(Updated 2022)


This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs).

The country nuclear power profile (CNPP) summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programme and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

The Islamic Republic of Iran (henceforth Iran) has one operating nuclear power reactor known as Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP)-Unit 1, which started commercial operation in 2013 and accounted for 1.73% of total national electricity generation in 2020. In line with its peaceful activities, the Government of Iran is planning to expand the existing nuclear power programme over the coming decades; Units 2 and 3 are under construction at the BNPP site, each with a capacity of 1057 MW(e). The presence of nuclear power in the country's energy portfolio will allow for reliable and sustainable energy supply, decrease in dependency on fossil fuels and control the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.



1.1.1. Energy policy

Iran's primary energy consumption has almost doubled since 2000 and continues to grow, mostly due to urban population growth, development of energy-consuming industries (e.g. oil refinery, petrochemicals, iron, steel, cement), and growing demand for transportation and electricity. The Iranian energy balance shows that fossil fuels (including natural gas and oil) generally account for almost all of the primary energy consumption in the country. Aware of the environmental challenges surrounding the consumption of fossil fuels, new energy sources and creative approaches have been attractive for Iranian policymakers in the energy sector to effectively manage the growing energy demand along with sustainable economic growth and social development.

During January 2001, the general policies of the energy sector were endorsed and promulgated by the Supreme Leader after consultation with the Expediency Council. Following these policies and other high-level documents, the national document of the country's energy strategy was formulated and officially approved by the Cabinet of Ministers during July 2017. This document outlines a comprehensive set of long-term goals and strategies of the country's energy sector until 2041, taking into account the environmental, economic and social interests.

Some of the main elements of Iran's energy policy are (1) development of human resources; (2) optimization of energy consumption and reduction of energy intensity; and (3) diversification of energy resources in a sustainable manner with greater contribution of renewable and clean energies, including solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower and nuclear energy.

1.1.2. Estimated available energy

The main primary energy sources that are traditionally exploited for power generation and transport as well as industrial, domestic, commercial, and non-energy uses in Iran are oil products, natural gas, coal, nuclear energy, and renewable energy (including solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, biogas, and heat recovery). Table 1 shows an overview of the available energy reserves of Iran in 2019.


Fossil fuels Nuclear Renewables
[million tonnes]
[billion barrels]
[trillion m3]
Hydro (installed)
Other renewable
Total amount 1 146.7 158.9 33.1 4 316 12.2 0.7

Source: In the case of fossil fuels, the data were derived from Iran energy balance, Ministry of Energy (MOE). In the case of Uranium, the value was derived from Uranium 2020: Resources, Production and Demand (Red Book 2020) , accessed at

1.1.3. Energy Consumption Statistics

The final energy consumption, in exajoules, is historically summarized in Table 2.


Final Energy consumption [PJ] 2000 2005 2010 2015 *2020 Compound
annual growth
rate 2000-2020 (%)
Total 3 958 5 298 6 588 7 590 8 238 3.73
Coal, Lignate and Peat 35 44 32 46 54 2.17
Oil 2 360 2 811 2 718 2 796 2 650 0.58
Natural gas 1 217 1 931 3 143 3 967 4 520 6.78
Bioenergy and Waste 6 24 26 21 21 6.77
Electricity 340 487 669 759 993 5.51

*Latest available data.

Source: IAEA RDS-1 & RDS-2


Prior to the Islamic revolution of Iran, the country faced a shortage of electricity generation and no exports of electricity were made to other countries. The national capacities for renewable energy sources were not exploited in the country. Moreover, the capacities for nuclear energy was recognized but no action was taken in this regard.

After the Islamic revolution, a dramatic change took place in the power industry relying on domestic capacities. As a result, a large part of the country is currently connected to national electricity network, electricity is exported to neighboring countries, the capacities for renewable energy plants are utilized for electricity generation and self-sufficiency in the power sector is achieved. Regarding nuclear energy, activities related to planning continued after the revolution, leading to construction and operation of NPP.

