(updated on Dec. 20061)


1.1.  General Overview

The size of the Slovak Republic is 49 036 km2 with 40% of the area situated up to the elevation of 300 m, 45% at the elevation between 300 and 800 m, and 15% at the elevation above 800 m. The lowest point is the mouth of Bodrog river at the elevation of 94 m and the highest situated point is Gerlachov peak at the elevation of 2655 m. Agricultural surface covers 49.9% from the entire Slovak territory, and forest surface 40.6%. The longest dimension in the east-west direction is 428 km and in the north-south direction 195 km. The Slovak Republic is a new country situated in the Central Europe. It was established on January 1, 1993. It is situated between 16°50’04” and 22°34’20” of east longitude, and between 47°35’55” and 49°36’54” of northern latitude (Fig. 1) in climatic zone. The average annual temperature - a long-term average between 1901 and 1950 - is 10.1°C in Bratislava and the average rainfall is 670 mm. Table 1 shows typical parameters from the Meteorological stations Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce. In 2004, there were about 5 385 000 inhabitants and the density of the population was 110 inhabitants per km2. 2 170 400 people were economically active, out of which 641 300 in industry and 109 800 in agriculture.

In 2000, there were about 5.4 millions inhabitants and density of the population was 110 inhabitants per km2 (Table 2). 2.4 millions people were economically active, out of which 0.92 millions in industry and transport, 0.18 millions in agriculture, 0.49 millions in trade and services, and 0.81 millions in non-productive spheres.

figure 1

FIG. 1. Map of the Slovak Republic




Jaslovské Bohunice


Elevation above sea




Average annual temperature




Average annual humidity




Average annual rainfall




Dominant wind direction




Wind velocity



























Population (millions)








Population density (inhabitants/km2)








Urban population (% of total)








Area(1000 km2)








 Source: World Bank World Development Indicators

1.1.1. Economic Indicators

TThe development of the gross domestic product (GDP) over the last ten years is shown in Fig 2 and the gross domestic product (GDP) statistics are given in Table 3. The 2006 Share of generating assets on total installed capacity is shown in Fig. 3.























GDP (millions of current US$)



15 484.9

20 374.8

47 422.2

55 048.6


GDP (millions of constant 2000 US$)



19 737.6

20 374.8

25 495.5

27 602.9


GDP per capita (current US$)



2 931.1

3 781.0

8 803.1

10 223.3


Source: World Bank World Development Indicators


figure 2

FIG. 2. Development of the GDP


1.1.2.  Energy Situation

Slovakia has only a limited amount of available domestic energy resources, i.e. brown coal, oil, natural gas and renewable resources. Table 5 shows the basic energy statistics.


  Estimated energy reserves in (*) (Solid and Liquid in million tons, Uranium in metric tons, Gas in billion cubic metres, Hydro in TWhr per year)
  Solid (1) Liquid (2) Gas (3) Uranium (4) Hydro (5)
Amount 172 1,000 15 .. 7,000

(*) Sources: 20th WEC Survey of Energy Resources, 2004 and Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand ("Red Book")
(1) Coal including Lignite: proved recoverable reserves, the tonnage within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
(2) Crude oil and natural gas liquids (Oil Shale, Natural Bitumen and Extra-Heavy Oil are not included): proved recoverable reserves, the quantity within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
(3) Natural gas: proved recoverable reserves, the volume within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
(4) Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) under < USD 130/kgU
(5) Hydropower: technically exploitable capability, the amount of the gross theoretical capability that can be exploited within the limits of current technology
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database.


(Energy values are in Exajoule exept where indicated)
Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
Total Energy Requirements 1970 1980 1990 2000 2003 2004 1980 to 2000 2000 to 2004
Total .. .. 0.00 0.78 0.79 0.76 .. -0.75
Solids .. .. .. 0.16 0.18 0.17 .. 1.10
Liquids .. .. .. 0.14 0.13 0.13 .. -2.46
Gases .. .. .. 0.27 0.26 0.26 .. -1.23
Hydro .. .. .. 0.02 0.01 0.02 .. -4.78
Nuclear .. .. .. 0.18 0.19 0.17 .. -1.35
Other Renewables and Waste .. .. 0.00 0.01 < 0.01 0.02 .. 15.72
Final Energy Consumption 1970 1980 1990 2000 2003 2004 1980 to 2000 2000 to 2004
Total .. .. .. 0.40 0.47 0.43 .. 1.82
Solids .. .. .. 0.04 0.05 0.05 .. 3.51
Liquids .. .. .. 0.07 0.09 0.08 .. 4.17
Gases .. .. .. 0.19 0.21 0.18 .. -1.95
Electricity .. .. .. 0.08 0.08 0.09 .. 2.22
Other .. .. .. 0.02 0.04 0.04 .. 16.24
Net Energy Balance (Export-Import) 1970 1980 1990 2000 2003 2004 1980 to 2000 2000 to 2004
Total .. .. 0.000 0.515 0.507 0.523 .. 0.35
Solids .. .. .. 0.128 0.134 0.138 .. 1.90
Liquids .. .. .. 0.131 0.128 0.127 .. -0.74
Gases .. .. .. 0.265 0.256 0.264 .. -0.13
Other Renewables and Waste .. .. 0.000 -0.009 -0.010 -0.007 .. -7.63

Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database.

1.2. Energy Policy

Energy policy of the Slovak Republic was approved by the resolution of the Slovak Government dated 11th January 2006.

Long-term energy policy is based on the permanent reduction of energetic intensity of economy. The objective is formulated so, thus its realisation provides accessibility of the energy for all end customers in real time and on the economically effective principle.

The long-term objective of energy policy of the Slovak Republic is:

To reach the objective of energy policies, these essential priorities are specified:

  1. to substitute the closed electric energy production facilities so, thus the substitution provides such amount of electric power that covers primarily the domestic demand on the economically effective principle,
  2. to take measures directed to energy saving and to increase energetic efficiency of consumption,
  3. to decrease the dependence of energy supplies on the dangerous localities - diversification of energy sources and transport roads
  4. to utilize domestic primary power sources to generate the electric power and heat on the economically effective principle,
  5. to increase the using of combined electric power and heat production
  6. to use nuclear power as a diversified, economically effective and environmentally accepted possibility of electric power production
  7. to secure the nuclear safety of Nuclear power plants operation
  8. to increase the shares of renewable energy sources in the production of electric power and heat with the aim to create appropriate supplementary sources to cover the domestic demand
  9. to complete the grid and wiring so, thus they are able to provide the safe and reliable transmission, transport and distribution of electric power and gas
  10. to build new connecting lines to improve connection within EU inner market and also the market of the third countries
  11. to support using of alternative fuels in the transport.

These specified tasks (only i) and ii)) in the power industry have been fulfilled up to now and there are expectations for their further successful fulfilment within the framework of the accepted "Energy Concepts of the Slovak Republic till 2005". Table 6 shows the emissions of steam power plants from ENEL - SE.


Thousands tons  





























Solid pollutants (TZL)







Source: Country Information.

The fundamental document, defining main targets, directions and framework of power development, is the Power Policy of the Slovak Republic approved by the Slovak government decree No. 5 dated 12 January 2000.

The power policy defines the framework for new orientation of the power sector and has three pillars:

  1. preparation for the integration into internal markets of the European Union,
  2. security in power supplies,
  3. sustainable development.

