rainfall ranging from 0.00 mm in the period of May to October to 714.5 mm in January. The maximum 1-hour and 24-hour durations of rainfall were 60 mm in February 1996 and 139.9 mm in December 1994 respectively. On average annually there are 156.4 rainy days.

The area investigated in the radius of 50 km is classified as wet (40.56 %) and dry (59.44 %) land, housing (34.97 %), plantation (32.48 %), forest (22.99 %), fish pond (0.53 %), swamp (0.02 %), and others (4.17%) including road, river, etc. The land use of the site itself is essentially agriculture plantation i.e. rubber, coconut and cacao trees surrounded by shield trees, with some land devoted to rice production.

Demographic survey done in 2006 in the western site shows that the population within a range of 0-5 km from the site is about 33 thousand, 0 -10 km about 107 thousands, 0 – 20 km about 290 thousands and 0 – 50 km about 1.8 million.

According to the Act No 23 year 1997 regarding to the Environmental Management, any activity which will cause a large and significant impact to the environment should has an approved Environmental Impact Assessment Document (AMDAL) for obtaining activity permit.   Detail implementation of AMDAL mechanism is arranged by the Government Regulation No 27 year 1999 on AMDAL.   The Environmental Minister Regulation No 11 Year 2006 on the Kind of Activities and/or Business Planning that should be completed by AMDAL, states that NPP project activity of any capacity and type should be completed by approved AMDAL.

Commission of AMDAL approval for NPP consists of personnels from different government institutions, NGOs, as well as public representatives.

 The AMDAL process for NPP is not initiated yet.  

2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs          

NA

2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs

NA

2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs

NA

2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management

Based on the Act No 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy, general surveys, explorations and exploitations of nuclear material ore as well as the production and/or procurement of raw materials for manufacturing nuclear fuel shall only be performed by BATAN that may be done in cooperation with state company, co-operative, private company. BATAN shall also perform non-commercial production of nuclear fuel and radioisotopes, while the commercial production shall be performed by state company, co-operative, and/or private company.

Act 10, 1997 stipulated that the radioactive waste management shall be performed by BATAN. Low level and intermediate level radioactive waste generated shall collect, segregate, treat and temporarily stored before being transferred to BATAN.  High level radioactive waste (i.e. spent fuel) generated shall temporarily be stored for a period not less than the life time of nuclear reactor.

 A final repository for high level radioactive wastes shall be provided by BATAN.

2.8. Research and development

2.8.1. R&D organizations

Researches and development of nuclear science and technology are mainly implemented by BATAN. Nuclear R&D activities are classified into reactor safety, radiation safety, environmental safety, radiation and radioisotope application, and radioactive waste-management. R&D activities are implemented in several nuclear complexes as the following.

SERPONG NUCLEAR COMPLEX

There are many centres in the Serpong Nuclear Complex for research & development and engineering of nuclear science and technology that have been built with the objectives to support development of the nuclear industry and for preparation, development as well as the operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia.

The development of installations and laboratories of the Serpong Nuclear Complex had been conducted in 3 phases beginning in 1983 and fully completed in 1992. The area is about 25 hectares and is located in the National Center for Research of Science and Technology (PUSPIPTEK), Serpong.

The main facility in the area is the GA. Siwabessy Multipurpose Research Reactor with a power of 30 MWth. The Installation is used for Production of Research Reactor Fuel Element, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Installation, Experimental Fuel Element Installation, Radioactive Waste Processing Installation, Radiometallurgy Installation, Reactor Safety and Engineering Installation, Facility for Development of Informatics and Computation, Nuclear Mechano-Electronic Installation, Neutron Spectrometry Installation, as well as Storage for Spent Fuel Elements and Contaminated Materials Installation.

BANDUNG NUCLEAR COMPLEX
 

The Bandung Nuclear Complex was initially constructed in early 1960's on an area of 3 hectares and where the first research reactor was built in Indonesia. The activities conducted covers the utilization of the reactor for research and fostering of expertise, R&D of basic materials, radioisotopes and labelled compounds, instrumentation and radiometry analysis techniques, supervision of occupational radiation safety and environment.

