The Russian Federation is a Presidential Republic. The President is the head of the state and is elected directly by the people. Presidential power is comprised of control over all three branches of power and the ability to dissolve the Duma if he doesn't agree with his suggestions three times running. The President has his administration, but it's not part of the Federal Government. The President is also involved in the work of the legislative and executive branches.
The Federal Assembly represents the Legislative branch of power. It's made up of the two houses: the Federation Council and the State Duma, which make laws. The Federal Assembly is also called the Parliament, but it's not its official name. Both chambers are headed by chairmen sometimes called speakers. The Duma consists of 450 deputies (one half are elected by the population and the other half consists of the deputies who are appointed by their parties after voting). The members of the Federation Council are elected on a different basis. There are two representatives of each subject of the RF (89 subjects). Every law to be adapted must be approved by the State Duma, the Council of Federation and signed by the President. The President can veto laws passed by the Federal Assembly, but it can pass laws over the President's veto a two-thirds majority.
The Federal Government represents the executive branch of power. The President appoints its head, the Chairman of the Government, but the Duma must approve his appointment.
Russia is a large country occupying the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. In the north the country is bounded by the Arctic Ocean, Finland being the farthest northwest neighbour. In the west and southwest, the country is surrounded by newly independent states, the former republics of the Soviet Union. In the south and southeast, Russia has a common border with Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and North Korea. The eastern border of the country is the Pacific Ocean; here Japan and the Alaskan state of the USA are the nearest neighbours.
The total area of Russia is about 17,075 thousand km2. The country consists of a large number of administrative units: regions (provinces) and republics. The regions of the country differ widely in territory, natural conditions, the structure and national composition of the population, and economic development. The climate of country is marked by very wide regional variations. A significant part of north-eastern Russia falls within the Frigid Zone, while the Black Sea region has semitropical conditions.
According to the latest statistics, the population of Russia amounts to about 142 million
(Table 1). The average population density is about 8.3 inhabitants per km2. This number greatly varies around the country: from more than 100 inhabitants per km2 for some regions in the European part of Russia through less than one for large territories in Siberia and the far northeast.
|TABLE 1: POPULATION INFORMATION||Average Annual Growth Rate (%)|
|1980||1990||2000||2005||2008||2000 - 2008|
|Population Density (Inhabitants/km2)||8.0||8.7||8.5||8.4||8.3||-0.3|
|Urban Population as % of Total||69.0||74.0||73.0||72.9||73.0||0.0|
|Area (1000 km2)||17 075.4|
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database; Country Information, http://www.gks.ru/wps/portal/english
The historical data presented in Table 2 clearly reflect the economic crisis accompanying the process of economic transition reforms. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) values have been declining since 1990. Lately, there has been some improvement in the macro-economic parameters, but it is still too early to assert that the recovery from the crisis has finished. Figure 1 shows the GDP structure in 2008.
|TABLE 2: GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT||Average Annual Growth Rate (%)|
|2000||2005||2008||2000 - 2008|
|GDP (Millions of Current US$)||973.0||1 371.0||1 689.0||9.1|
|GDP (Millions of Constant 2000 US$)||259.6||349.7||404.8||7.0|
|GDP Per Capita (PPP* US$/Capita)||8.8||12.1||14.7||8.4|
|GDP Per Capita (Current US$/Capita)||6.8||9.7||11.9||9.3|
* PPP: Purchasing Power Parity
Source: Russia in figures, Country Information, Summary Statistical Transactions, http://www.gks.ru/statinfo.asp
Russia is abundant in energy resources of various kinds. The energy sector is a well-developed and important part of the national economy, producing about 10% of national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Totally up to 95% of the country's energy consumption is met by fossil fuel. Despite its rich oil, gas and coal potential Russia was one of the first countries to master nuclear energy for peaceful uses. In 1954, the Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant was commissioned and connected to the grid.
Energy reserves are shown in Table 3. Fossil fuels form the basis for the Russian energy sector.
|TABLE 3: ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY RESOURCES|
|Total Amount in Specific Units*||157.01||10.80||331.00||1 000 000.00||2 980.00||-|
|Total Amount in Exajoules [EJ]||4 789.00||503.30||12 741.00||157.00||10.70||18 190.30|
* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons; Hydro, Renewable: TW h, for a period of 10 years.
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base; Country Information.
Table 4 gives the historical energy data. The share of nuclear energy in the energy supply is only 2%. Hydro energy is the only meaningful renewable energy resource in Russia. The share of hydro energy in the energy supply is only 2%.
|TABLE 4: ENERGY STATISTICS||Average Annual Growth Rate (%)|
|ENERGY CONSUMPTION**||1992||2000||2005||2006||2008||2000 - 2008|
|ENERGY PRODUCTION||1992||2000||2005||2006||2008||2000 - 2008|
|NET IMPORT (IMP - EXP)||1992||2000||2005||2006||2008||2000 - 2008|
(1) Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy.
(2) Solid fuels include coal, lignite and commercial wood.
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database; Country Information.
The Energy policy of Russia is contained in an Energy Strategy document, which sets out policy for the period up to 2020. In 2000 the Russian government approved the main provisions of the Russian energy strategy to 2020, and in 2003 the new Russian energy strategy was confirmed by the government. The Energy Strategy document outlines several main priorities: an increase in energy efficiency, reducing impact on the environment, sustainable development, energy development and technological development, as well as improved effectiveness and competitiveness.
The structural policy of the energy sector for the next 10-15 years aims:
· enhancement of the efficiency of natural gas utilization and an increase its share of domestic consumption, especially in ecologically strained regions;
· in-depth processing and comprehensive utilization of hydrocarbon raw materials;
· enhancement of the coal quality, as well as the stabilization of coal production volumes;
· intensification of local and renewable energy resources development (hydro and wind power, peat, etc.);
· priority in electricity generation development based on competitive and ecologically clean power plants;
· safety and reliability enhancement of the first generations' NPPs and development of new advanced nuclear power plants.
The new technological energy policy is oriented toward:
· radical enhancement of both the cost effectiveness and the energy efficiency of all stages of the extraction, conversion, distribution, and utilization of energy resources;
· effective decentralization of the energy supply;
· ecological and accident safety, as well as the reliability of the energy supply, and;
· development of qualitatively new technologies for the stable evolution of power industry: ecologically clean coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power plants, efficient processes for the utilization of new sources of power, etc.
Regional energy policy takes into account the existing principal differences of energy supply conditions and structures of fuel resources of various parts of Russia. Regional energy self-governing and self-consistency is envisaged as a major challenge, i.e., sustaining the unified national energy sector through the development of federal energy systems: electricity, gas and oil supply networks.