The main target of the preparation for integration into the EU internal markets is transformation of the power sector into a compatible one that is able and prepared to be incorporated into a united European market. The power sector transformation is conditioned by meeting the basic measures: restructuralization and privatization of power utilities, establishment of independent regulatory authority, making energy prices more realistic for all categories of consumers, completion and approval of legislation adapting power sector.

The intentions of the power policy are as follows:

Another important measure related to nuclear power sector is the governmental decree on the closure of the two oldest units at the Bohunice V-1 nuclear power plant (EBO) in 2006 and 2008, respectively. By implementing a programme of modernization and safety upgrading of the V-2 Bohunice nuclear power plant, extension of the V-2 design lifetime will be enabled with the high level of safety maintained. The decision on the completion of Mochovce units 3 and 4 will depend on the interest of a strategic partner, as no guaranty of the state is possible.

In the field of electric power sector it is expected that a major part in the increase of electricity demand will be covered by developing the production of independent generators, mainly based on steam-gas cycle.

The development of heat supply systems, based mainly on centralized methods of heat supply for communal consumption and industrial technology processes, will depend on accelerated elimination of deformations in the prices of electricity and natural gas. The process of making these prices more realistic has been already launched according to a time schedule accepted. A profitable geography position and significant location of Slovakia in regard to transit of natural gas through its territory into Western Europe create good preconditions for building a "Gas Centre" with European-wide importance. Notwithstanding the high level of reliability of gas supply from the Russian Federation, it will be necessary to look for possibilities in diversification of gas imports from other territories. A similar suitable situation relates to the strategic assurance of oil imports. In line with EU legislation and with a bill under preparation on mandatory reserves of oil products, capacities for the storage of mandatory oil reserves (90-day reserve) will be gradually built. Based on a government decision to use preferentially for electricity production (up to the amount of 10% from total electricity consumption) domestic brown coal, that is the only significant fuel source, gradual extraction of coal and lignite resources in line with mining capabilities will be made possible. Protection of the environment is one of determining factors of the power policy. The legislation framework in effect and international obligations of Slovakia in the area of reduction of the production of emission materials provide the starting point for the acceptance of programs for emission reduction and increased utilization of renewable resources. For the implementation of these programs, coordinated progress of a number of industrial sectors and incorporation into practice of system measures in the field of tax and price policies, ecology and legislation is needed.

1.3.  The Electricity System

1.3.3.  Main Indicators


  Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
Electricity Generation 1970 1980 1990 2000 2003 2004 1980 to 2000 2000 to 2004
Total .. .. .. 31.38 31.18 29.16 .. -1.82
Nuclear .. .. .. 16.49 17.86 15.62 .. -1.35
Hydro .. .. .. 5.12 3.67 4.21 .. -4.78
Geothermal .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Wind .. .. .. .. < 0.01 < 0.01 .. ..
Other renewables .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Thermal .. .. .. 9.77 9.64 9.33 .. -1.16
Installed Capacity 1970 1980 1990 2000 2003 2004 1980 to 2000 2000 to 2004
Total .. .. .. 8.06 8.36 8.38 .. 0.99
Nuclear .. .. .. 2.41 2.44 2.44 .. 0.35
Hydro .. .. .. 2.50 2.87 2.87 .. 3.47
Geothermal .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Wind .. .. .. .. < 0.01 < 0.01 .. ..
Other renewables .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Thermal .. .. .. 3.14 3.05 3.07 .. -0.63

Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database.


figure 2

FIG. 3. Share of generating assets on total installed capacity (%)


  Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
  1970 1980 1990 2000 2003 2004 1980 to 2000 2000 to 2004
Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita) .. .. 0.0 145.2 146.4 141.1 .. -0.72
Electricity per capita (KW.h/capita) .. .. .. 5,823.9 5,795.7 5,418.4 .. -1.79
Nuclear/Total electricity (%) .. .. .. 52.6 57.3 53.6 .. 0.48
Annual capacity factor - Total (%) .. .. .. 44.5 42.6 39.7 .. -2.78
Annual capacity factor - Thermal (%) .. .. .. 35.5 36.1 34.7 .. -0.54
Annual capacity factor - Hydro (%) .. .. .. 23.3 14.6 16.7 .. -7.97
Annual capacity factor - Nuclear (%) .. .. .. 78.2 83.5 73.0 .. -1.69
Annual capacity factor - Wind (%) .. .. .. .. 11.4 68.5 .. ..
Annual capacity factor - Geothermal (%) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Annual capacity factor - Other renewables (%) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database.


2.1.  Historical Development and current nuclear power organizational structure

2.1.1.  Overview

Brief overview of main decisions and events related to the implementation and development of the nuclear programmes is given as follows.

A-1 Bohunice:


Intergovernmental agreement between the former USSR and CSSR on the construction of an industrial-research nuclear power plant on the territory of CSSR.


Establishment of an investment enterprise Nuclear Power Plant A-1 by the decision of the Governmental Committee for Nuclear Energy and of the Authority for Nuclear Power Management.


Beginning of A-1 construction.


The research and development reactor KS 150 at A-1 reached criticality. Gradual increase of the electric output up to the maximum value of 127 MW. Connection of A-1 to the electric grid.


First serious incident at the KS-150 reactor.


The decisive severe accident during reactor refuelling.


Decision of CSSR government to decommission A-1.


Slovak government accepted the global concepts of A-1 decommissioning.


UJD issued decision No. 137/1999 - approving decommissioning plan for decommissioning NPP A-1 - Stage 1 - scheduled till 2007. Plant status will be: all spent fuel permanently removed from the plant, majority of liquid RAW adjusted to a form enabling safe final disposal; all remaining RAW treated to a form enabling their safe permanent disposal or long-term storage; the necessary decontamination of premises and rooms performed.


Last two transports of spent nuclear fuel took place - all spent fuel produced during the operation has been transported from the site back to the Russian Federation.

V-1 Bohunice:


Decision of the State Planning Commission of CSSR based on an agreement with USSR to start the construction of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors of VVER 440 type.


Decision of CSSR and USSR governments to supply two nuclear power plants each with two VVER reactors 440 MW.


Establishment of affiliated organization in Jaslovské Bohunice.


Laying of foundation stone for the construction of main production building.


V-1 Unit 1 reactor made critical.


Commissioning of V-1 Unit 1 into trial operation.


Commissioning of V-1 Unit 1 into commercial operation. V-1 Unit 2 reactor made critical. Commissioning of V-1 Unit 2 into trial operation.


Commissioning of V-1 Unit 2 into commercial operation.


Re-evaluation of V-1 safety.


Other safety measures to enhance nuclear safety.


Execution of reviews to evaluate V-1 conditions.


CSKAE Decision about V-1 operation based on implementation of additional safety measures.


Implementation of Phase 1 measures to upgrade safety by backfitting V-1 units.


Implementation of Phase 2 measures with the objective to achieve European standards and maintain V-1 in operation.


Nuclear regulatory autority of Slovak republic (UJD SR) issued decisions No. 144 & 220/2001, approving further operation of Unit 1&2.


The first Unit was shut down.

V-2 Bohunice:


Agreement signed with USSR on the construction of V-2 in Jaslovské Bohunice. Beginning of V-2 construction.


V-2 Unit 1 reactor made critical. Commissioning of V-2 Unit 1 into trial operation.