In addition, nuclear medicine firstly developed in Bandung nuclear complex was the embryo of the nuclear medicine in Indonesia. The activities of nuclear medicine are then further developed in several hospitals in Indonesia.

In order to support the R&D activities, the Bandung Nuclear Complex utilizes various facilities, among others, the Triga Mark II Reactor which started with a power of 250 kW in 1965. The power of this reactor was increased to 1000 kW in 1971 and further to 2000 kW in the year 2000.

Other facilities in this area are the laboratory for physics, chemistry and biology, production of isotopes and labelled compounds.

 

YOGYAKARTA NUCLEAR COMPLEX

The Yogyakarta Nuclear Complex was established in 1974 on a land of 8.5 hectares. The Center for Technology of Accelerator and Material Process and the Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology are located within this area.

The activities conducted covers R&D in nuclear physics, chemistry, technology of low and medium energy particle accelerator, process technology, analysis of nuclear materials and reactor, as well as the use of the reactor for research and fostering of expertise.

In addition, supervision of occupational radiation safety and of environmental radioactivity is also conducted. Meanwhile the Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology conducts programmes of education in the field of nuclear science and technology.

The facilities in this area are the Kartini Research with a power of 100 kW, complemented with a subcritical assembly, a laboratory for pure materials research, accelerators, laboratories for nuclear physics and chemistry, a work safety and health facility, library facilities, as well as laboratory facilities for education.

PASAR JUM'AT NUCLEAR COMPLEX

The Pasar Jum'at Nuclear Complex was built in 1966 in an area of about 20 hectares.  In this area, Center for Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Center for Technology of Radiation Safety and Metrology, Center for Development of Nuclear Geology, Center for Education and Training and Center for Dissemination of Nuclear Science and Technology are located.

In this area, among others are the following facilities: 3 units of Co-60 Gamma Irradiators, 2 electron beam machines, laboratory for uranium processing, radiation measuring equipment, chemistry, biology, process and hydrology, education and training facility as well as a permanent exhibition for nuclear science and technology.

MONITORING STATIONS FOR MICRO-EARTHQUAKES AND METEOROLOGY JEPARA - CENTRAL JAVA

Studies show that the region of the Muria Peninsula may be a suitable location for the first NPPs site. Therefore, since 1982 a Monitoring Station for Micro- Earthquakes Meteorology has been built and operated in the Ujung Watu village in Jepara - Central Java. The micro-earthquakes monitoring station records the earthquakes data originating from volcanic as well as tectonic earthquakes, whereas the meteorology station is applied to record air pressure, wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity and solar radiation.

2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies

Indonesia is willing to participate in the development of nuclear reactor system through INPRO project. There is also a plan to develop HTR design with co-generation purposes.

2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives

Indonesia has signed a number of international agreements as well as conducted bilateral and multilateral cooperations in the field of nuclear power development.  A complete list of international agreements and cooperations is provided in Appendix 1.

2.9. Human Resources Development

The demand for the qualified professionals, technicians and craftsmen is the decisive factor in the Nuclear Power Plant Program Planning and implementation. It is possible and may be necessary to obtain some highly specialized experts and training from domestic and abroad, in particular during the early stages of a nuclear power program. But this can only be applied in a very limited way and it certainly does not constitute a long-term solution.

For the human resources development program, BATAN have sent personnel abroad to obtain Master/Doctoral Degrees and is sending personnel abroad to notable NPP Companies such as General Electric, Westinghouse Companies, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mitsubishi, Korea Nuclear and Hydro Power (KHNP), Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) etc. to participate in their NPP design activities. BATAN also established Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir (STTN) or Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology (PoINT) in Yogyakarta. BATAN has been carrying out coordination and cooperation with some educational institutions and universities such as Bandung Institute of Technology, University of Indonesia, University of Gadjah Mada, University of Diponegoro and Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November Surabaya.

The human resources development program and activities have been conducted not only for BATAN personnel, but also for personnel from various potential institutions and companies, such as the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), PT. PLN and national engineering companies, such as PT. Boma Bisma Indra and PT. Rekayasa Industry. The human resources development is also expected to be a part of the contract bids so that the vendors would include the human resources development program to produce qualified personnel.