Pricing and taxation constitute the core of the new energy policies. The liberalisation of oil, petroleum products and coal prices, which was undertaken in mid-1993, was not extended to the products of the so-called natural monopolies: natural gas, electric power, and heat from centralised sources. Prices for these energy sources are currently set by the federal regional government agencies responsible for the functions of the fuel and energy sector.
The creation of a competitive environment within the fuel and energy sector of the national economy will be directed towards reducing production costs and increasing the quality of energy related services. This will be accomplished though industry denationalisation, primarily through the joint-stock companies.
A system of incentives and conditions for the conservation of energy, as well as the increase in energy production efficiency, is needed in order to realize Russia’s vast potential for energy conservation.
Economic policies will be focused on the promotion of investment activities.
Transmission and Distribution Sector.
There are seven separate regional power systems in the Russian electricity sector: Northwest, Centre, Middle Volga, North Caucasus, Urals, Siberia, and Far East. The Far East region is the only one not connected to an integrated power system. UES, which is 52 percent owned by the Russian government (Gazprom now has a 10% stake), controls most of the transmission and distribution in Russia. UES owns 96 percent of the transmission and distribution system, the central dispatch unit, and the federal wholesale electricity market (FOREM).
Unified Energy System
The UNIFIED ENERGY SYSTEM of RUSSIA (UESR) is a unique system, which creates significant economic benefits for both the Russian people and Russia's industry. The technical basis of UES of Russia is comprised of:
- 440 electric power stations with a total installed capacity of 219 thousand MW, including 23.2 thousand MW at nuclear power stations, which produced 1016 billion kW·h of power in 2007 year;
- a total of 3,018 thousand km of electric power lines;
- a supply regulation system that unites physically all power installations with a single 50 Hz current frequency.
The organisational basis of UES of Russia is comprised of:
- RAO UESR, which acts as a central locus that implements the functioning and development criteria established by the government based on effectiveness and provides operational supply management aimed at increasing economic efficiency at UESR;
- 74 power suppliers that supply electric and heat power to consumers throughout the Russian Federation;
- 34 large electric power stations that operate independently on the federal (national) wholesale electric power market;
- Over 300 organisations providing technological back up and development for UES of Russia, and which ensure the viability of the industry as a whole.
Privatization and Electricity Market Reform
After many years, the restructuring of Russia's power generation sector will be complete as of July 1, 2008, when state monopoly RAO UES dissolves. Tariff rates on the domestic market are to be made more universal instead of geographically-specific. The country's transmission grid will remain under state control. The reform has created a generating sector divided into multiple wholesale electricity companies (commonly called OGKs), which participate in a new competitive wholesale market. The creation of all 6 OGKs was completed in September 2006. Fourteen territorial generating companies (TGKs) will also be created, and these TGKs generated over $24 billion in investment from private investors in 2007. Germany's E.ON and RWE, Italy's Enel, and the Finnish Fortum are some of the most prominent foreign entities who have paid premiums for strategic or controlling stakes in the generating companies.
The current plan is to transfer the state share in the generating companies to two companies, the Federal Grid Company and the Hydro-OGK, which will remain state-controlled after UES ceases to exist on July 1, 2008. The goal is for the market to become completely liberalized by 2011.
Russia exports significant quantities of electricity to the countries of the former Soviet Union, as well as to China, Poland, Turkey and Finland. UES also has plans to export electricity to Iran and possibly Afghanistan and Pakistan from two hydroelectric stations it is currently building in Tajikistan. There are currently two efforts underway to integrate the Russian and Western European electricity grids. UES is participating in the Baltrel program, designed to create an energy ring of power companies in the Baltic states. Also, the Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE), of which 20 European countries are members, has entered into discussions with Russian colleagues over the technological and operational aspects of interconnecting their systems. In October 2003, officials representing Russia and the European Union agreed to develop plans for the full integration of their respective power grids by 2007, and a recent EU-Russia energy dialogue reported the start of a joint feasibility study on the integration of the two power systems.
|TABLE 5: ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION & CAPACITY||Average Annual Growth Rate (%)|
|Capacity of Electrical Plants [GWe]||1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2006||2008||2000 - 2008|
|Electricity Production (TWh)||1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2006||2008||2000 - 2008|
|TOTAL||470.00||805.00||1 082.00||877.70||953.10||995.60||1 036.40||2.30|
|Total Electricity Consumption (TWh)||1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2006||2008||2000 - 2008|
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database; Russia in figures, Summary Statistical Transactions.
|TABLE 6: Energy Related Ratios|
|Energy Consumption Per Capita (GJ/Capita)||160.0||250.0||260.0||190.0||214.0||228.0||236.0|
|Electricity Consumption Per Capita (kWh/Capita)||-||-||7 311.0||5 915.0||6 544.0||6 740.0||6 971.0|
|Electricity Production/Energy Production (%)||-||-||-||7.8||6.9||7.0||7.1|
|Nuclear/Total Electricity (%)||0.7||6.7||10.9||15.0||15.7||15.7||15.8|
|Ratio of External Dependency (%)**||-||-||-||-48.1||-60.0||-58.0||-56.0|
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database; Russia in figures, Summary Statistical Transactions.