Commissioning of V-2 Unit 1 into commercial operation. V-2 Unit 2 reactor made critical. Commissioning of V-2 Unit 2 into trial operation. Commissioning of V-2 Unit 2 into commercial operation.

2000 - 2001

Concept of modernization and safety upgrading elaborated - approved by UJD decisions No. 214/2000 and No. 250/2001.

2001 - 2007

Implementation modernization and safety upgrading



Preparatory studies, survey works, sociology survey.


Federal Ministry of Fuel and Power approved an investment intention to construct two twin-reactor units with the capacity of 440 MW each.


Physical start of Mochovce construction.


Establishment of a concern enterprise Atomic Power Plants Mochovce with its headquarters in Mochovce.


The original deadline for Mochovce Unit 1 commissioning failed to be met due to necessary replacement of inadequate instrumentation and control system.


The way of funding the construction of Mochovce Units 1 and 2 was still open, construction and installation works continued in a minimum extent only. (The funding of Mochovce completion was resolved by the Government Decision No.339/96 dated May 14,1996).


Commissioning of Unit 1 - reactor reached first criticality on 9. 6. 1998


Unit 1 in commercial operation since 23. 4. 1999.
Commissioning of Unit 2 - reactor reached first criticality on 1.12.1999.


Unit 2 in commercial operation since 31.10.2000.
Government decree - 257/2000 - government did not suspended the completion of the construction of units 3 and 4; rather it decided to abstain from granting sovereign guarantees for loans to be used to finance the completion (construction frozen since 1994).

2006 - 2007

ENEL-SE. - EMO34 Feasibility Study

2.1.2.  Current Organizational Chart(s)

Under Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the supervision of peaceful use of nuclear energy is performed by government authorities within their competencies laid down in the relevant acts by the scheme shown in the figure 4.

figure 9

Fig. 4. Slovak Institutions involved in the nuclear sector


Nuclear installation licensing procedure

The licensing procedure consists of three major stages: siting, construction, commencement and permanent operation. Before granting a licence for permanent operation, the regulatory authority carries out control under the approved programs for hot and cold testing and grants approval for fuel loading, physical start up, energy start up and trial operation.

The basic condition essential to licensing in terms of nuclear safety is to prepare and submit a Safety Analysis Report and other prescribed safety documentation and to meet the conditions of the regulatory authority's preceding licensing procedures and decisions.

Till the end of November 2004, regional offices issued their decisions on siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations following permission from UJD, the Public Health Office of the Slovak Republic, labour inspection authorities and other state administration authorities and organisations (see the figure below). On 1 December 2004 new Atomic Act No. 541/2004 Coll. came into effect, giving the UJD competencies in issuing decisions/ permits on construction and operation of nuclear installations. In that case the regional office in the figure is replaced by UJD.

A licence holder is responsible for the safety of a nuclear installation.

figure 9


2.2.  Nuclear Power Plants: Status and Operations

ENEL - SE a joint stock company is the largest electricity generation company in the Slovak Republic. In point of nuclear, the Company operates Bohunice nuclear power plant (2 units V-2), and Mochovce nuclear power plant (2 units) with total installed capacity of 1 760 MW.

JAVYS a joint stock company operates (2 units V-1) with total installed capacity of 880 MW.


The Bohunice power plant comprises four nuclear reactors configured in two twin units, V-1 and V-2, which are situated at Bohunice, approximately 60 km northeast of the Slovak capital, Bratislava. Each reactor drives two 220 MW Skoda generators, providing a combined plant capacity of 1,760 MW. The Bohunice V-2 plant also supplies up to 170MWth of heat.


figure 9


The two V-1 reactors are pressurized water reactors VVER-440/V230 of Soviet design, which were significantly upgraded mainly in two safety improvement programs between 1990-2000.

In December 2006 Unit 1 was shut down

The two V-2 reactors are of improved pressurized water reactors VVER-440/V213, currently under stepwise (during annual outages) implementation of major modernization and safety upgrading program.


The Mochovce NPP is situated in the south of Slovakia near the town Levice. Two reactors, Unit 1 and Unit 2 each drives two 220 MW Skoda generators, providing a combined plant capacity of 880 MW. Design bases is improved comparing to similar NPPs by implementation of number of safety measures, mainly before plant commisssioning (addressing safety issues of higher safety significance) or within first years of operation (safety issues of lower safety significance). No heat is supplied to external industries or district heating from Mochovce site.


figure 9


Construction of two further units, 3 & 4, has been suspended in middle 90-ties. By its Resolution No. 257/2000 of 19 April 2000, the Slovak Government did not suspended the completion of the construction of NPP Mochovce units 3 and 4; rather it decided to abstain from granting sovereign guarantees for loans to be used to finance the completion. In this way, the option of NPP Mochovce 3 and 4 being completed by foreign investors and/or foreign investors participating in the power energy privatization process through investments into units under construction has not been ruled out, and SE, a.s. was given the opportunity to officially negotiate with potential investors.

With a view to distinguish the cost for the energy production on units 1 and 2 from the costs connected with the possible completion of units 3 and 4, SE, a.s.'s Board decided to establish a new branch plant of SE termed Mochovce Units 3 and 4 (acronym SE-MO34). The scope of SE-MO34's activities includes activities such as administration and conservation of units 3 and 4.

In February 2007 ENEL - SE. announced its decision to complete EMO34.

2.2.1.  Status of nuclear power plants

Transmission system of Slovak Republic


figure 8

map of powerplants:


Station Type Net Operator Status Reactor Construction Criticality Grid Commercial Shutdown
    Cpacity (Mwe)     Supplier Date Date Date Date Date
BOHUNICE-2 PWR   408 JAVYS Operational AEE 24-Apr-72 15-Mar-80 26-Mar-80 01-Jan-81  
BOHUNICE-3 PWR   408 SE,plc Operational SKODA 01-Dec-76 07-Aug-84 20-Aug-84 14-Feb-85  
BOHUNICE-4 PWR   408 SE,plc Operational SKODA 01-Dec-76 02-Aug-85 09-Aug-85 18-Dec-85  
MOCHOVCE-1 PWR   405 SE,plc Operational SKODA 01-Oct-83 09-Jun-98 04-Jul-98 29-Oct-98  
MOCHOVCE-2 PWR   405 SE,plc Operational SKODA 01-Oct-83 01-Dec-99 20-Dec-99 11-Apr-00  
BOHUNICE A1 HWGCR 110 JAVYS Permanent Shutdown SKODA 01-Aug-58 24-Oct-72 25-Dec-72 25-Dec-72 22-Feb-77
BOHUNICE-1 PWR   408 JAVYS Permanent Shutdown AEE 24-Apr-72 27-Nov-78 17-Dec-78 01-Apr-80 31-Dec-06

Source: IAEA Power Reactor Information System as of 31 December 2006.


2.2.2.  Performance of NPPs

ENEL - SE, joint stock company is the largest electricity generation company in the Slovak Republic. At present the Company does not have a monopoly position, but remains to be a dominant producer of electric power in the Slovak Republic. The Company owns and operates a power generation portfolio of 6,001 MW in Slovakia (by the end of 2006), of which 29% are in nuclear power plants, 31% in conventional thermal power plants and 40% in hydro power plants.