1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process

The electricity system in Iran comprises different activities such as power generation, transmission and distribution. At present, thermal power and hydropower are generally used for electricity generation in the country. Nuclear energy and renewable energy (excluding hydropower), such as solar energy, wind energy, heat recovery, and combustibles (e.g. biogas) historically contributed minimally to Iran's electricity generation system.

Aware of the environmental challenges of fossil fuels on one hand and the limitations of hydropower potential on the other hand, other options have been considered for electricity generation. As part of the solution to improve the security of energy supply, decarbonization and access to electricity, the capacities of other non-hydro renewables and nuclear energy are expected to be increased over the coming decades.

1.2.2. Structure of the electric power sector

The Ministry of Energy (MOE) is the main body of the Government responsible for the regulation and implementation of policies on water, electricity, sewage and renewable energy. The MOE is involved in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity across the country. Its organizational structure has been expanded at national, regional and provincial levels to provide relevant services throughout the country. The highest level (or the headquarters of the MOE) consists of different deputies and organizational units, where policy-making, macro-planning and monitoring are conducted. The operational level consists of the holding companies and their subsidiaries, which are responsible for implementation of the plans, programmes and macro-policies adopted in the power sector (

The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is an organization affiliated with the Government, but not under the MOE and is responsible for all activities and functions related to nuclear technology development, including, in particular, nuclear power generation in the country ( The AEOI generates nuclear power and delivers it to the MOE based on the macro-policies of the country in the field of energy.

1.2.3. Main indicators

The total installed electric power capacity of Iran was only 7.0 GW(e) before the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1978. According to the MOE's preliminary report, the total installed capacity of the country's power plants has vastly increased to about 87.9 GW(e) by March 2022, of which the installed capacity of thermal power, hydropower, nuclear power, and renewable energy (excluding hydropower) accounted for about 83.6%, 14.3%, 1.2%, and 1.0%, respectively.

In 1978, Iran's gross electricity generation was only 17.4 TWh; however, the country's gross electricity generation was about 178.1 TWh in 2005. According to the MOE's preliminary report, the country's gross electricity generation was estimated to reach about 359.4 TWh in 2021, with a growth of approximately 5% compared to the previous year. Most of the electricity was generated by thermal power (95%), with marginal contributions from hydropower, nuclear power, and non-hydropower renewable energy.

Table 3 shows the historical statistics of electricity generation and its distribution by plant types; Table 4 contains the energy related ratios between 2015 and 2020.


Electricity production (GWh) 2000 2005 2010 2015 *2020 Compound
annual growth
rate 2000 2020 (%)
Total 122 169 179 204 233 736 281 228 339 737 5.25
Coal, Lignate and Peat 484 571 353 462 627 1.30
Oil 25 360 28 078 46 036 40 483 27 732 0.45
Natural gas 91 838 133 268 176 871 222 448 291 501 5.95
Bioenergy and Waste 0 0 10 14 22 0.00
Hydro 3 664 16 100 9 526 14 090 11 159 5.73
Nuclear 0 0 0 2 914 7 148 0.00
Wind 37 71 163 221 557 14.52
Solar 0 0 0 1 491 0.00
Geothermal 0 0 0 0 0 0.00
Other 786 1 116 777 595 501 -2.22

*Latest available data.

Source: IAEA RDS-1 & RDS-2


Final Energy consumption [PJ] 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2021*
Nuclear/total electricity (%) 0 0 0 1.3 1.7 0.1

* Latest available data.

Source: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). Last update on 2022-05-12.



2.1.1. Overview


Initial interest regarding nuclear energy development in Iran goes back more than sixty years. In the mid-1950s, the University of Tehran was the first organization to purchase foreign equipment required for nuclear research and educational activities. Since then, the Tehran Nuclear Research Centre at the University of Tehran was established. With the operation of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) in 1967, the foundations of the country's nuclear science and technology fields were laid.

Unit 1 of BNPP

In the mid-1970s, the construction of BNPP including two 1 294 MW pressurized light water reactors was started in Bushehr province on the coast by German Kraftwerk Union (KWU). With advent of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the executive operations of BNPP project stopped and two units remained incomplete for about 20 years.