2.9.1 Government Organizations Related to Nuclear Human Resources Development

The following are the three national organizations for Human resources Development (HRD):

The National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN)

HRD in the field of nuclear energy has been carried out by BATAN for a long time. The capability of national human resources has been demonstrated in the construction and operation of three research reactors in Indonesia i.e. Triga Mark II in Bandung in 1965, Kartini Reactor in Yogyakarta in 1979 and Multipurpose Reactor of GA Siwabessy in 1983 to support the facilities in Puspiptek Area, Serpong. The education and training programme has been directed to cope with the nuclear energy utilization era and to meet the national energy needs and carried out in cooperation with related domestic and overseas research institutions.

The Education and Training Center (PUSDIKLAT), BATAN

Based on the Decree of the BATAN Chairman No. 166/KA/IV/2001, Pusat Pendidikan dan Latihan (PUSDIKLAT-BATAN) or the Education and Training Center (ETC) is responsible for implementing education and training programme, especially in the nuclear science and technology related to BATAN’s competency.

The development programme is oriented to provide well educated and well trained personnel in the fields of research, development and application of nuclear technology, as well as to promote nuclear science and technology to the public, especially industrial society, through education and training programme.

The Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN)

BAPETEN as the regulatory body in Indonesia, is implementing training program for their staffs and other institutions which need license for utilization of nuclear energy. The type of the training programme includes:

In 2005 and 2006, BAPETEN had cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the project titled “Preparation of Regulations, Code, Guides and Standards for a Nuclear Power Plant”. The training programmes were as follows:

2.9.2 Educational Organizations which are Responsible for Nuclear Education and Training.

Almost all universities in Indonesia have engineering faculties which are needed for NPP HR such as mechanical, civil, electrical (electronic), and physics. However, there is only one higher level education under BATAN i.e. Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir (STTN) or Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology (PoINT) with specialization in nuclear technology.

Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir (STTN)

STTN was inaugurated in August 2001 in Yogyakarta based on the Presidential Decree No. 71, of 2001 on the establishment of STTN and accredited as a higher education institute for graduate program. STTN is an official education institute carrying out nuclear science and technology manpower development program through carefully crafted four year education. STTN has two majors study programmes as follows:

The University of Gadjah Mada (UGM)

The University of Gajah Mada (UGM) runs  graduate and post-graduate programmes in nuclear education under the Engineering Physics Department. There are two graduate programmes in Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics and one post-graduate in Industry Safety Engineering. Engineering Physics Department is also undertaking a special program in with Medical Instrumentation and Medical Physics Technology in collaboration with the Health Department.

Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB)

ITB undertakes  nuclear energy related science and engineering study under physics program in the faculty of mathematics and natural science and under mechanical and aeronautical engineering in the faculty of engineering as well as School of Electrical and Informatic Engineering. These faculties undertake   Masters degree (S2), and Doctorate degree (S3) study programs.

ITB offers fundamental physics at the basic level and advanced physics at upper level as compulsory courses. The elective courses include Theoretical Physics; Physics of Electronic Material; Physics of Magnetic and Photonic; Earth Physics, Computational Physics; Nuclear and Reactor Physics; Biophysics and Medical Physics; and Instrumentation.

At the  Masters degree level in physics, students may choose one out of the following five research areas: High Energy Theoretical Physics and Instrumentation; Physics of Electronic Material; Physics of Complex System; Nuclear Physics & Biophysics; Physics of Magnetism and Photonics.

2.10. Stakeholder Communication

Within the framework of public information and communication, BATAN and the Ministry of Research and Technology have undertaken  several activities in public information and education.

Public information and education are carried out for disseminating information on nuclear power program  to various target audiences, which include  parliamentary representatives, government executives,  politicians, journalist and editors, social organizations (including women associations), local representatives and religious leaders, professional groups (engineers, ecologists, sociologist, culture researchers, artists  etc.),  schools/universities (schools/universities/colleges, students, teachers, lectures),  and the armed forces.