Bohunice and Mochovce units have been operating according to yearly, mothly, weekly and daily plans agreed with Slovak trasmission lines company and actual requirements of Slovak dispatching center, depending on current power consumption and status and needs of the energy system. Nuclear units were basicaly operated in following regimes:

Plants were designed to allow thermal cycling bound with above load changes. Their impact on ageing (mainly due to fatigue reasons) of main reactor coolant system components is annually calculated, based on actual unit data records and evaluated taking into account their residual life time.

Plant availability of Slovak nuclear units is comparable with WANO average value. UCF and UCLF values in 2004 are given in the table. In point of UCLF, results have been successful, except of Mochovce unit 1. The reason of relatively high unplanned capability losses was the fact that the unit was shutdown (for 16 days) immediately after planned outage for refueling, because of unsealing two out of four rings of main reactor pressure vessel flange.








WANO PWR average 2006

















In 2006 Nuclear Power plants in Slovakia generated 18,013 GWh, from that Bohunice 11,692 GWh and Mochovce 6,321 GWh. It represents 57,68% of the total generation in Slovakia.

Table 10 presents some basic operating data and Table 9 shows the status of nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic. The costs of one MWh delivered from all units include also contribution to the State Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Installations - 350 000,- SKK per installed MW and 6,8 per cent of revenues comming from actual electricity supplied.



Production (TW·h)

Load Factor (%)



Since commissioning


































2.2.3.  Plant upgrading and plant life management

Reactor Type V-1

2x440 MW VVER V-230

Based on recommendations from IAEA and EC experts, the so called "small backfitting" of V-1 was carried out between 1991 and 1992, with the costs of 2 million Sk, and focused mainly on:

Based on recommendations from IAEA and EC experts, the so called "small reconstruction" of V-1 was carried out between 1991 and 1992, with the costs of 2 million Sk, and focused mainly on:

The implementation of these actions was a prerequisite for the operation of the V-1 plant till 1995. According to the UJD SR Decision No.1/94, the prerequisite for further operation after 1995 was to implement the so called "gradual upgrading" between 1996 to 2000 with the costs of 8.000 million Sk. The content of this extensive backfitting program included among others following:

The gradual reconstruction was implemented in line with the schedule approved by the UJD SR. It was partly performed during normal operation of V-1 units, but mainly during planed unit refuelling outages and overhauls. The outages were extended depending on the extend of the upgrading works to be performed. The program was accomplished by Unit 1 start-up in June 2000. The IAEA Review of Major Upgrading Results at Bohunice WWER-440/230 NPP Units 1 and 2 held in November 2000 on invitation of the Slovak government stated that:

The completion of the reconstruction works resulted in a significant improvement of NPP V-1's nuclear safety standard, thus achieving the internationally acceptable standards of safety and operating reliability.

Based on the IAEA safety review as well on their own assessment UJD issued decisions No. 144/2001 and No. 220/2001, approving further operation of Unit 1 and 2.

Operational safety of NPP V-1 was further enhanced by implementation of symptom based emergency operating procedures, which were put in place in December 2003. These procedures were developed, similarly as for Bohunice V-2 and Mochovce NPP, in co-operation with Westinghouse Electric Europe.

However during negotiations on Slovak accession to the EU, the Slovak government had to agree to close the V-1 Unit 1 in 2006 and the V-1 Unit 2 in 2008.

Reactor Type V-2

EBO - 2 x 440 MW VVER 213

Most extensive long-term program of SE, a.s. is currently being implemented at Unit 3 and 4 at Bohunice, with planned investment costs more than 10 bil. Sk. Schedule and content of tthis "NPP Bohunice V-2 Units Upgrading and Safety Improvement Program" was approved by UJD decisions No. 214/2000 and No. 250/2001. The aim of this program is to increase the level of safety of NPP V-2 according to the IAEA recommendations for the WWER-440/213 reactor design, as defined in the IAEA EBP-WWER-03 document "Safey Issues and their Ranking for WWER-440/213 NPPs", April 1996. The UJD decisions stipulate the operator to implement measures to solve:

Modifications and safety measures are focused mainly on:

Extension of the NPP Bohunice V-2 units lifetime to a minimum of 40 years, in accordance with the production and technological base development plan of ENEL - SE, a.s. and increasing of units nominal output (from reserves and through improved efficiency of the units) is also a subject of the modernization program.

EMO - 2 x 440 MW VVER 213

A comprehensive safety upgrading program was implemented also at both units of Mochovce NPP. The classification of the individual safety-relevant issues was based on the IAEA document EBP-WWER-03 "safety Issues and their Rankking for WWER-440/213 NPPs" with the difference that the extent of safety-relevant measures has been extended by the recommendations of RISKAUDIT, taking into account specific conditions of the NPP Mochovce.

The results of safety measures are documented in the Safety Assessment Report or in other supporting documents.

Before start up of the units safety issues of categories III and II have been addressed in a manner to fulfill requirements of INSAG 3 from the point of view of defense in depth concept.

The remainig safety measures were implemented depending on the technological possibilities during the operation and if such measures required unit shutdown, their implementation was postponed to refueling outages. This procedure was continuously approved and verified by UJD.

The safety improvement program was evaluated after the completion of units 1 and 2 shutdown in 2001. The evaluation confirmed that the implementation of safety measures adopted within the safety improvement project which was a part of the completion of units 1 and 2 has been principally completed.

The implementation of the last remaining safety measure "Post Accident Monitoring System" was finished according to the schedule at Unit 2 in 2003 and on Unit 1 in June 2004.

2.2.4.  Nuclear power development projections and plans

According to the current status of nuclear in the Slovak Republic, are considerctions under way new generating electricity, besides Mochovce unit 3 and 4. As it was mentioned, the Slovak Government did not suspend the completion of the construction of NPP Mochovce units 3 and 4. The main possibility, how to accomplish construction of units 3 and 4 is cooperation with foreign investors. After decision of the Slovak government to privatize a 66% share of SE, the winner of the bid, i.e. the Italian company ENEL shall prepare a strategic investment plant to replace energy sources to be shut down in the near future. Analysis of completion of units under construction in Mochovce is to be also part of this strategic plan. In February 2007 ENEL-SE announced its decision to complete construction ot Units 3 and 4 of Mochovce NPP.

2.2.5.  Decommissioning: information and plans

Basic legislation on decommissioning in Slovak Republic is given by

Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on Conditions of Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy ("Nuclear Act") and Act No. 127/1994 Coll. on environment impact assessment. The operator is responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

Act No. 238/2006 Coll. stipulates activities of the National nuclear fund for decommissioning of nuclear installations and management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (Nuclear Fund Law).

NPP Decommissioning conception in SR

There are three basic scenarios considered in the decommissioning conception:

NPP A-1 decommissioning conception:

There were available three potential scenarios:

  1. Continuous decommissioning scenario
  2. Nuclear island safe enclosure scenario
  3. Reactor safe enclosure scenario

The "Continuous decommissioning scenario" for NPP A-1 was recommended based on technical-economic assessment and considered as the most suitable from these evaluated scenarios. It will be ended by removing of the NPP and by release of the site for an unlimited using.