|1937||Commencement of active experimental studies on the structure of atomic nuclei. Production of “pulse” amount of neptunium and plutonium in Leningrad Radium Institute.|
|1939||The start of research into the feasibility of achieving a nuclear chain reaction. Installation of the largest cyclotron in Europe in the Leningrad Physical and Technical Institute.|
|1940||Discovery of phenomenon of spontaneous nuclear fission in uranium. Theoretical demonstration by Soviet scientists of the feasibility of energy release from a uranium nuclear fission chain reaction.|
|1942||Recommencement of work on the atomic problem interrupted by the outbreak of the war.|
|1943||Creation of a special physics laboratory - the No. 2 Laboratory in Moscow (now the Russian Scientific Centre “Kurchatov Institute”).|
|1945||Establishment of a governmental interdepartmental body - the First Chief Administration to co-ordinate all work in the field of atomic science and technology.|
|1945/46||Technology mastering and organization of the production of metallic uranium and high-purity reactor graphite to start up the first experimental reactor.|
|1946||Achievement of a controlled uranium fission chain reaction at the No. 2 Laboratory.|
|1948||Start up of the first industrial nuclear reactor.|
|1949||Testing of the Soviet Union’s first atomic bomb.|
|1953||Establishment of the USSR Ministry of Medium Machine Building as the authority dealing with nuclear science and technology.|
|1954||Start up of the world’s first nuclear power plant in Obninsk.|
|1957||Ratification of the Charter of IAEA by the USSR.|
|1964||Commissioning of the first commercial water-moderated, water-cooled vessel-type (WWER) reactor at Novo-Voronezh. Commissioning of the first commercial boiling water-cooled graphite moderated reactor with nuclear superheating of the steam at Beloyarsk.|
|1970||Establishment of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) with the active participation of the USSR.|
|1973||Commissioning of the first commercial water-cooled graphite-moderated channel-type (RBMK) reactor at Leningrad.|
|1973||Commissioning of the world’s first prototype-scale fast breeder reactor (BN-350) in Aktau for electricity generation and desalinated water production.|
|1976||Completion of the first nuclear central heating and power plant at Bilibino in the far northeastern part of Russia.|
|1977||Start up of the RT-1 plant for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.|
|1980||Start up of a commercial power-generating unit powered by BN-600 fast reactor at Beloyarsk. Commissioning of the 1000 MW(e) water moderated, water-cooled reactor (WWER-1000).|
|1984/86||Commissioning of the Zaporozhie and Balakovo NPP’s with WWER-1000 serial reactors with full compliance to the new safety regulation.|
|1986||Accident at unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP. Ministry for Atomic Energy is organized to be responsible for Nuclear Power Plants operation.|
|1989||Reorganization of the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and Ministry for Atomic Energy as the USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry.|
|1992||Establishment of Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom of Russia, also known as Ministry for Nuclear Power), which replaced the USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry.|
|1993||President Eltsyn and President Bush sign SALT-2 Agreement according to which the strategic offensive weapons should be reduced and limited over 7 years. Beginning of conversion of the Russian weapon highly-enriched uranium (VOU) in compliance with the Russian-US Agreement on nuclear disarmament.|
|1994||The Russian Federation Government makes decision to cease production of weapon plutonium.|
|1995||The 50-th anniversary of the nuclear power industry of Russia. Beginning of commercial conversion of highly-enriched uranium into low-enriched uranium (the VOU-NOU project) at the Ural Electrochemical Combine (Novouralsk town, Sverdlovsk Region). The FEI RF SSC, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, puts into service the first phase of the Laser and Nuclear Center for nuclei fission energy direct conversion into laser radiation. The first phase of the diamond production is put into service at the VNIIEF RF NC as a part of the conversion program.|
|1996||Approval of programs for support of the industry major schools of thought. Sea trials of PETR VELIKY nuclear-powered cruiser are completed. Completion of the removal of the Soviet Nuclear weapons to be disassembled from the CIS countries to Russia|
|1997||Beginning of batch production of a news header type of munitions for the SRF TOPOL-M missile complex|
|1998||Decision-making on production of the first batch of pilot uranium-plutonium fuel assemblies. Fabrication of a pilot batch of ADE-2, -4, -5 reactor conversion fuel rods. Approval of the program to develop nuclear power engineering of the Russian Federation from 1998 to 2005 and to 2010. Activities to elaborate a draft “Strategy for Nuclear Power Development” (a 50-ty year forecast) are started|
|1998||Process to fabricate weapon plutonium base mixed fuel is devised and brought into commercial practice at the Research Institute of Nuclear Reactors State Research Center of the Russian Federation. A pilot batch of that fuel for BOR-60 and BN-600 reactors is fabricated|
|1998||Establishment of the Information and Analytical Center of Minatom of Russia to ensure information and analytical support of the Ministry administration and of the Industry Emergency Commission both under normal operation and in case of emergency at the industry enterprises.|
|1999||Commissioning of the Kursk NPP 2 power unit upon completion of overhaul with monitoring of all fuel channels and with their partial substitution according to the check results. That work is carried out in the industry for the first time.|
|1999||Start of implementation of wide-scale measures to accelerate utilization of nuclear-powered submarines removed from military service and ecological recovery of sites of the Ministry of Defense dangerous installations handed over to Minatom of Russia in compliance with the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation|
|1999||The 50-th anniversary of the Nuclear weapons of Russia. The nuclear weapon system is now a model of Research and Development Associations with the worldwide significance high-capacity pilot-scale productions enabling to tackle large-scale high technology problems.|
|2001||Putting into operation the first unit of the Volgodonsk (Rostov) NPP|
|2002||25-th anniversary of putting into operation PT-1 plant at “ MAYAK” Production|
|2004||Nuclear Power of Russia - 50 Years of History. On June 27, 1954, in the city of Obninsk a nuclear power plant of the capacity 5 000 kW was put into operation and connected to the grid for the first time in the world's history.|
|2005||60 Years of Nuclear power in Russia. Nuclear Power of Russia dates from 20 August, 1945, when First General Directorate was established.|
|2007||Russian President Vladimir Putin has ratified the new law on Rosatom state corporation.|
|2009||On 30 October the ‘cold and hot’ pre-commissioning testing of reactor adjustment work was successfully completed at the second unit of the Rostov NPP.|
Atomenergoprom is the part of Rosatom State Nuclear Power Corporation. Atomenergoprom produces a wide range of nuclear and non-nuclear products, as well as provides full service in the area of nuclear power engineering. In particular, the company provides design and turn-key construction of a nuclear power plant, fuel supplies for the whole operation life of N-plant, upgrading and maintenance, as well as personnel training.
The company structure consists of divisions formed according to the basic segments of the nuclear fuel cycle:
· uranium production
· uranium conversion and enrichment
· nuclear fuel production
· nuclear and power machine engineering
· design, engineering and construction of nuclear power plants
· power generation at nuclear power plants
Besides, Atomenergoprom structure includes enterprises offering products and services in the following areas:
· nuclear power plant maintenance and upgrading
· nuclear power plant personnel training
· scientific and research companies and design offices
· non-nuclear products and services
Figure 3 shows the map of Russian nuclear power plants. Table 7 shows the current status of the Russian nuclear power plants. In the former Soviet Union, there were 10 nuclear reactors under construction at the late 80s. However, the construction of all new nuclear power plants was interrupted in 1989-1990, partly due to negative public opinion. Establishing Rosenergoatom helped to overcome public distrust to the nuclear power, which was related to Chernobyl events, to allow keeping the accumulated potential, to increase electric and power production, and to achieve significant safety improvement in the plant operation. At present, Rosenergoatom executes centralized state management of ten Russian nuclear power plants to include 31 units of total capacity of 23,242 MW:
15 WWER reactors:
· 9 WWER-1000
· 6 WWER-440
15 RBMK reactors:
· 11 RBMK-1000
· 4 EGP-6
1 BN-600 (fast-breeder) reactor
Volgodonsk-1 commissioned in 2001 and Kalinin-3 commissioned in 2004 demonstrated Rosenergoatom stable tendency towards productive development and expansion.