The means of disseminating public information and education are through several periodic events including exhibitions, opening events of any nuclear facility of information center involving high ranking officials, visit to nuclear research or power plants for decision makers (parliamentary   representatives, civil servant), and for opinion leaders (newspapers, radio, TV), national seminar on nuclear technology and energy, inviting speakers from various domestic and overseas institutions.

 

3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS

3.1. Regulatory authority(s) and the licensing process

3.1.1 . Governmental Organizations

In recognition of the need to develop a viable nuclear regulatory infrastructure for the development of nuclear power, the government of Indonesia issued in 1997 Act No. 10 on Nuclear Energy. In this Nuclear Energy Act, the authority to execute and regulate activities relating to nuclear energy was separated into two different institutions i.e. BATAN as the body to promote all nuclear activities and BAPETEN as the regulatory body.

3.1.2. Nuclear Safety Legislation

The 1997Act No.10 on Nuclear Energy, stipulates among other functions the following:

       Establishment of a Nuclear Energy Advisory Council which will be responsible to give advice to both promoting and regulatory bodies concerning nuclear energy development in Indonesia.

       Radioactive waste management control including the need of approval from the House of Representatives regarding decision for permanent site of high level waste disposal.

        Financial protection in the form of liability insurance (strict liability/liability without fault) required in all aspects of nuclear activities.

        Cooperation of private sectors in the nuclear application activities for commercial purposes.

In consideration that nuclear energy involves the life and safety of the people, public participation shall be enhanced in the form of an advisory council, a non-structural and independent institution that consists of experts and public figures, having the task to give advices and opinion on the use of nuclear energy.

To take in mind the public aspiration on the use of nuclear energy, especially for construction of a nuclear power plant and a final radioactive waste repository, the Government, before taking decision, shall consult the House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia.

Furthermore, it is also necessary to consult other related regulations such as the following:

        Act No. 1 Year 1970 on Occupational Safety,

        Act No. 8 Year 1978 on the Ratification of Treaty on Nuclear Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons,

        Act No. 30 Year 2007 on Energy,

        Act No. 23 Year 1997 on Environmental Management,

        Act No. 5 Year 1984 on Industry,

        Act Number 15 Year 1985 on Electricity,

        Act No. 3 Year 1992 on the Insurance for Workers,

        Act No. 23 Year 1992 on Health,

        Act No. 26 Year 2007 on Spatial Planning, and

        Act Number 10 Year 1995 on Customs.

3.1.3. Role & Responsibility of the Regulatory Body

BAPETEN, as an independent regulatory body, has responsibility to ensure that any activity related to the use of any nuclear energy is performed to maintain the safety, security, and peace, as well as the health of the workers and the public, and also the protection of the environment. These are administered by:

(a)    Drafting and establishing nuclear safety regulations

(b)   Controlling nuclear installations and nuclear materials through licensing and inspection systems that covered all stages of NPP establishment (from site evaluation to decommissioning stages);

(c)    Controlling the use of radioactive materials and other radiation sources through licensing and inspection systems.

The primary objective of the regulatory body is to ensure that workers, the public and the environment are protected from possible adverse effects arising from nuclear activity. In order to achieve these objectives, BAPETEN has responsibility in:

        the rule-making of national policy in the field of the control of nuclear energy utilization;

        the planning of national program in the field of the control of nuclear energy utilization;

        the guidance and the rule-making and the implementation of nuclear safety, radiation safety, and safeguards assessments;

        the implementation of licensing and inspection to the development and the operation of nuclear reactor, nuclear installation, nuclear material facility, radiation source, and the development of nuclear preparedness;

        the implementation of co-operation in the field of control of nuclear energy utilization with other Government agencies or organizations either internally or externally to the Government of Indonesia;

        the implementation of safeguards and SSAC (State's system on accounting for and control of nuclear material);

        the implementation of the guidance and counselling for the effort that related to the safety and health of the worker and the people, and the effort of environmental conservation.

3.1.4. Organization of the Regulatory Body

BAPETEN is headed by a chairman assisted by two deputies and one executive secretariate. It has seven directorates, 2 centers for assessment, three bureaus, and one inspectorate, as shown in Figure 3.1 below. According to Decree No.01/K-OTK/VIII-1998 the Chairman of BAPETEN shall directly report to the President.