NPP A-1 decommissioning consists of two fundamental time phases:

  1. operation termination after reactor shutdown - since shutdown in 1977 until 1999 Project design for NPP A-1 decommissioning was elaborated (1995-1999)
  2. Official License for A-1 decommissioning was issued by UJD SR in 1999.
  3. A-1 decommissioning - the time phase after 1999 until 2033 or 2056 based on the selected scenario, that involves two periods of A-1 decommissioning:

NPP with VVER 440 units decommissioning conception (Bohunice V-2 and Mochovce):

At first the document on decommissioning of NPP with VVER 440 units has been elaborated. Based on the comparing of the individual decommissioning scenarios and using the multicriterial analyses, the decommissioning to the I. degree (the closing with surveillance for 30 years) and subsequent dismantling and liquidation of NPP to green-field resulted as the most suitable scenario.

In this case the NPP VVER 440 decommissioning, after the termination of operation consists of two following periods:

  1. period of decommissioning: the condition establishing and the operation of the plant in the state "the closing with surveillance" for the time of 30 years
  2. period of decommissioning: the dismantling and liquidation of NPP and the release of the site for an unlimited using (to green-field)

NPP JE V-1 decommissioning conception

Based on the Government decree (resolution) No. 801/1999 units V-1 will be shutdown in 2006 Unit 1and 2008 Unit 2. Subsequently the termination of operation will be finished till December 2011, when all spent fuel will be removed from reactors to the intermediate spent fuel storage facility.

For NPP V-1, based on the study on the site exploitability, three possible scenarios of NPP decommissioning are to be analyzed according to the Law no.127/1994 Coll. on environmental impact assessment. The utility currently recommends so-called speeded - up process of decommissioning from 2012 till 2025. However the final decision has not been made yet and it will also depend on the environmental impact assessment and on the decision of the government.

2.3.  Supply of NPPs

The main domestic producer and supplier of selected components of pressure systems (separators, piping, heat exchangers) for nuclear power plants is the Slovak Power Engineering Works (SES) in Tlmace and the Piping Company in Kosice. The supplier of civil construction works has been the Hydrostav Bratislava. The main foreign suppliers are Atomenergoexport (Russia), ŠKODA, Vítkovice ironworks and EGP (Czech Republic). Well-known Western firms (EdF, Framatome ANP) have been cooperating with them and with VUJE, Inc. company during Mochovce completion and Bohunice safety upgrading programs.

2.4.  Operation of NPPs

The owner of the Bohunice V-2 and Mochovce plants is the utility ENEL-Slovenské elektrárne, a.s. (SE). The operators of these four units are SE affiliations Nuclear Power Plants Bohunice (EBO) and NPPs Mochovce (EMO). The owner and operators of the Bohunice V-1 and A-1 is the utility JAVYS,a.s..After privatisation SE,a.s. was establish GovCO company, who was rename to JAVYS. The Nuclear Power Plants Bohunice have built their own technical and professional capacities for the performance of maintenance activities. The execution of specialized activities is ordered by EBO and EMO from manufacturers of these components, or from specialized firms. The training of nuclear personnel, i.e. operators and maintenance and decommissioning personnel, is carried out by the Training Center in the VUJE, Inc. VUJE performs professional, practical and theoretical training of nuclear power plant personnel in six categories based on the Certificate No. 1/94 from the UJD SR. The Category 1 is designed for selected personnel, e.g. operators, control physicists and reactor unit supervisors. Following successful graduation from theoretical and practical training, trainees obtain certificates. For the performance of a function, the Category 1 personnel have to obtain a UJD license that has to be renewed each two or three years depending on the function.

2.5.  Fuel Cycle and Waste Management

Procurement of New Nuclear Fuel

All the fuel for the operation of six VVER 440 units in Slovakia has been fabricated in the Russian Federation. The fuel supplier provides completed fuel assemblies, including nuclear material, its conversion and enrichment. In the present time Slovenske elektrarne has two fuel contracts. One fuel contract is valid for Bohunice units 1 and 2 to the end of their operation (2006, resp.2008) and till the end of 2005 for Bohunice units 3 and 4 and Mochovce units 1 and 2. In all six units is used advanced fuel with average enrichment 3,82% U 235.

In 2003 Slovenske elektrarne concluded new fuel contract with Russian Supplier for delivery of fresh nuclear fuel for Bohunice units 3 and 4 and Mochovce units 1 and 2 in period 2005 - 2010. The supplied fuel will be of new generation (new mechanical and nuclear design with burnable Gd absorber) and should result in better efficiency and lower annual consumption of nuclear materials.

Management of Radioactive waste and Spent Fuel

The basic policy of spent fuel and radioactive waste management has been established by the Resolutions No. 930/1992, No. 190/2000 of the Slovak government.

(1) The responsibility for the safe management of radioactive waste prior to their receipt at the repository shall be with the originator of the radioactive waste.

(2) Treatment of radioactive waste shall mean actions leading to the creation of a form suitable for shipment and disposal or storage of radioactive waste.

(3) Radioactive waste shall be managed in a way:

  1. to maintain subcriticality,
  2. to secure removal of residual heat,
  3. to minimize effects of ionising radiation on staff, population and the general environment,
  4. to take into account properties influencing nuclear safety such as toxicity, flammability, explosiveness, and other hazardous properties.

(4) Generation of radioactive waste and management of radioactive waste shall follow technical and organisational measures so as to keep their amount and activity as low as reasonable achievable.

(5) The responsibility for disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear installation and disposal of institutional radioactive waste as well as responsibility for closure of repository and its institutional control shall be with the State under conditions laid down by this Act and other generally binding legal regulations.

(6) Radioactive waste repository may be placed on land in a State-ownership only, in accordance with the approved Concept of Territorial Development of Slovakia and other approved territorial-planning documentation.

(7) Unless otherwise specified by specific Act28), costs associated with the management of radioactive waste including costs of the provision for institutional control after the closure of repository shall be borne by the originator of radioactive waste.

(8) In the case of radioactive waste whose originator is not known or where originator is not capable of managing radioactive waste safely the Authority shall appoint another authorisation holder for management of radioactive waste. In its decision, the Authority shall define the scope of the management of such radioactive waste.

(9) Costs associated with the management of radioactive waste whose originator is unknown or costs incurred by authorisation holder appointed by the Authority pursuant to Section 8 shall be borne by State Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Energy Installations and Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste. When the originator of radioactive waste is identified subsequently, he shall be liable to reimburse the Fund for the costs incurred upon the management of the radioactive waste.

(10) All activities during radioactive waste management shall be directed towards safe disposal thereof.

(11) Imports of radioactive waste to the territory of the Slovak Republic shall be banned, except for cases under which the procedure pursuant to § 16 is complied with and except for imports of radioactive waste authorised by the Authority,

  1. that was generated by reprocessing and treatment of radioactive materials exported for this purpose and re-shipment of which was permitted by the Authority in advance,
  2. for purposes of their processing or treatment on the territory of the Slovak Republic provided that the export of materials with aliquot activity has been contractually provided and authorised by the Authority.

(12) The provisions of the Sections 1 through 11 shall also apply accordingly to spent fuel management; the responsibility for the spent fuel management until its delivery and its receipt to repository shall be with the authorisation holder who (which) has produced the spent fuel.

(13) Details concerning requirements for spent fuel management, with the emphasis on its storage and disposal and for management of radioactive waste, including its generation, classification of radioactive waste into classes, and details of requirements for its imports, and of requirements for the scope and contents of the documentation upon the management of radioactive waste, of requirements for equipment for management of radioactive waste, of requirements for record-keeping about management of radioactive waste shall be laid down by a generally binding legal regulation to be issued by the Authority.