|TABLE 7: STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS|
|Station||Type||Net Capacity||Operator||Status||Reactor Supplier||Construction Date+||Grid Date++||Commercial Date||Shutdown Date||UCF for 2008|
|BILIBINO UNIT A||LWGR||11||REA||Operational||MNE||25569||27041||27120||36.58|
|BILIBINO UNIT B||LWGR||11||REA||Operational||MNE||25569||27393||27426||31.33|
|BILIBINO UNIT C||LWGR||11||REA||Operational||MNE||25569||27750||27791||34.44|
|BILIBINO UNIT D||LWGR||11||REA||Operational||MNE||25569||28121||28126||30.59|
|SOUTH URALS 2||FBR||750||REA||Under Constr.||MNE||33970|
|South Urals 3||FBR||750||REA||Planned|
* UCF (Unit Capability Factor) for the latest available year (only applicable to reactors in operation).
+ Date, when first major placing of concrete, usually for the base mat of the reactor building is done.
++ Date of the first connection to the grid
Source: Russian nuclear power plants, Rosenergoatom, Moscow (2008), http://www.rosenergoatom.ru/ .
PRIS database ( www.iaea.org/pris ).
Performance of NPPs
In 2008 the nuclear power plants of Russia generated 162.291bln KWh – 102.3% of the index of 2007:
- NPPs with WWER reactors produced 85. 916bln KWh;
- NPPs with RBMK, EGP and BN reactors produced 76,375bln KWh.
The NPPs of Russia fulfilled 102% of the plan.
The capacity factor made up 79.5% - 1.8% more than in 2007.
No INES incidents were registered at the NPP of Russia in 2008.
The radiation situation at the NPPs and in their nearby areas was within norm.
Table 7A shows the operational facts of the NPPs in 2008.
|TABLE 7a: STATUS OF OPERATIONAL NPPS OF 2008|
|NPP||Capacity [MWe]||106 kWh||Load Factor (%)|
|Balakovo||4 000.0||31 373.5||89.3|
|Kalinin||3 000.0||22 877.1||86.8|
|Kola||1 760.0||10 669.6||69.0|
|Novovoronezh||1 834.0||12 875.6||79.9|
|Kursk||4 000.0||23 226.8||66.1|
|Leningrad||4 000.0||27 716.2||78.9|
|Smolensk||3 000.0||21 183.2||80.4|
|Volgodonsk||1 000.0||8 120.4||92.5|
|TOTAL||23 242.0||162 291.3||79.5|
Source: Country Information, PRIS database http://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2/
Generally, Russian reactors are licensed for 30 years from first power. Late in 2000, plans were announced for lifetime extensions of twelve first-generation reactors (Leningrad 1&2, Kursk 1&2, Kola 1&2, Bilibino 1-4, Novovoronezh 3) totaling 5.7 GWe, and the extension period envisaged is now 15 to 25 years, necessitating major investment in refurbishing them. Generally the VVER-440 and RBMK units will get 15-year life extensions and the nine VVER-1000 units 25 years. So far 15-year extensions have been achieved for Novovoronezh-3 & 4, Kursk-1, Kola-1 & 2 and Leningrad-1, 2 & 3. Bilibino 1-4 have been given 5-year license extensions. (Kola 1 & 2 VVER-440 and the Kursk and Leningrad RBMK units are all models which the EU has paid to shut down early in countries outside Russia.) Safety analyses for Kola 3 & 4, which are later-model VVER-440 reactors, are being undertaken with a view to 15-year life extension. A plan for refurbishment, upgrade and life extension of Novovoronezh-5 was announced in mid 2009, this being the first second-generation VVER-1000 project. The initial estimate was RUR 1.66 billion (USD 52 million) but this had become USD 300 million a few months later. The work in 2010 is to include total replacement of the reactor control system and 80% of electrical equipment, and fitting upgraded safety systems, in particular, those of emergency and feed water.
In 2006, Rosatom said it was considering lifetime extensions and uprating all of its eleven operating RBMK reactors. Following significant design modifications made after the Chernobyl accident, as well as extensive refurbishment including replacement of fuel channels, a 45-year lifetime is seen as realistic for the 1000 MWe units. In 2005 they provided 48% of Russia's nuclear-generated electricity. A major contract for upgrading Leningrad unit 4 over 2008-11 is under way. Kursk 4 is next, and Kursk 2 & 3 with Smolensk 3 will soon follow. The R&D Institute of Power Engineering was preparing plans for 5% uprating of the later Leningrad, Kursk and Smolensk units.
The Beloyarsk-3 BN-600 fast neutron reactor is being upgraded and prepared for 15-year life extension, but no details are available.
Rosatom's initial proposal for a rapid expansion of nuclear capacity was based on the cost effectiveness of completing the 9 GWe of then partially built plant. To get the funds, Rosatom offered Gazprom the opportunity to invest in some of the partly completed nuclear plants. The argument was that the US$ 7.3 billion required for the whole 10 GWe (including the just-completed Rostov-1) would be quickly recouped from gas exports if the new nuclear plant reduced the need to burn that gas domestically. In September 2006 Rosatom announced a target of nuclear providing 23% of electricity by 2020, thus commissioning two 1200 MWe plants per year from 2011 to 2014 and then three per year until 2020 - some 31 GWe and giving some 44,000 MWe of nuclear capacity then. In July 2009 a revised federal target program (FTP) for 2010-2015 and until 2020 was approved and signed by the President. Projected federal budget funding was reduced to RUR 110 billion ($3.5 billion), apparently for 2010. The FTP program envisages a 25-30% nuclear share in electricity supply by 2030, 45-50% in 2050 and 70-80% by end of century.
|TABLE 8: PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS|
|Station/Project Name||Type||Capacity||Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|Vilyuchinsk||KLT-40S||40 x 2||Const 4/07, then 5/09||2012|
|Beloyarsk 4||BN-800 FBR||880.0||Const||2014|
|Novovoronezh II -1||VVER 1200/ V-392M||1200.0||Const 6/08||2013|
|Leningrad II-1||VVER 1200/ V-491||1200.0||Const 10/08||2013|
|Novovoronezh II -2||VVER 1200/ V-392M||1200.0||Const 7/09||2015|
|Rostov 3||VVER 1000/ V-320||1100.0||Planned 2009||2014|
|Leningrad II -2||VVER 1200||1200.0||Planned 2009||2014|
|Rostov 4||VVER 1000/ V-320||1100.0||Planned 2010||2016|
|Baltic 1 (Kaliningrad)||VVER 1200||1200.0||Planned 2010||2016|
|Leningrad II -3||VVER 1200||1200.0||Planned 2011||2017|
|Leningrad II -4||VVER 1200||1200.0||Planned 2014||2019|
|Baltic 2 (Kaliningrad)||VVER 1200||1200.0||Planned 2012||2018|
VVER-1200 is the reactor portion of the AES-2006 nuclear power plant. Rostov is also known as Volgodonsk. South Urals was to be BN-800, and may revert.