 

                       

3.1.5. Overall Licensing Process for Nuclear Facilities

Based on the government Regulation No 43 in 2006 on Nuclear Reactor Licensing, the construction and operation of a nuclear reactor can be performed after obtaining a license from BAPETEN. The license will be issued in the following stages: Site Permit, Construction Permit, Operating License, and Decommissioning Permit. There are two procedures for obtaining a license, which are as the follows:

        Five stage licensing procedure

1.      Site permit

2.      Construction Permit

3.      Commissioning Permit/License

4.      Operating License

5.      Decommissioning Permit.

        Three stage licensing procedure (for commercial modular reactor only)

1.      Site Permit

2.      Combined Licensing (Construction, Comissioning and Operation)

3.      Decommissioning Permit.

Evaluation of application for license for  each stage is carried out within a certain period (after all required documents are submitted to BAPETEN and the administrative requirements have been fulfilled by applicant): 12 months for Site Permit, 24 months for Construction Permit, 12 months for commissioning permit, 24 months for Operating License, and 12 months for Decommissioning Permit.

For the three stage licensing procedure, 24 months for operation combined license. During the period of evaluation, BAPETEN can ask the applicant to provide additional information(s) on the proposed installation as deemed necessary.

 

 

 

 

3.1.5.1. Site Permit                                                                                

Applicant should evaluate the preferred candidate site before applying for site permit.  Application for site permit should be submitted to BAPETEN completed with site evaluation report, NPP main data, preliminary Design Information Questionaire (DIQ) and records of quality assurance program implementation. The basic objectives of the site permit stage are to evaluate the conceptual design of the plant and to determine whether it is feasible to design, construct, and operate the plant on the proposed site to satisfy the safety objectives and requirements established by BAPETEN.

3.1.5.2. Construction Permit

Prior to the issuance of a construction permit, BAPETEN must be assured that the plant design satisfies the safety principles and requirements set out by BAPETEN and the plant will be built in accordance to appropriate quality standards. The primary documents required are Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, Probabilistic Safety Assessment, DIQ, and construction schedule including financial guarantee for construction.

3.1.5.3. Commissioning License

Applicant should apply for commissioning permit after fulfilling the following requirements:

(a)    Construction activity has been completed.

(b)   Applicant has obtained nuclear material utilization permit.

(c)    Applicant has obtained licensed reactor operators.

3.1.5.4. Operating License

Applicant should apply for operating permit to BAPETEN by fulfilling the following requirements:

(a)    Commissioning activities have been completed.

(b)   Applicant has obtained nuclear material utilization permit.

(c)    Applicant has obtained licensed reactor operators.

The requirements include submission of a Final Safety Analysis Report, completion of a previously approved commissioning programme, examination and authorization of personnel, approval of operating policies and principles, preparation of plans and procedures for dealing with nuclear emergencies, and specific programmes for QA during Operation and Maintenance of the nuclear reactor.

The Operating License is issued in two stages as follows:

      A Provisional Operating License is first issued for a maximum period of 24 months, including pre-operational and preliminary operational stages;

      If and only if the provisional operation stage runs well and all requirements including implementation of the environmental management and monitoring plans are fulfilled, then a Long Term Operating License could be issued for a maximum period of 40 years. Otherwise, the Provisional Operating License will be extended for a certain period as stated by BAPETEN based on results of evaluation from the latest condition (Reports on safety analysis, operation activity and ageing assessment).

Among the conditions included in the Operating License is the requirement that the Licensee informs BAPETEN promptly of any occurrence or situation, which could alter the safety of the plant. BAPETEN retains the right to impose additional conditions at any time.

Although the primary responsibility for the safe operation of the plant remains with the Licensee, there is periodic inspection and audit by BAPETEN inspectors, annual reviews of operation, and major reviews at the time of renewal of the Operating License.

3.1.5.5. Decommissioning Permit

If the Licensee does not wish to renew the Operating License, the licensee should submit an application for decommissioning to BAPETEN. The application for the permit should include decommissioning plans and procedures in accordance with provisions set by BAPETEN.

During and after decommissioning, BAPETEN carries out inspections to check whether the job has been done satisfactorily and safely, and the installation holds no more hazards to the public and the environment.