Material and Financial Provision of Radwaste Management

The new plant, subsidiary of SE company, marked VYZ established in 1996, is being responsible for Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Installations and Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management. Besides that, the SE-VYZ plant will provide the disposal of institutional radwaste from other organizations. The plant activities are being financed from the SE utility budget and from the State Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Installations and Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management. In July 2005 SE-VYZ was delimited from the utility SE and state-run company GovCo was etablished. In August 2006 GovCo was transformed to a joint stock company JAVYS, Inc.

The State Fund was established by the Act No. 254/1994 Coll. with effect from 1 January 1995. Mentioned Act was afterwards amended by the following acts: Act No. 78/2000 Coll. and Act No. 560/2001 Coll. The main aim of amendments was especially modification how to create and use the resources of the Fund.

The Ministry of Economy of the administers the Fund and the fund resources are controlled on the special account in the National Bank of Slovakia.

By the mentioned act the sources of the Fund shall be generated from:

  1. contributions by nuclear installation operators,
  2. penalties imposed by Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic upon natural persons and legal entities pursuant to separate regulation
  3. bank credits
  4. interest on Fund deposits in banks
  5. grants from State Budget
  6. other sources as provided by special regulation.

The basic resources of the Fund are contributions of operators of nuclear facilities. In compliance with above mentioned act, operator of nuclear facility is obliged to contribute yearly to the Fund the sum 350 000 Sk for each megawatt of installed electric power of the nuclear facility and 6,8 % from sales price of electric power generated yearly in the nuclear facility.

The Fund Council as his advisory body has been appointed by The Minister of Economy for generation and utilization of Fund resources.

It is possible to provide resources of the Fund as specific subsidy to the operator of nuclear facility or spent fuel and radioactive waste repository and to the person determined for the management of orphan sources on the basis of written application accompanied by the project with technical and economic reasoning.

It is possible to use the Fund resources for:

  1. decommissioning of nuclear facilities,
  2. management of spent fuel and radioactive waste after the end of nuclear facility operation (where were originated),
  3. management of orphan sources and waste from illicit trafficking when originator is unknown,
  4. purchase of site for spent fuel and radioactive waste repositories,
  5. research and development in the area of decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of spent fuel and decommissioning radioactive waste,
  6. investigation of sites, geological survey, design, construction, commissioning, operation and closure of spent fuel and radioactive waste repositories including monitoring after their closure,
  7. expenses related to the Fund activities up to 0,3 % of annual income of the Fund,
  8. contributions on protection of life and health of population in the hazard area of nuclear facility.

The resources of the State Fund have been formed since 1995. The generation of NPP A-1 finished in 1977, therefore no resources from NPP A-1 have been created. NPP V-1 shall be untimely shutdown, so the contributions from NPP V-1 will not be sufficient for decommissioning. That is why accumulated financial resources into Fund will not be sufficient to build a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste and spent fuel elements. At the present time the analysis, models and possibilities of the Fund creating are being worked out, to be sufficient for all fuel cycle back-end in Slovakia. Based on the new Act on State Fund is being preparing to resolve the issue of financing of NPP A-1 and NPP V-1 decommissioning.

2.6.  Research and Development

2.6.1.  The research and development organizations and institutes

The research and development activities in Slovakia are based on national long-term strategic plans transferred into medium-term projects, which reflect country specific conditions and needs of the utilization of nuclear energy in Slovakia. The strategic plans and projects are bound to international research and development activities, particularly those conducted within EU countries or OECD/NEA.

The research and development in Slovakia is financed from the state budget completed by funds from private sector or support from EU. The expenditures to research and development in Slovakia are limited. They represent several hundred thousands USD per year.

Utility's technical support organizations and universities initiate the research and development. The activities are focused on effective and efficient use of nuclear fuel, efficient conversion of nuclear energy into heat and electricity, treatment and disposal of radioactive materials and spent fuel, improvement and validation of analytical computer codes, emergency preparedness and panning, and in support of safety enhancement of nuclear facilities. The Slovak regulatory body initiates the research and development work where it considers that there is a need for additional studies beyond those undertaken by utilities or it can apply to suitable critical considerations in its review and assessment.

The organizations, which conduct the research and development in Slovakia, are:

2.6.2.  Development of advanced and new generation nuclear reactor systems

Slovakia has not developed any advanced nuclear reactors. Engagement of national companies in the development of advanced nuclear reactor systems is limited and performed in co-operation with foreign companies on commercial basis.

2.7. International Co-operation and Initiatives

Co-operation with IAEA in Vienna has the most important role in the field of international co-operation regarding international importance and wide scope of possibilities of international co-operation and assistance. In co-ordination with Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic our republic fulfilled its financial commitments concerning this organisation in full extent.

The co-operation of the Slovak Republic with IAEA in the area of technical project is exceptionally successful. In 2006 the co-operation continued in 4 national and number of regional as well as inter-regional projects.

UJD SR as a sponsor of co-operation with OECD/NEA and based on resolution of Slovak Government co-ordinates the co-operation of the Slovak Republic with OECD/NEA and assures fulfilment of commitments of the Slovak Republic resulting from this membership.

UJD SR assures an execution of function of national authority for contact with The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) with residency in Vienna.

Joining EU UJD SR, as a regulatory authority upon the nuclear safety became to be a member of WENRA, the objective of which is to develop common approach to the nuclear safety and supervision particularly in EU states. UJD SR works actively in two working groups (WG) - WG for harmonisation of approach to the safety of existing NPPs and WG for harmonisation of approach to the safety of radwaste treatment.

UJD SR is a member of a Group under name NERS. The members of NERS meet regularly each year and discuss questions of common interest.

UJD SR actively participates in activities of forum of national regulators supervising nuclear safety of WWER type reactors. Exchange of information and experience from regulatory activities concerning operation of NPPs with WWER type reactors aiming at increasing of regulatory practice and at the same time nuclear safety of these facilities.

More information isavailable in the Annual Report of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (


3.1.  Safety Authority and the Licensing Process

Licensing procedures have three main levels: selection of construction site, commencement of construction and permanent operation. Prior to issuing a license for permanent operation, the regulatory authority performs inspections in line with the approved programmes of active and non-active tests and issues approvals for fuel loading, physical start-up, power start-up and trial operation. The major regulatory authorities and the process of licensing procedures are shown in Figure 10.

figure 9

FIG. 10. Licensing procedures

The basic mandatory condition for issuing any approval related to nuclear safety is to develop and submit a Safety Analysis Report and other prescribed safety documentation and to comply with the conditions from previous approval proceedings and with the decisions of the regulatory authority. The regional construction offices issue decisions for the selection of construction site of nuclear installations based on the approval of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Ministry of Health and of other offices and organizations of state authorities. Nuclear Regulatory Authority since 1-st December 2004 is special construction authority for final decision for construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations As regards approvals, responsibilities of these authorities are specified in the law No. 50/1976 (Construction Law), in Act No. 541/2004 and in regulations of the Ministry for Environment Nos. 453/2000 and 55/2001. The licensee is responsible for the safety of its nuclear installation.