In 1992, a cooperation agreement for the peaceful use of nuclear power was signed between Iran and the Russian Federation. Based on the contents of this agreement, a contract for the completion of the Unit 1 of BNPP was signed in 1994 between the AEOI and Zarubejatom Company (which later changed its name to AtomStroyExport Co.); this agreement was put into force in 1995. A separate contract for the 10-year supply of nuclear fuel was also signed between Iran and TENEX, a Russian company which was replaced by TVEL Co.

Finally, in the late summer of 2011, Unit 1 of BNPP was connected to the national grid for the first time after passing successful commissioning tests (Fig. 1). The plant was put into the commercial operation in September 2013.

FIG. 1. Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (

Unit 2 and Unit 3 of BNPP

According to the country's policy on increasing the share of nuclear energy in electricity generation mix, construction of new units of NPPs has been reinitiated in recent years. During November 2014, a construction contract of two new units (two modified WWERs (AES-92), each with a capacity of 1 057 MW(e)) at the BNPP site was generated. The construction of Units 2 and 3 started in January 2017; the first step was the implementation of engineering studies by the Iranian companies. The executive operations of these units have entered a new phase by concreting the Unit 2 in 2019.

2.1.2. Current organizational structure

Organizations that are mainly involved in any activities related to the operation of NPP include (1) the AEOI through its subsidiary company known as Nuclear Power Production and Development Holding Company of Iran (NPPD Co.) and (2) Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA) as the national regulatory body.

With the establishment of the AEOI in 1974, the mission and functions related to peaceful utilization of nuclear science and technology and developing its applications, particularly regarding nuclear electricity generation in the country, were allocated to the AEOI. In 2003, the duties and missions of the Nuclear Power Plants Division of the AEOI were delegated to the NPPD Co. In 2004, the company's statue was approved by the Board of Ministers, and executive activities of the company were started. The NPPD Co., under the AEOI, is responsible for organization and implementation of the Government's activities in the field of safe generation and development of nuclear power, as well as guiding and conducting some of the activities of the AEOI in this field, including monitoring and supervision. The company's mission is the comprehensive development of NPPs in all stages including feasibility studies, site selection, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning in terms of social acceptance and safety and technology aspects. The NPPD Co. consists of several companies to implement its duties and functions. Among these companies is the BNPP Operating Company founded in 2007 with a mission to safe operation of nuclear power capacity for 1000 MW electricity generation (

INRA is the national nuclear regulatory body established in 1975 and since then has been authorized to regulate safety of nuclear facilities and radiation activities. INRA is authorized to issue permission and licenses, develop regulations and guides and provide authorization or supervision of activities, thereby regulating nuclear and radiation safety for siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or activities. INRA's mission is to ensure safe and secure utilization of nuclear energy and radiation sources, in such a way that personnel, the public, future generations and the environment are protected against harmful effects of radiation. It is worth noting that the INRA and NPPD Co. are two separate entities (

Safe, reliable and sustainable operation of NPPs along with resources and requirements, entails a comprehensive programme and the effective implementation of technical support processes. As the operating organization, NPPD Co. is responsible for technical support of BNPP in continuous monitoring of operation; monitoring of equipment and systems; optimization of efficiency; and other related activities in order to achieve the desired performance objectives. Technical Support Organization (TSO) is a group of NPPD Co. and its subsidiaries including BNPP Operating Company as well as a foreign contractor (if needed) and provides the required technical support services cohesively (Fig. 2). The TSO's mission is to organize the provision of timely, high-quality and economic technical support services to BNPP as well as to institutionalize the technical support knowledge in order to achieve the self-reliance and obtain the required knowledge (

FIG. 2. Schematic diagram of macro-connections of TSO (


2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants

In Iran, there is one reactor in operation (BNPP-1) and one reactor under construction (BNPP-2). Table 5 shows the status and some other indicators of these NPPs. BNPP is the first nuclear power plant constructed in the Middle-East, which has generated a total of 47 726 million kW.h electricity from March 2011 to March 2021 (Fig. 3). During March 2021 March 2022, BNPP-1 has generated 4 378 million kW.h, out of which 3 996 million kW.h was delivered to the national grid. BNPP-1 provided 1.73% of national electricity generation in 2020. It is calculated that the operation of BNPP-1 during this time period had prevented the consumption of over 82 million barrels of crude oil, and the release of about 46 million tonnes of GHGs into the environment.