3.2. Main national laws and regulations on nuclear power

            Hierarchy of regulation in Indonesia is provided in Figure 3.3. The highest regulation level is the 1945 Constitution followed by Act, Government Regulation and Presidential Decree, and Ministry/Chairman of BAPETEN. In the lowest level is guide and standard.

 

 

 

 

 

FIGURE 3.3. Hierarchy of Legislation in Indonesia

 

 

A number of regulations regarding to the NPP establishment have been prepared as follows:

                           Act:

o       Act No 25 Year 2007 on Investment

o       Act No 17 Year 2007 on National Long Term Development Planning

o       Act No 30 Year 2007 on Energy.

o       Act No 3 Year 2002 on National Defence

o       Act No. 9 Year 1997 on Treaty on South East Asia Nuclear Weapon Free Zone

o       Act No. 10 Year 1997 on Nuclear Energy.

o       Act No. 8 Year 1978 on Ratification of NPT.

                           Government Regulation (GR):

o       GR No. 29 Year 2008 on the Licensing on the Utilization of Ionizing Radiation Source and Nuclear Material

o       GR No 33 Year 2007 on the Safety of Ionizing Radiation and the Security of Radioactive Source.

o       GR No 43 Year 2006 on Nuclear Reactor Licensing

o       GR No 26 Year 2002 on Safety of Radioactive Material Transport

o       GR No 27 Year 2002 on Radioactive Waste Management

o       GR No 63 Year 2000 on Safety and Health concerning Utilization of Ionizing Radiation

o       GR No 64 Year 2000 on Licensing for  Utilizing of Nuclear Energy

o       Draft of  GR on Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Its Mitigation

o       GR No 20 Year 1994 on Investment

                         Presidential Decree:

o       Presidential Decree No 106 Year 2001 on Ratification of Convention on Nuclear Safety

o       Presidential Decree No 66 Year 1999 on Radiation Risk and Subvention

o       Presidential Decree No 81 Year 1993 on Ratification of Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident.

o       Presidential Decree No 82 Year 1993 on Ratification of Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

o       Presidential Decree No 187 Year 1998 on BATAN and BAPETEN Establishment. This decree indicates existence of independent regulatory body.

o       Presidential Decree No 49 Year 1986 on Ratification of Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.

 

                           BAPETEN Chairman Regulation (BCR):

o       BCR No.01/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year 1999 on Working Safety Provision against Radiation.

o       BCR No.02/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year 1999 on Limit Values for Radioactivity in Environment.

o       BCR No.03/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year 1999 on Safety Provisions for Radioactive Waste Management.

o       BCR No.04/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year 1999 on Safety Requirements for Transport of Radioactive Material.

o       BCR No.07/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 Year on Quality Assurance for Nuclear Installation.

o       BCR No.01-P/Ka-BAPETEN/VI-99 Year 1999 on Guide for Selection of Nuclear Reactor Site.

o       BCR No. 04-P/Ka-BAPETEN/I-03 Year 2003 on Guide for Training for Supervisors and Operator of Nuclear Reactors.

o       BCR No 05-P /Ka-BAPETEN/I-03 Year 2003 on Guidance for Emergency Preparedness Planning.

o       BCR No 2 Year 2005 on System on Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material.

o       BCR No 5 Year 2007 on Safety Guidance on Evaluation of Nuclear Reactor Site

o       BCR No 1 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Seismicity Aspect.

o       BCR No 2 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Volcanic Aspect.

o       BCR No 3 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Aspects of Determination of Radioactive Material Dispersion in Atmosphere and Aquatic, and Consideration of Population Distribution surrounding the Power Reactor Site vicinity .

o       BCR No 4 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Aspects of Geotechnics and Power Reactor Foundation.

o       BCR No 5 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for Meteorology Aspect.

o       BCR No 6 Year 2008 on Nuclear Power Site Evaluation for External Human Induced Events Aspect.

o       BCR No 9 Year 2008 on Additional Protocol to State System on Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material.

o       BCR No 10 Year 2008 on Certification for Personnel of Nuclear Installations.

o       BCR No 1 Year 2009 on Physical Protection for Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Material.

o       BCR No 2 Year 2009 on Design Information Questionaire for Nuclear Installations.

o       BCR No 3 Year 2009 on Limiting Condition of Operation for Nuclear Power Plants.

o       BCR No 4 Year 2009 on Decommissioning of Nuclear Reactors.