The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic is a follower of the former Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. It was established on 1 January 1993 and its rights result from the Law No. 2/1993 of the Slovak National Council. This act was replaced by Act No. 575/2001, effect since 1 January 2002. The UJD is an independent state regulatory authority reporting directly to the government and its chairman is appointed by the cabinet. As of 1 January 2006, UJD staff amounted to 89 employees. The organizational structure is shown in the Figure 11.

figure 10

Fig. 11. Organizational Structure of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority ÚJD SR

The UJD SR Chairman is appointed by the government and co-operates with other central bodies of the state authorities in performing his activities, and he submits regularly to the Slovak government reports about the safety of nuclear installations in Slovakia and about his activities. Since 1 January 2002 also vice-chairman is appointed by the government and the proposal by the chairman.

The UJD SR executes the state regulation over:

  1. nuclear safety of nuclear installations including the regulation over the management of nuclear waste, spent nuclear fuel and other phases of nuclear fuel cycle;
  2. nuclear materials including their control and recording;
  3. quality of selected equipment and instrumentation.

The ÚJD SR ensures:

  1. review of intentions how to use nuclear energy in respect on nuclear safety;
  2. evaluation and inspection of emergency plans;
  3. fulfilment of the commitments of the Slovak Republic resulting from international agreements in the field of nuclear safety and nuclear material safeguards.

The execution of nuclear regulation is supported by laws, especially in the law No. 541/2004 and in several regulations that give to the authority high powers including the acceptance of such measures as requirements on safety improvement, as well as orders for power reduction or reactor shut-down if required by safety reasons. Former regulations issued according to Act No. 130/1998 were canceled by new Atomic Act No. 541/2004. The new 13 regulations are under preparation.

According to the law No. 130/1998, the ÚJD SR performs:

  1. routine inspections by site inspectors;
  2. special inspections by nuclear safety inspectors;
  3. team inspections.

The routine inspections are executed according to standard procedures developed for the particular inspections. The special and team inspections are executed according to programs developed for the particular inspection. These programs are sent in advance to the organization in which the inspection is to take place. The inspectors write down protocols about the inspections performed. The inspections are performed in line with the Order of the ÚJD SR Chairman No.2/1995, with an inspection plan and programme of quality assurance and inspection activities as Appendix.

The authority has been established in line with international recommendations as was confirmed by a number of expert missions of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission. Work contacts with partner regulatory bodies in all European countries with nuclear power developed, but also in the U.S.A and Japan, contribute significantly to improving the work quality of the ÚJD SR.

On June 14, 2001, the bill No. 276/2001 on the regulation in network industries and on amendments in certain other laws was approved by the Slovak National Council. The bill specifies:

  1. establishment, authority and activities of the Office for Regulation of Network Industries;
  2. object and conditions of the state regulation in network industries; and
  3. conditions for the execution of regulated activities and rights and obligations of regulated subjects.

The Office for Regulation of Network Industries was established as from 1 August 2001 and is currently under development.

Relevant provisions of Act No. 276/2001 were replaced by Act No. 656/2004 on power engineering and on alteration in certain acts which is in force since 1st January 2005.

3.2.  Main National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power

In February 2006, thirteen regulations were published in the chapter 24 and 25 of the Slovak Official Journal and on the 1st March 2006 they entered into force.

  1. UJD SR Regulation No. 46/2006 Coll. on special materials and equipments (dual-use goods),which are under UJD SR supervision,
  2. UJD SR Regulation No. 47/2006 Coll. on maximum limits of small quantities of nuclear material and radioactive waste in respect of which no nuclear damage is expected and therefore subject to exclusion from the third party liability regime,
  3. UJD SR Regulation No. 48/2006 Coll. on details of notification of operational events and events during shipment, as well as details of investigation of their reasons,
  4. UJD SR Regulation No. 49/2006 Coll. on periodic nuclear safety review,
  5. UJD SR Regulation No. 50/2006 Coll. on details concerning the nuclear safety requirements for nuclear installations in respect of their siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, decommissioning and closure of repository, as well as criteria for categorisation of classified equipment into safety classes,
  6. UJD SR Regulation No. 51/2006 Coll. on details concerning requirements for provision for physical rotection,
  7. UJD SR Regulation No. 52/2006 Coll. on professional competency,
  8. UJD SR Regulation No. 53/2006 Coll. on details concerning requirements for management ofnuclear material, radioactive waste and spent fuel,
  9. UJD SR Regulation No. 54/2006 Coll. on accountancy for and control of nuclear material as well as notification of selected activities,
  10. UJD SR Regulation No. 55/2006 Coll. on details concerning emergency planning in case of nuclear incident or accident,
  11. UJD SR Regulation No. 56/2006 Coll. on details concerning requirements for quality system documentation of authorisation holder, as well as details concerning quality requirements for nuclear installations, details concerning quality requirements for classified equipment and details concerning the scope of their approval,
  12. UJD SR Regulation No. 57/2006 Coll. on details concerning the requirements for shipment of radioactive material,
  13. UJD SR Regulation No. 58/2006 Coll. on details concerning the scope, content and method of preparation of nuclear installation documentation needed for certain decisions.


Three following UJD SR safety guides were elaborated during the 2006:

BNS I.11.1/2006

Requirements for evolving of NPPs Safety Analysis

BNS II.3.4/2006

Corrosion monitoring of safety significant components of nuclear facilities

BNS I.4.2/2006

Requirements for elaboration of probabilistic safety analyses


4.1.  Energy Policy

Role of the government in the nuclear research and development

The government creates conditions, establishes legislative framework and supports research and development in Slovakia. It works out strategic plans and outlines main directions for research and development supported. The government co-ordinates research and development activities in the country and links them to foreign activities. Keeps the records and statistics.

Nuclear energy and climate change

Roughly 80% of the world energy is currently obtained from fossil fuels. However their supplies will have been used up over a certain time, apart from them being irreplaceable in the chemical industry, which will also better appreciate them. Assuming the current annual production, oil supplies are estimated at 45 years, as are gas supplies at 70 years, and coal supplies at 250 years. Moreover, fossil fuels burden the environment with not only sulphur and nitrogen oxides, but in particular with CO2, which causes global warming, and thereby also climatic changes on the globe. The Earth's average temperature over the last 100 years has risen by 0.6°C; it is expected to increase in the next century by 1.5 up to 3,5°C, some experts even state 2-5°C.The global problem such as climatic changes calls for a global solution. This has been attempted by the conference in Kyoto, Japan, however unsuccessfully, where merely partial solutions have been proposed. These proposals only apply to OECD countries and the former Soviet bloc's countries. The limitations do not concern the countries where a critical increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) is expected, i.e. developing countries. These states inevitably need increasingly higher amounts of energy for their development, and these will be acquiring it from a source best available to them, hence coal. However coal combustion has the most environmental impact of all the fossil fuels. Europe and North America have increasingly shifted away to natural gas, which however the developing world cannot afford because of high prices of the fuel. In burning gas CO2 also forms, albeit there is roughly 40% less of it than in burning coal. While SE, a.s. contributes as much as nearly 84% to Slovakia's total electricity generation, it cannot be deemed a major CO2 producer.SE, a.s. relatively low contribution to the country's CO2 emission production (about 13%) follows particularly from SE, a.s. advantageous structure of generation facilities. In 2003 as much as 69% of electricity was generated at nuclear power plants. The generation contribution by hydro power plants and fossil power plants came to 18% and 13%, respectively.

Safety and waste management issues

Waste management issues

In point of waste management, the most significant issue, that must be resolved in next time, is the final disposal of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste. As it was mentioned the final disposal is expected to be in deep underground geological repository.