The FTP program is based on VVER technology at least to about 2030. But it highlights the goal of moving to fast neutron reactors and closed fuel cycle, for which Rosatom proposed two options: The first is to select a fast neutron reactor with lead coolant as the basic technology, and to mobilize all available resources for this exclusively. This project cost RUR 110 billion, mostly from the federal budget. The second option provides also for development of fast neutron reactors cooled by sodium and lead-bismuth, with the related engineering designs of such reactors and closed fuel cycle technologies to be in place not later than 2014. A detailed design should be developed for the construction of a multi-purpose fast neutron research reactor (MBIR) by then also. This second option is designed to attract more funds apart from the federal budget allocation, and is favored by Rosatom.
In mid 2009 the Russian government said that it would provide more than RUR 120 billion (about US$3.89 billion) over 2010 to 2012 for a new program devoted to R&D on the next generation of nuclear power plants. It identified three priorities for the nuclear industry: improving the performance of light water reactors over the next two or three years, developing a closed fuel cycle based on deployment of fast reactors in the medium term, and developing nuclear fusion over the long term.
- All-Russia Scientific Research and Design Institute of Power Technology (VNIPIET), St. Petersburg;
- Institute “Atomenergoproekt” (AEP), and its branches in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod;
- State Institute of Construction and Design (GSPI), Moscow.
NSS main suppliers:
- "Atommash", an open-end joint stock company - NSS WWER-1000, BN and AST, Volgodonsk;
- “Izhorskie zavody”, an open-end joint stock company - NSS WWER-1000 and WWER-440, St. Petersburg;
Main component suppliers:
- “Leningradskiy metallicheskiy zavod”, an open-end joint stock company - turbines for NPP’s, St. Petersburg;
- “Podolskiy mashinostroitelniy zavod”,, an open-end joint stock company - steam generators, separators, piping, etc., Podolsk.
State enterprise “Russian state concern for generation of electric and thermal power at nuclear power plants” [“ROSENERGOATOM”] was founded in 1992 and up to 2002 executed centralized state management for 8 of 9 Russian nuclear power plants. From April 1, 2002, “ROSENERGOATOM” was transformed into generating company with common rate. 10 NPPs were joined to it as filials, including Leningrad NPP and Volgodonsk NPP, which was commissioned in December 2001.
All NPPs have 31 energy units with total rated power 23,2 GW[el.].
According to Russian federal laws in the area of atomic energy “ROSENERGOATOM” performs the functions of the NPP operating utility and bears complete responsibility for maintaining nuclear and radiological safety at all the stages of NPP operation including measures on elimination of nuclear accident consequences.
The ultimate goal of “ROSENERGOATOM” activities is to ensure safe operation of Russian nuclear power plants.
"ROSENERGOATOM" IS ENTRUSTED TO PERFORM THE FOLLOWING MAIN FUNCTIONS:
Ensuring the NPP safe operation, namely:
- development and implementation of NPP safety culture;
- performance of continuous surveillance over NPP safety;
- collection and analysis of the information on NPP accidents, equipment failures and human errors development of corrective measures;
- management of physical protection and fire prevention at nuclear power plants;
- development and management of emergency preparedness plans.
Support of NPP operation, namely:
- providing nuclear power plants with necessary material and technical resources;
- development and performance control for the measures aimed at enhancement of NPP reliability, quality and safe operation;
- development of normative documentation and scientific support of NPP operation, operation licensing;
- operating personnel recruiting, initial and continuous training;
- international activities;
- legal support.
Nuclear power development, namely:
development and implementation of NPP' erection and commissioning program;
- modernization and upgrading of the operating nuclear power plants;
- solution of the problems regarding to lifetime extension of the operating nuclear power plants;
- design & development activities and NPP construction licensing;
- participation in solution of social issues concerning the nuclear industry employees;
- providing the general public with information on the issues of NPP ecological safety.
|TABLE 9: REACTORS IN DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OR DECOMMISSIONED|
|Reactor name||Shutdown Date||Shutdown reason||Decom. Strategy||Current decom. Phase||Current Fuel Managemt Phase||Decom. Licensee|
|APS-1||37375||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM|
|BELOYARSKY-1||30317||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM|
|BELOYARSKY-2||32874||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM|
|NOVOVORONEZH-1||32189||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM|
|NOVOVORONEZH-2||33114||Lifetime expiration||Long Term Shutdown||Permanent Shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM|
Source : PRIS database, http://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2/
The Russian Federation has capabilities in all segments of the nuclear fuel cycle. The excess of capacities are offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis. Parts of NFCFs are State owned (Rosatom); the other part being managed by joint stock companies (TVEL, Rosenergoatom, Atomstroi, etc.) in which controlling interests are retained by the State.
Uranium mining and milling
The Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union has a capacity of 3500 t U/a using open pit, underground and ISL extraction methods. This facility is operated by JSC TVEL.
Rosatom operates Angarsk and Tomsk conversion plants (conversion to UF6 ), which have a total capacity of 30 000 t U/a. The excess capacities are offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis.
The first civil uranium enrichment plant in the Russian Federation started operation in 1964 at Ekaterenburg. Three more plants came into operation later at Tomsk, Angarsk and Krasnoyarsk. At present, Rosatom operates all four plants, which have a total capacity of 15 000 t SWU/a. The excess capacities are offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis.
Nuclear fuel fabrication is carried out by JSL TVEL at two plants: Electrostal and Novosibirsk. Electrostal produces fuel elements, assemblies, powder and pellets for WWER 440, WWER 100, BN 600, RBMK and PWR reactors. The Novosibirsk plant manufactures fuel elements and assemblies for WWER 1000 reactors. In the production of fuel assemblies for RBMK and WWER 1000 reactors, a quantity of fuel pellets is supplied from the Ust Kamenogorsk plant (Kazahstan). However, new lines for powder and pellet production at the Novosibirsk plant started operation in 2000-2002. Zirconium production for nuclear fuel fabrication capacity (fuel assemblies for different reactor types) of JSC TVEL is about 2600n HM/a. The excess capacities are offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis.