 


 

References

 

[1]

Data & Statistics/The World Bank, www.worldbank.org/data.

[2]

IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB).

[3]

IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).

[4] 

Handbook of Energy and Economic Statistics of Indonesia 2007, www.esdm.go.id

[5]

Statistik Indonesia 2005, www.bps.go.id

[6]

Kementrian Lingkungan Hidup, (www.menlh.go.id)


 

Appendix 1

International, Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements

 

A. Convention and Treaty

 

NO.

TITLE

STATUS

REMARKS

ADOPTED /ENTRY INTO FORCE

SIGNED /RATIFIED

IAEA

 

 

 

1.

Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency

Open Signature: 26 October 1956

Ratified through Act No. 25 year 1957 on July 22, 1957

Act No. 25 year 1957 on the Agreement of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia on the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency

 

2.

Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nation, 1946

 

Ratified through Presidential Decree No. 51 year 1969 on July 24, 1969

Presidential Decree No. 51 year 1969 on the Ratification on the Convention on Privileges and Immunities

 

Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies, 1947

 

 

 

 

 

Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

 

 

 

3.

An Amendment of Article VI of the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency

 

Ratified through Act No. 2 year 1973 on January 12, 1973

Act No. 2 year 1973 on The Agreement of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia to the Amendment of Article VI of the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non -proliferation

 

 

 

4.

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

Adopted: 12 June 1968 Entered into force: 5 March 1970

Ratified through Act No. 8 year 1978 on December 18, 1978

Act No. 8 year 1978 on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

4.a.

Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of the Safeguards on Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

 

 

 

4.b.

Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of  Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

 

Ratified on October 29, 1999

 

5.

Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty Bangkok)

Adopted: 15 December 1995 Entered into force: 27 March 1997

Ratified through Act No. 9 year 1997

 

 

Nuclear Security

 

 

 

6.

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

Adopted: 3 March 1980 Entered into force: 8 February 1987

Ratified through Presidential Decree No.49 year 1986

 

6.a.

Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

Adopted: 8 July 2005. Entered into force: not yet

 

Currently in an inter-departmental review process

7.

Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

Adopted: 10 September 1996. Entered into force: not yet

Signature : 10 September 1996

In order for this treaty to be effective, Indonesia as one of the 44 countries has to ratify this treaty. However, until recently it has not been ratified.

 

 

Nuclear Safety and Emergency Response

 

 

 

8.

Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident

Adopted: 26 September 1986 Entered into force: 27 October 1986

Ratified through Presidential Decree No. 81 year 1993

 

9.

Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

Adopted: September 26, 1986. Entered into force: February 26, 1987

Ratified through Presidential Decree No. 82 year 1993

 

10.

Convention on Nuclear Safety

Adopted: June 17, 1994 Entered into force: February 26, 1987

Ratified through Presidential Decree No. 106 year 2001

 

11.

Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radio Active Waste Management

Adopted: 5 September 1997 Entered into force: June 18, 2001

 

Signature : 6 October 1997

 

 

Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage

 

 

 

12.

Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage

Adopted: 21 May 1963 Entered into force: November 12, 1977

 

 

13.

Protocol to amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage

Adopted: September 12, 1997. Entered into force: 4 October 2003

Signature : 6 October 1997

 

14.

Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

Adopted: September 12, 1997. Entered into force: not yet

Signature : 6 October 1997

 

 

B. Bilateral Agreements

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:

        Nuclear Power Plant Technology Development Agreement between Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional and General Electric Company, signed on March 24, 1995.

        Agreement between General Electric Company and National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia for the on-the-job-Training (OJT) Under the ABWR First-of-a-Kind Engineering (FOAKE) Programme, signed on April 11, 1995.

        Nuclear Power Plant Technology Development Agreement between Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional and General Electric Company, signed on April 13, 1995.