The preparing phase (it means a couple of studies) of the project for development of deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste and spent fuel elements was begun in 1996 and all activities inside the project have been ordering by the SE, company until present time.

According to the plan of the project, it is intended to finish the siting process after 2010, and to accept the first spent fuel containers for disposal after 2037.

Other current issue concerning radwaste is solution of liquid radioactive waste arising from operation of NPP Mochovce. Based on the project the generating liquid waste after conditioning (mainly evaporation is collected in projected operational tanks. The project for final treatment of liquid radioactive waste arising from operation of NPP Mochovce has been started since 2002.

The latest issue of the same significant meaning, that will be solved during next years, is the preparation of new storage facility to storage treated radwaste non acceptable for the Mochovce National radioactive waste repository.

Regarding waste management issues, one of the most important point is establishing of new State Agency for radwaste storage resulting from Atomic Law. There were a couple negotiations addressed to this issue between Ministry of Economy , Nuclear Regulatory Authority and SE since 2000.

In 2003 was submitted to EU the project "Technical support to the Slovak Republic in establishing the national agency for radioactive waste management".

Safety issues

Following safety related issues could be currently or for the near future identified as regards ENEL-SE




Annual Report UJD SR 2006.


Annual Report SE Inc 2004.


The Power Concept for Slovakia Till 2005.


The Slovak Nuclear Power in 1995.


Slovakia - National Survey Paper 1995.


Annual Report Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic 1995.


Data from EGU State Enterprise, Inco Inc. and NPP State Enterprise


KOSTICKY, B., LIPÁR, M.: The first product of nuclear era, OSVETA (1987).


KOSTOVSKÝ, K.: Twenty years of nuclear power in Slovakia, ALFA (1993).


SLÁDEK, V.: Power plant industry in Slovakia 1920-1994, ALFAPRESS (1996).




ANNUAL REPORT of SE Inc (1998).


ANNUAL REPORT of SE Inc (2000).


Statistical Yearbook of the Slovak Republic 1998.


Data & Statistics/The World Bank,


IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB).


IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).


Appendix 1



bullet NPT related safeguards agreement
INFCIRC/173/Add 2

Entry into force by Czechoslovakia:
New Agreement signed on:

28 December 1972

1 January 1993

27 September 1999

bullet Additional Protocol


27 September 1999

bullet Improved procedures for designation of safeguards inspectors



bullet Revised supplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA

Entry into force:

4 October 1995

bullet Agreement on privileges and immunities


27 September 1993


bullet NPT


1 January 1993

bullet Treaty on the prohibition of the emplacement of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction on the sea bed and the ocean floor and in the subsoil their off



bullet Convention on physical protection of nuclear material

Entry into force:

1 January 1993

bullet Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident

Entry into force:

1 January 1993

bullet Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

Entry into force:

1 January 1993

bullet Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

Entry into force:

7 June 1995

bullet Joint protocol

Entry into force:

7 June 1995

bullet Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

Not signed


bullet Convention on Supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

Not signed


bullet Convention on nuclear safety

Entry into force:

24 October 1996

bullet Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management

Entry into force:

18 June 2001

bullet ZANGGER Committee



bullet Nuclear Export Guidelines



bullet Acceptance of NUSS Codes

Summary of reply received from Czechoslovakia: Codes are appropriate for formulating and implementing national requirements. They are used for that purpose
Letter of:

2 November 1988

bullet Nuclear Suppliers Group





Appendix 2



Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD SR)
PO Box 24
Bajkalska 27
820 07 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-53421 032
Fax: +421-2-53421 015


Ministry of the Environment


Slovak Electric (SE)
Hranicná 12
827 36 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-5069 3252
Fax: +421-2-5069 3552

- NPP Bohunice
91931 Jaslovske Bohunice

Tel: +421 33 555 2201
Fax: +421 33 559 1571

Decommissioning of Nuclear Power
Installations and Management of
Radwaste and Spent Fuel (VYZ)
919 39 Jaslovské Bohunice

Tel: +421 33 555 6101
Fax: +421 33 559 1563

- NPP Mochovce
93533 Mochovce

Tel: +421 36 639 1164
Fax: +421 36 639 1211

Slovak Power Inspectorate Power Agency
Bajkalska 27
827 99 Bratislava

Tel: +421 2 5824 8345
Fax: +421 2 5342 1019

Occupational Safety Office of the Slovak Republic
Špitálska 8
816 43 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-326 42 3
Fax: +421-2-361 42 1


Okruzná 5
918 64 Trnava

Tel: +421-33 599 1356
Fax: +421-33-599 1193

Research Institute of Welding (VUZ)
Racianska 71
832 59 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-4924 6200
Fax: +421-2-4425 4867

Research Institute of Cables and Insulating Materials (VUKI)
Továrenská 16
815 71 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-5556 1447
Fax: +421-2-5556 1447

Power Equipment Research Institute (VÚEZ)
P.O. Box 153
sv. Michala 4
934 01 Levice

Tel: +421-36-6312 055
Fax: +421-36-6313 663

Power Research Institute (EGU)
Bajkalská 27
827 21Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-5824 8435
Fax: +421-2-5342 1033

Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine (UPKM)
Dept. of Radiation Hygiene
Limbová 14
833 01 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-5936 9111
Fax: +421-2-5477 3906

Bottu 2
917 01 Trnava

Tel: +421-33-5521 052
Fax: +421-33-5521 049

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology.
Public Health Institute of the Slovak Republic
Dept. of Radiation Protection
Trnavská cesta 52
826 45 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-4437 2287
Fax: +421-2-4437 2641

Bottu 2
917 01 Trnava

Tel: +421-33-5521 074
Fax: +421-33-5521 077

Bajkalská 27
827 52 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-5342 1037
Fax: +421-2-5342 1037

P.O.Box 95,
Racianska 75
830 08 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-4446 0138
Fax: +421-2-4425 3301

Jiráskova 24
917 02 Trnava

Tel: +421-33-559 2431
Fax: +421-33-559 2430

Hajdoczyho 1
P.O.Box 10
917 00 Trnava

Tel: +421-33-544 1037
Fax: +421-33-5503 450

Institute of Radioecology
Horný Bankov 16
040 00 Kosice

Tel: +421-55-6323 537
Fax: +421-55-6223 764

Slovenské energetické strojárne (SES)


Slovak Technical University (STU)


Faculty of Electric-Technology & Information (FEI)
Ilkovicova 3
812 19 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-6029 1111

Faculty of Chemical Technology (ChTF) Radlinského 9
812 37 Bratislava

Tel: +421.2-5932 5111

Comenius University Bratislava (KU):


Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics
Mlynska dolina
842 15 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-6542 5946

Faculty of Natural Sciences (PdF)
Mlynská dolina
842 15 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-6029 6111
Fax: +421-2-6542 9064

P.J. Safarik University Kosice

Technical University of Bratislava


Institute of Physics Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAV)
Štefánikova 49

Tel: +421-2-392 751
Fax: +421-2-394 105

Hospital - Oncology Institute of St. Elizabeth (OUSA)
Heydukova 10
810 00 Bratislava

Tel: +421-2-5924 9111

Slovak Metrological Institute


1. The statistical tables in this profile have been updated with data as of the end of 2007 from IAEA databases, namely the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB), and the World Bank's World Development Indicators (WDI).