Reactor Unit Type Net
Operator Status Reactor
Grid date Commercial
UCF for
2020 (%)
Bushehr-1 PWR 915 NPPD Co. Operational JSE
1975-05-01 2011-09-03 2013-09-23 - 71.7
Bushehr-2 PWR 974 NPPD Co. Under construction JSE
2019-09-27 - - - -

Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).

Note: Table 5 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and maybe more up to date than the text of the report. Last update on 2022-05-12.

FIG. 3. Total generation and delivery to the national grid by the BNPP-1 (

2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals

Nuclear safety has always been one of the highest priorities of NPPD Co. All safety measures of nuclear facilities including BNPP-1 have been meticulously observed under supervision of the INRA. Performing stress tests in 2012 as a response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP as well as conducting Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) mission and World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) peer reviews (as summarized in Table 6) are examples of this fact.


Year The reviewed company The reviewer organization Type of review
2011 BNPP Operating Co. WANO Moscow Centre Peer Review (Pre-Startup)
2013 Peer Review Follow-up
2015 BNPP Operating Co. WANO Moscow Centre Peer Review (1st)
2017 Peer Review Follow-up
2015 NPPD Co. WANO Moscow Centre Corporate Peer Review (1st)
2018 CRP Follow-up
2018 BNPP Operating Co. IAEA OSART
2022 Follow-up
2019 BNPP Operating Co. WANO Moscow Centre Peer Review (2nd)
2022 Peer Review Follow-up
2022 NPPD Co. WANO Moscow Centre Corporate Peer Review (2nd)
- CRP Follow-up

The IAEA assembled an international team of experts at the request of the Government of Iran to conduct the OSART mission at BNPP-1. Under the leadership of the IAEA, the OSART team performed in 2018 an in-depth operational safety review against the IAEA Safety Standards and proven good international practices that are essential to the safe operation of the BNPP-1. Ten areas were reviewed in this mission: leadership and management for safety; training and qualification; operations; maintenance; technical support; operating experience feedback; radiation protection; chemistry; emergency preparedness and response; and accident management. The OSART team made six recommendations and six suggestions related to areas where operational safety of the BNPP could be improved. Also, the OSART team identified good plant practices to be shared with the rest of the nuclear industry for consideration. The OSART Follow-up had been scheduled for 2021, which was postponed to June 2022, due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Apart from the IAEA, the WANO continues to be another partner for performance assessment of Iranian NPP by providing consulting and expert supports. The WANO prestart-up peer review was conducted at the BNPP site in 2011. The first peer review of the BNPP was conducted from 1 June to 18 June 2015. During this project, 25 WANO experts from different countries surveyed 12 areas of the power plant in line with state of the art nuclear industry standards around the world and related criteria from WANO documents, and presented their recommendations for future improvement of the power plant functions. In addition, WANO has evaluated the BNPP's performance through its peer review mechanism and upgraded its safety performance indicators from C to B in 2017. The second WANO peer review was conducted in November 2019 in 18 specialized areas by 23 experienced experts from six countries of Armenia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine, for which six good practices were obtained. The second peer review follow-up was conducted in January 2022.

2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process

Not applicable. There are no reactors reaching shutdown or decommissioning phase in the short-term in Iran.


2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy

At present, a large amount of electricity in Iran is generated using fossil fuels. These energy resources are limited and there are environmental concerns like GHG emissions associated with the power generation using these fuels. If the country continues to rely on fossil resources as at present, it will have harmful effects on the environment. Therefore, it is necessary that Iran to continue developing clean energies especially nuclear energy and to meet a part of its electricity needs based on these resources.

The Government of Iran has objectives such as securing the electric supply, diversifying the energy mix, technological advancement, and job creation for expansion of its peaceful nuclear power programme and has made progress in this regard. In line with these objectives and in order to play its role for achieving the goals outlined in the national document of the country's energy strategy as well as to supply a part of the electricity needed in the coming years, the AEOI unveiled a plan for increasing the share of NPP in the country's energy portfolio with a specified deadline.