The reprocessing option is the one followed for dealing with spent reactor fuel, with the exeption of that originating from RBMKs, the spent fuel of which should be disposed of. Rosatom operates the RT-1 Plant in Chelyabinsk for reprocessing fuel from WWER plant’s capacity for WWER 440 fuel is 400 t HM/a. The construction of a second reprocessing plant (RT-2) at Krasnoyarsk, which has a first line design capacity of 800 t HM/a has been postponed indefinitely. Reprocessed uranium is used for RBMK fuel production. Plutonium obtained at RT-1 is temporarily stored on-site in dioxide form. Rosatom operates several wet AFR fuel storage facilities at RT-1 and RT-2, and at several nuclear power plants, which have a total capacity of about 16 000 t HM/a.
- Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow;
- Institute of High Energy Physics, Protvino;
- Institute of Innovation and Thermonuclear Research, Troitsk.
These are major nuclear industry research centres that carry out extensive fundamental theoretical and experimental investigations into the properties of the atomic nucleus and elementary particles, plasma and laser physics, thermonuclear fusion, development of new types of accelerator and reactor technology, and equipment and facilities for physical research.
Applied Research and Development (R&D)
- The Russian Scientific Centre (RSC) “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow;
- The State Scientific Centre “Institute of Physics and Power Engineering” (SSC FEI), Obninsk;
- The State Scientific Centre "All-Russian Inorganic Materials Research Institute" (SSC VNIINM), Moscow;
- The State Scientific Centre Nuclear Reactor Research Institute (SSC NIIAR), Dimitrovgrad;
- Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET), Moscow.
All are major scientific centres in the field of nuclear science and technology. Theoretical and experimental research on nuclear and particle physics, neutron physics, thermophysics, hydraulics, material science, nuclear safety performed at these institutes has received world-wide recognition.
The All-Russian Research Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (VNIIAES) of Moscow, is the scientific centre for Russian nuclear operating organizations. Principal attention is paid to assuring safe operation of the 1st and 2nd generation nuclear power plants.
Major reactor and NSSS design and research
- Experimental Design Bureau "Gidropress" (OKB GP), Podolsk;
- Experimental Design Bureau of Machine Building (OKBM), Nizhny Novgorod.
The leading 3rd generation medium and large scale power units of improved safety now include advanced WWER 1000 (for domestic market and export), WWER 1500 (replacement of the 1st generation units and capacity growths), BN-800 (for plutonium utilization and solving of environmental problem), BREST (nuclear technology of the 4th generation).
Rosatom of Russia cooperates with other countries in many fields of activities, for example:
· nuclear physics;
· fundamental research into matter properties;
· controlled thermonuclear fusion;
· physics of semiconductors and high-temperature superconductivity;
· technologies of elementary particle accelerators and electrophysical equipment;
· atomic energy generation and nuclear fuel cycle;
· radioactive waste management;
· environmental protection.
The Rosatom of Russia scientists and researchers are engaged in a wide range of studies conducted by the various international centers for nuclear research, that is: the European Organization of Nuclear Research (CERN); the National Accelerator Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. Russia participates in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor quadripartite project. The Rosatom scientists and engineers participate actively in both the national and the international symposia, seminars and conferences. Rosatom of Russia is engaged in the intensive sharing and exchange of information at bilateral level and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Within the Rosatom structure there is a special Institute (Atominform) merging all information flows of the industry and dealing with the problems associated with protection of the Rosatom rights to the objects of the intellectual property resulting from the activities financed by the Ministry, as well as, legal aspects of the transfer of these rights to third parties.
Recently the problems of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, of NPP safety and of environment protection have been gaining in importance. Russia cooperates with the US Department of Energy to establish the International Center of Ecological Safety in Russia (Rosatom of Russia) and in the USA (the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). Cooperation started in 1993 in management of spent nuclear fuel and of radioactive waste and cooperation in rehabilitation of contaminated territories at the northwest of the Russian Federation with Norway, the European Commission, France, Sweden and USA are still in progress. In 1998 on the Minatom initiative Russia began to cooperate with France and Germany to construct reactor EPR in Russia. The joint working group including experts from Minatom, Framatome and Siemens Company was formed. The European Commission rendering technical assistance on a gratuitous basis with in the frameworks of TACIS Program is one of the leading western partners. In 1998 the implementation of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between Russia and the European Union was started. Throughout recent years Russia has taken part in activities in compliance with the Agreement on ISTC.
The extensive activities to tackle problems of non-proliferation and safe dismantling of the Russian nuclear weapons and of weapon plutonium and uranium conversion are in progress. For example, throughout 1994-1997 research and development activities to fabricate uranium-plutonium fuel for CANDU reactors from weapon plutonium were carried out in cooperation with Canada. In 1999 cooperation with Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, France and with the US participation within the frameworks of the intergovernmental agreements on rendering assistance to Russia to ensure safe dismantling of nuclear weapons was continued. At present the joint Russian-US efforts are taken for decommissioning of weapon plutonium production reactors. In 1999 a draft Intergovernmental Agreement between the Russian Federation and Netherlands on cooperation in safe dismantling of nuclear weapons reduced in the Russian Federation and in utilization of removed nuclear-powered submarines was elaborated
By convention, designing, mounting and commissioning of NPPs and large-scale production installations at the territories of the CIS and of the other countries form essential part of the international cooperation of Rosatom of Russia. Ukraine and Kazakhstan are the most active partners of Russia. A draft Agreement on cooperation in nuclear fuel cycle has been elaborated and coordinated recently with Ukraine. Activities to complete construction and to put into operation the Rovno and the Khmelnitsky NPPs are in progress. Russia supplies nuclear fuel to Ukraine and transports spent nuclear fuel out of the country. Russia cooperates with Kazakhstan in production of nuclear fuel and in other aspects of nuclear fuel cycle. An NPP is planned to be constructed at the territory of Kazakhstan.
Rosatom cooperates with China, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Korea, Indonesia, Cuba, India, Syria, Egypt in construction and operation of NPPs and large-scale production installations. We can note certain progress in the Russian-Japanese relations.
Russia takes part in International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The objective of INPRO is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation-resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs of the 21st century. INPRO provides an open international forum for studying the nuclear power option, and associated requirements and its potential application in IAEA Member States. INPRO helps to make available adequate competence to the development and deployment of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (INSs) and to assist Member States in the coordination of related collaborative projects.