        Agreement for Join Study on the Application of an Advance Boiling Water Reactor in The Republic of Indonesia between BATAN (National Atomic Energy Agency) and The General Electric Company in Cooperation with Hitachi, Ltd, Mitsui & Co., Ltd and Toshiba Corporation, signed on Augusts 16, 1996.

AUSTRALIA:

CANADA:

GERMANY:

FRANCE:

ITALY:

        Agreement between The Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of The Republic of Italy on Cooperation Regarding the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, a G to G cooperation signed on March 17, 1980.

JAPAN:

        Agreement between The Government of The Republic of Indonesia and The Government of Japan on Scientific and Technological Cooperation, signed on January 12, 1980.

        Agreement between MITSUI & Co. Ltd., Japan and National Atomic Energy of Indonesia regarding the Participation of BATAN on the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Program, January March 27, 1991.

        Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) Muria Consortium (MURIA) and PT. Citacinas, signed on March 13, 2000 in Jakarta.

        Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Batan and Mitsubishi for a Joint Study On 1000 MWe Class PWR, signed on November 21, 1997.

        Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between BATAN and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. on Strengthening Cooperation Relationship through Exchange of Information for the Successful Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, signed on July 14, 2006.

 KOREA:

 RUSSIA:

 

C.  Technical Co-operation with IAEA in the Field of Nuclear Power Development

 

Project Number

Title

1st Year of Approval

INS/9/012

Nuclear Power Plant Sitting

1988

INS/9/013

Strengthening Nuclear Safety Infrastructure

1989

INS/4/028

Support for the First Nuclear Power Plant

1993

INS/9/021

NPP Site Confirmation and Structural Safety

1997

INS/0/015

Human Resource Development and Nuclear Technology Support

1999

INS/0/016

Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation

2001

INS/0/017

Human Resource Development And Nuclear Technology Support

2003

INS/4/033

Preparation for a Nuclear Power Plant

2005-2008

INS/4/034

Feasibility Study for Nuclear Desalination Plant Construction

2005-2006

INS/4/035

Preparation of Regulations, Codes, Guides and Standards for a Nuclear Power Plant

2005-2006

INS/0/017

Human Resources Development and Nuclear Technology Support

2005-2006

EBP-ASIA-178

Extra Budgetary Program on the Safety of Nuclear installations in South East Asia, Pacific and Far East Asia 

2000-2004

INS/4/036

Supporting the Preparation of Regulatory Control for Nuclear Power Plant

2009

INS/7/005

Developing a Radioecology and Marine Environment Programme in Muria Peninsula

2009

INS/4/033

Preparation for a Nuclear Power Plant. Objectives: To enhance national capacity for preparation and introduction of a nuclear power plant (NPP). Field: (4V) Nuclear Power Plant Planning and Pre-Operational Support

2005-2008

 

Appendix 2: main organizations, institutions and companies involved in nuclear power related activities

 

1.      Directorate General for Electricity and Energy Utilization (DJLPE)

        H.R Rasuna Said, kav 06 & 07, Blok X2, Kuningan, Jakarta 12950

        Tel. +62-21-5225180, fax. +62-21-5256044

        www.djlpe.esdm.go.id

2.      Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional (BATAN)

        Jl. Kuningan Barat, Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia

        Kotak Pos 4390 Jakarta 12043

        Tel. +62-21-5251109, Fax. +62-21-5251110

        web: http://www.batan.go.id

3.      Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir (BAPETEN)

        Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8, PO. Box 4005 Jakarta 10040 Indonesia Telp. (021) 6385 8269 - 70, Fax. (021) 6385 8275

        http://www.bapeten.go.id

4.      Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir (STTN)

        Jl. Babarsari POB 6101 YKBB, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia

        Tel. +62-274-484085, Fax. +62-274-489715

        www.sttn-batan.ac.id

5.      Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB)

        Office: Jl. Tamansari 64, Bandung 40116 Indonesia

        Tel/fax. +62-22-250 0935

        Campus: Jl. Ganesha  10, Bandung 40132

        www.itb.ac.id

6.      Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering,

            University of Gadjah Mada (UGM)

        Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Tel./Fax. 062-274-580882

        web: http://tf.ugm.ac.id