Reactor Unit Owner Type Capacity
Construction start year trial operation year
Bushehr-2 AEOI VVER 1 057 2019 2025
Bushehr-3 AEOI VVER 1 057 2021 2027

2.3.2. Project management

The peaceful nuclear programme of Iran is directly supported by the Government. NPPD Co. is the owner/operator, holder of the operating license and the responsible body for development of NPPs in Iran. Therefore, NPPD Co. identifies and approves different NPP projects. For each project, the project manager is assigned by the NPPD Co., who has adequate authorities to perform the related duties and complete the project effectively.

2.3.3. Project funding

Presently, the Government is responsible for funding NPPs development in Iran. The budget required for medium and long-term plans is estimated and approved in accordance with the five year national development plans.

2.3.4. Electric grid development

Currently, no further development of existing electric grid is needed for NPPs.

2.3.5. Sites

In line with government policy and planning for national sustainable development, the site surveying project for selecting the appropriate sites for construction of NPPs was implemented in the 1970s. The investigation and evaluation of the proposed sites were carried out based on INRA regulations, taking into account of the relevant IAEA Safety Standards, recent documented international experiences and other relevant regulations including the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The project was accomplished in three phases and 16 sites were considered in coastal and inland regions.

After Islamic Revolution of Iran, the site surveying project was reviewed by the AEOI. The first phase of this project (i.e. preliminary studies) ended in 2011, leading to determination of candidate sites. Based on studies regarding the selection of appropriate sites for NPPs across the country, including the feasibility study of units and their construction location, BNPP site was selected for construction of two new units.

2.3.6. Public awareness

One of the most important duties of organizations in charge of nuclear power generation across the country is to inform and notify the public on advantages and benefits of construction and operation of NPPs. Article 48 of the sixth development plan states the necessity of enhancing social awareness and acceptance as well as the necessity of increasing participation in achieving sustainable development of nuclear power in Iran, especially for the residents around the BNPP-1 (Bushehr province). In this regard, the NPPD Co., in cooperation with domestic stakeholders (including the AEOI, INRA and BNPP operating company) takes various actions every year with emphasis on the regions with nuclear sites.

Public awareness is generally enhanced through specialized meetings at universities, exhibitions, ceremonies, seminars, workshops, and electronic/print media. However, in view of the pandemic COVID-19, from March 2020 to March 2021, the following activities were organized and implemented with limitations or in a virtual format due to health protocols:

  • Formulation, publication and distribution of reports, and company newsletters entitled Development News ,

  • Performing socio-cultural activities.


The NPP construction projects are being developed and completed by the project manager, who provides reports directly to the vice president of the AEOI. The Supervisory Commission is responsible for overseeing regulatory activities, which are performed by the operating organization and its contractors.


NPPD Co., as the operator of the existing BNPP-1 and as the only organization licensed to operate the NPPs, will operate any new NPPs in Iran.


As the first NPP was put into commercial operation, only the overall plan of decommissioning phase was considered in safety documents relating to national nuclear safety regulation. This was done by the operator under the direction of INRA. Therefore, for the time being there is no need for any further practical action. However, the operator, INRA, Iran Radioactive Waste Management Company (IRWA) and any technical supporting company will be involved in planning of NPP decommissioning, if necessary.


Iran's nuclear fuel cycle includes uranium exploration, mining, triuranium octoxide (U3O8) production, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and waste management. Additional information regarding the fuel cycle in Iran is available as below:

2.7.1. Uranium mining and milling

Systematic uranium exploration in Iran began in the early 1970s to provide uranium ore for planned processing facilities. Between 1977 and the end of 1978, one-third of Iran (650 000 km ) was covered by airborne geophysical surveys. Many surficial radiation anomalies were identified and follow-up field surveys have continued to the present. The owner of the uranium industry is the Government of Iran, where the AEOI is the operator and responsible for uranium exploration, mining and treatment.