The industry personnel policy serves to keep and to add the personnel potential. There are 6 centers and Institutes for Advanced Professional Training of managerial and engineering staff where up to 10,000 persons per year may be trained. The young personnel are trained in 20-ty high educational institutions including 7 industrial ones, in 21 technical colleges, professional and technical schools. The total number of the persons trained in the industry educational institutions constitutes over 18500 including over 6000 students of high educational institutions
Training of scientific personnel of the industry in 30-ty post-graduate schools established on the basis of the industry enterprises and Institutes where up to 500 engineers are trained annually occupies a highly important place.
Changeover from solution of individual problems to the combined implementation of the complex program of job-security, social and economical development, social insurance, etc., in cooperation with the local self-administration bodies is in progress in respect of interaction with closed administrative and territorial entities.
The training and procedure papers, simulators and training equipment have been developed within the frameworks of the international scientific and engineering cooperation with the USA, Japan, Germany, France, Great Britain and Syria. Over 350 Russian engineers were trained abroad and training of foreign students in the industry base Institutes was arranged.
The Russian Federal Supervision of Nuclear and Radiological Safety (Gosatomnadzor) is the Nuclear Regulatory Body of the Russian Federation with the headquarters in Moscow and seven regional offices throughout the country.
The following regulations determine the procedure for nuclear power plant licensing:
· Regulations on the order of special permission issued by Gosatomnadzor of Russia for examination of design and other materials and documents, substantiating safety of nuclear and radiologically dangerous installations and works: RD-03-12-94.
· Regulations on arranging and carrying out examination of design and other materials and documents, substantiating safety of nuclear and radiologically dangerous installations and works: RD-03-13-94.
· Regulations on the order of issuing of special temporary permissions for designing nuclear and radiologically dangerous installations and works: RD-03-14-94.
The stages of obtaining the temporary permission (license) for NPP unit operation can be represented in brief as follows:
(i) License demand (submission of application documents);
(ii) Gosatomnadzor decision on the demand control;
(iii) Analysis of substantiating materials of demand;
(iv) Inspection at the NPP;
(v) Conclusion on substantiating materials examination;
(vi) Conclusion on NPP inspection;
(vii) General conclusion on obtaining temporary permission (license);
(viii) License (temporary permission).
The main laws controlling nuclear power in Russia is the law "About utilization of atomic energy" and the law "About state policy in the field of radioactive waste management".
Technical regulations created by Gosatomnadzor of Russia, which are in force today, are the legal framework for nuclear energy utilization. These regulations and rules address the aspects of safety assurance during site selection, designing, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear installations. All regulating documents developed by Gosatomnadzor have been compiled into a “List of main scientific and technical documents, used by Gosatomnadzor for safety regulation and supervision during production and utilization of atomic energy, handling of nuclear materials, radioactive substances and articles on their base”, P-01-01-03, Gosatomnadzor of Russia, 2003, http://www.gan.ru/prav_b/acts.htm.
Some aspects of nuclear related activity are regulated by decrees of the President or Government of the Russian Federation.
Decrees of the President:
- "About the control of export of nuclear materials, equipment and technologies" of 27 March 1992;
- "About the utilities with nuclear power plants " of 7 September 1992;
- "About privatization of enterprises under the authority of Ministry for Atomic Energy, and their management in a market economy " of 15 April 1993, etc.
- Decrees of the Government:
- "About approval of documents, regulating export of equipment and materials and of corresponding technology, used for nuclear purposes" of 29 May 1992;
- “About measures of protection of the population living adjacent to nuclear power installations" of 15 October 1992, etc.
- On Reorganization of the Nuclear Power Industry of the Russian Federation (Apr 27 2007 2007/04/27-5)
 Russia in figures – 2009. http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b09_12/Main.htm
 Russia in figures – 2008. http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b09_12/Main.htm
 Nuclear Power in Russia. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf45.html
 Annual Report -2008 of Concern Rosenergoatom. http://atomenergoprom.ru/en/org/npp/
 CIS Countries Economics. Moscow, Finstatinform, (1993) (in Russian).
 CIS Countries in 1991. Annual Statistic Report. Moscow, Finstatinform, (1992) (in Russian).
 Energy Strategy of Russia. Main Concepts. Moscow, (1995) (in Russian).
 Annual Report of Mintopenergo of Russia 1993. Moscow, (1993) (in Russian).
 Technical and Economic Characteristics of Electric Power in Russia. NIIEE, Moscow, (1992) (in Russian).
 Data of the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation, (1993).
 Fuel and Power in Russia. VNIIKTEP, Moscow, (1992) (in Russian).
 Strategy of Nuclear Power Development in Russia. Moscow, (1994) (in Russian).
 Performance Indicators of Russian NPP’s in 1993. “Rosenergoatom” Concern, (1994).
 Minatom of Russia. Atominform, (1992).
 International Affairs, Special Issue, Russian Nuclear Complex Opens to the Country and the World, (1994).
 NPP’s operation in the Russian Federation, The 1993 Report, “Rosenergoatom” Concern, (1994).
 On the Activity Related to the Future Development of the Russian Electric Energy Sector in the New Economic Conditions, Energy Construction, Vol 11, (1994) (in Russian).
 Programme of Russian Federation Nuclear Power Development in 1998-2005 and for perspective up to 2010. Moscow, (July 21, 1998)
 About Status and Perspective of Nuclear Power Development. Rosenergoatom, (1999)
 National Report of Russian Federation about Realization of Obligations of Nuclear Safety Convention. Moscow, (1998).
 Russian Annual Statistical Transactions, Moscow (1998)
 Russian Annual Statistical Transactions, Moscow (1999)
 Russian Annual Statistical Transactions, Moscow (2000)
 Russian nuclear power plants, Rosenergoatom, Moscow (2001) IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB)
 IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)
 Russia in figures, Summary Statistical Transactions, Moscow (2002)
 Country Nuclear Fuel Cycle Profiles. IAEA.
 Russian nuclear power plants, Rosenergoatom, Moscow (2002)
 UNIFIED ENERGY SYSTEM OF RUSSIA (UES), ANNUAL REPORT 2003.