The first uranium production centre of Iran was Bandar Abbas Uranium Production Plant (BAUPP) with a nominal annual production capacity of 21 tU. Since 2006, uranium ore recovered by open pit mining of the Gachin salt plug has been processed at this centre. BAUPP was finally closed down in 2016.

The second production facility, known as the Martyr Rezaei-nejad (Ardakan) Uranium Production Plant began operating in 2017, with a nominal production capacity of 50 tU/a. It is supplied with ore from the Saghand uranium mine.

In addition to the currently operating Ardakan production plant, feasibility studies for the planning of the Narigan production centre are underway.

2.7.2. Uranium conversion and fuel fabrication

The Uranium Conversion Facility (UCF) in the southeast of Isfahan consists of process lines to convert yellowcake into natural uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and natural uranium oxide (UO2).

The Fuel Manufacturing Plant (FMP) next to this facility produces pellets, rods and nuclear fuel assemblies.

2.7.3. Uranium enrichment

The Fuel Enrichment Plant (FEP) is located in Natanz, comprising of major components such as a feed system, cascade halls, a take-off system and a sampling system. It also houses a centrifuge assembly area. Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant (FFEP), near the city of Qom, is the second enrichment facility of Iran.

2.7.4. Reprocessing

Spent fuel reprocessing is not intended or planned in any stage of the nuclear fuel cycle in Iran.

2.7.5. Waste management

The IRWA Co. is an exclusive governmental administrator of long-term management of nationwide radioactive wastes in Iran. It has been established within the AEOI to conduct any activities associated with radioactive waste disposal in Iran. The company's approach is to protect people, the environment and next generations against the hazardous and harmful effects of exposure to radiation originated from radioactive wastes under the national legal framework.

According to the current national radioactive waste management plan and following the related studies, the Anarak site has been selected to be used as the near surface repository for disposal of low-and intermediate- level wastes arising from NPPs in Iran. The Anarak repository consists of a predisposal and treatment building unit and two interim storage areas in which the wastes coming from NPPs and other facilities will be stored until the disposal trenches are ready to operate for receiving the waste packages.


2.8.1. R&D organizations

Nuclear research is conducted by several institutions and universities. The leading research and development organization in Iran is the Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), which was established in 2002. NSTRI is officially affiliated to the AEOI, committed to conducting and advancing research, development, and application of nuclear science and technology in the country. The institute cooperates with international scientific communities, especially the IAEA, as well as universities and other scientific and research institutes. Based on its mission and statute, NSTRI consists of several research schools, the most relevant of which are Reactor and Nuclear Safety Research School as well as Materials and Nuclear Fuel Research School (

2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies

Iran anticipates future cooperation to develop advanced nuclear generation systems, while national experts participate in the relevant international events.

2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives

Iran became a Member State of the IAEA in 1958 and since then, has been actively participating in Technical Cooperation (TC) programme in thematic areas, including nuclear safety, energy, and waste management. The followings are some examples of national TC projects of Iran:

  • Strengthening owner's capabilities for commissioning and start-up of BNPP (Code: IRA4035 Year: 2005);

  • Upgrading NPPD Co.'s safety and engineering infrastructure for planning and construction of two NPP units with pressurized light water reactors in Bushehr (Code: IRA4038 Year: 2009);

  • Enhancing the level of operational safety and reliability of the BNPP-1 (Code: IRA2013 Year: 2016);

  • Strengthening and upgrading capabilities for safe and reliable operation and maintenance of a pressurized light water reactor (Code: IRA2011 Year: 2017);

  • Increasing the NPPD Co.'s capability in planning and implementing activities related to design, construction and commissioning of two new NPP units with the emphasis on safety (Code: IRA2014 Year: 2018); and

  • Increasing the capabilities of the NPPD Co. in planning and implementing activities for the design, construction, commissioning, and operation of NPPs with emphasis on updating safety (Code: IRA2016 Year: 2022).

Moreover, Iran participates effectively in international technical meetings and training workshops planned by the IAEA in the fields related to the NPPs. Based on NPPD Co.'s missions, development of international cooperation is important and aims at the exchange of experiences as well as establishing a platform for promotion of BNPP performance and programmes for developing NPP construction.