· Amendments to Articles VI & XIV of the Agency Statute
· Agreement on privileges and immunities
Entry into force: 1 July 1966
· Unilateral safeguards submission (Voluntary offer) INFCIRC/327
Entry into force: 10 June 1985
· Additional Protocol
Signed: 22 March 2000
· Supplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA
Not yet concluded
Entry into force: 5 March 1970
· Convention on physical protection of nuclear material
Entry into force: 8 February 1987
· Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident
Entry into force: 24 January 1987
· Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency
Entry into force: 26 February 1987
· Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage
Signature: 8 May 1996
· Paris convention on civil liability for nuclear damage
· Joint protocol relating to the application of Vienna and Paris conventions
· Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage
· Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage
· Convention on nuclear safety
Entry into force: 24 October 1996
· Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management
Signature: 27 January 1999
· Improved procedures for Waiver proposal designation of safeguards inspectors by U.S.S.R.
accepted on 15 September 1988
· Nuclear Suppliers
· Acceptance of NUSS Codes
Summary: A good basis for national safety standards. Taken into account in preparation of regulatory/ technical documents.
Best form of application in USSR being studied: 30 December 1988
· Nuclear Export Guidelines Adopted
· World Association of Nuclear Operators
Bilateral agreements on peaceful use of atomic energy have been signed with USA, UK, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Republic of Korea, Switzerland and some other countries.
1. “Bilateral Agreement between Governments of the Russian Federation and the United States of America on Scientific and Technical Co-operation in the Field of Management of Plutonium Withdrawn from Nuclear Military Programmes”. Moscow, July 24, 1998.
2. “Threelateral Agreement between Governments of Russian Federation and Federal Republic of Germany and Republic of France on Co-operation in the Field of Peaceful Utilization of Plutonium Being Released as a Results of Dismantling of Russian Nuclear Weapons”.
3. Russia – US “Agreement on Co-operation in Research on Radiation Effects for the Purpose of minimize the consequences of the Radioactive Contamination on Health and environment”. Moscow, January 14, 1994.
4. Russia – US “Agreement on Increasing of Operational Safety, Measures to Decrease Risk and on Nuclear Safety Standards of Civil Nuclear Facilities in Russian Federation”. Moscow, December 16, 1993.
NATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITIES
JSC Atomenergoprom Phone.: +7 (495) 969-2939
119017, Moscow, Bolshaya Ordynka Str., 24/26 Fax: +7 (495) 969-2936
Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority Tel: (7 095) 272 0349
Taganskaya ulitsa 34 Fax: (7 095) 278 0098
109147 Moscow Tlx: 411743 SYVIN SU
State Supervisory Committee
for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Fax: (7095) 278 8090
OTHER NUCLEAR ORGANIZATIONS
Consortium of Russian Nuclear Power Plants Tel: (7 095) 239 24 22
“ROSATOMENERGO" Fax: (7 095) 239 27 24
B. Ordynka 24/26 http://www.rosatom.ru/
K-74 Moscow 103074
Obninsk Institute for Tel: (708439) 9 82 50
Physics and Power Engineering Fax: (7095) 230 23 26
Bondarenko Sq. 1 http://www.ippe.obninsk.ru/
249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region
All-Russia Scientific Research and Design
Institute of Power Technology -VNIPIET
Dibunovskaya Str. Tel: (812) 239 01 34
St. Petersburg Fax: (812) 239 18 98
Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE) http://www.ibrae.ac.ru/
Institute “Atomenergoproekt” (AEP)
Bakunin Str. 7
Moscow Tel: (7095) 261 41 87
Krasnoarmeyskaya Str. 206
Kolpino-1, Lenin Str. 1
St. Petersburg Fax: (812) 463 92 69
Kitaisky pr. 7 Tel: (7095) 220 63 01
Moscow Fax: (7095) 220 44 88
Bolshaya Ordynka Str. Tel: (7095) 239 44 11
Moscow Fax: (7095) 239 46 79
TVEL Concern, Inc.
Bolshaya Ordynka Str. Tel: (7095) 239 43 55
Moscow Fax: (7095) 233 10 59
Russian Scientific Centre (RSC) “Kurchatov Institute" Tel: (7095) 196 92 41
Kurchatov Sq. 1 http://www.kiae.ru/
State Scientific Centre "All-Russian Inorganic Tel: (7095) 190 82 97
Materials Research Institute" (SSC VNIINM) Fax: (7095) 196 41 68
Rogov Str. 5a
State Scientific Centre "Nuclear Reactor Tel: (84235) 3 52 80
Research Institute" (SSC NIIAR) Fax: (84235) 3 56 48
Box M-5881 http://www.niiar.simbirsk.su/eng/riarsb.htm
All-Russian Research Institute for
Nuclear Power Plant Operation (VNIIAES)
Ferganskaya Str. 25 Tel: (7095) 377 00 75
Moscow Fax: (7095) 274 00 73
Research and Development Institute Fax: (7095) 975 20 19
of Power Engineering (NIKIET)
Experimental Design Bureau of Machine Building Tel: (8312) 46 21 32
(OKBM) Fax: (8312) 41 87 72
Burnakovsky pr. 15
Experimental Design Bureau "Gidropress" (OKB GP)
Ordzhonikidze Str. 24
Moscow region Tel: (7095) 137-90-96
Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant http://www.laes.sbor.ru/
NUCLEAR RESEARCH INSTITUTES
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) http://www.inp.nsk.su/
Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) http://nfdfn.jinr.ru/
Institute of General and Nuclear Physics
(Kurchatov Institute) http://www.ignph.kiae.ru/
Ioffe Institute for Physics and Technology http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/
Khlopin Radium Institute http://www.atom.nw.ru/RIE/
Moscow Power Engineering Institute http://mpei.ac.ru/
St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute http://www.pnpi.spb.ru/
HIGH ENERGY INSTITUTES
Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics
Flerov Laboratory of Nucler Reactions (FLNR) http://sungraph.jinr.dubna.su/flnr/
Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) http://www.inr.ac.ru/
International Center for Fundamental Physics http://www.icfpm.lpi.ru/
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (JINR) http://cv.jinr.ru/
Laboratory of High Energies (LHE JINR) http://lhe.jinr.ru/
Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP) http://nuweb.jinr.ru/
Laboratory of Particle Physics (LPP) http://sunse.jinr.ru/
Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics
(SINP, Moscow) www.npi.msu.su:80/inp50/english/index.html
Saint-Petersburg State University
(Radiophysics scientific school) http://www.phys.spbu.ru/Departments/RadioPhysics/
International Science and
Technology Center (ISTC) http://www.istc.ru/
Republican Research Scientific
-Consulting Center for Expertises (RRSCCE) http://www.extech.msk.su/
Emergency Response Centre (FEERC ) http://www.typhoon.mecom.ru/
Name of report coordinator Valeriy Korobeynikov
Institution State Scientific Center
Institute of Physics and Power Engineering
Contacts 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region, Bondarenko Sq.1
Tel: +7 48439 982 76
Fax : +7 48439 682 25
+7 48439 584 77