The strategic management model of human resources has been designed by the NPPD Co. Based on this model, the policies on human resources were developed and then approved by the company's Board of Managing Directors. Afterwards, the current status of human resources was identified, and strategies and priorities were further specified according to those policies. The national HRD strategy is aimed at improving the necessary capabilities for nuclear activities in all life cycles of national nuclear facilities. The prioritized areas of HRD include siting, designing, constructing, commissioning, operating and decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

NPPD Co.'s human resources management has paid special attention to education and training. With the aim of developing the skill and knowledge level of personnel and to implement articles 37 and 45 of the company's recruitment regulations, several training courses for managers and experts were held in-person and virtually during March 2020 March 2021. In this regard, the BNPP Training Centre performs functions such as organizing and planning the implementation of occupational trainings to create, maintain and enhance the level of personnel knowledge and skills regarding WWER NPPs and the safety of BNPP. The centre is equipped with a full scope simulator for training purposes, which has been upgraded and improved in recent years. Moreover, the centre uses computer-based training. In this regard, initial and continuing trainings are provided to BNPP personnel through the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) with the help of existing documents. This method is considered necessary for the safe and effective operation of NPP.


Ensuring effective and efficient communication with all stakeholders is one of the most important and high-prioritized programmes of the NPPD Co. Communication with stakeholders, including the general public especially the residents around the BNPP-1 (Bushehr province), government, research institutes, schools, academies and universities, industries and associated organizations is accomplished through reports, information sheets, brochures, books, newsletters and booklets published on the web site of the AEOI (; seminars; exhibitions; specific conferences; public briefings offered by AEOI spokespersons; Islamic Republic of Iran broadcasting and news agencies.


Despite all the precautions taken in the design and operation of nuclear facilities, there remains a possibility that a failure or an accident may give rise to a radiation emergency. In some cases, this may give rise to exposure or release of radioactive materials within facilities or into the public domain, which may necessitate emergency response actions. In this regard adequate preparations shall be established and maintained at local level by the operator to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies.

For this purpose, the INRA regulation entitled Regulation for on-site Emergency Preparedness and Response in Nuclear Facilities/Radiation Activities, was developed and has been applied since 2015. This regulation establishes the requirements for preparedness and response in case of radiological emergency.

Iran is also a party to the relevant international conventions, namely the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency .



3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)

The INRA is an independent governmental regulatory body established to regulate safety of nuclear facilities and radiation activities. While maintaining its effective independence, the INRA implements its legal authority through preparation and development of regulations and guidelines for nuclear and radiation safety; safety assessment of facilities and activities; issuance of licenses and related permits for construction and operation of facilities; inspection and supervision of facilities and activities; and enforcement of regulations. INRA's legal and regulatory control will be continued throughout the entire lifetime of facilities and during activities at all stages of site selection, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning.

3.1.2. Licensing process

Utilization of all nuclear and radiation facilities and related activities in Iran is subject to obtaining appropriate authorization (license/permit) from the Supervisory Commission, which is responsible for overseeing regulatory activities, such as developing regulations, assessment, issuing licenses/permits, conducting inspections and taking enforcement actions for nuclear and radiation facilities and activities in Iran.


3.2.1. Acts and laws

Some of the main related acts and laws are:

AEOI Act, 1974;

  • Radiation Protection Law, 1989;

  • Act on Improvement and Protection of the Environment, 1974.

3.2.2. Main regulations for nuclear safety

  • Regulations for siting of nuclear installation;

  • Regulations for radiation protection during operation of NPPs;

  • Regulations for radiation protection during operation of uranium fuel cycle facilities;

  • Regulations for licensing of uranium mining and milling facilities;

  • Regulations on radioactive waste management;

  • Regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials;

  • Regulations on the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities;

  • Regulations on the physical protection of nuclear material during transport;

  • Safety regulations for nuclear fuel transportation by vehicles;

  • Safety regulations for storage, transportation and handling of fresh nuclear fuel at a NPP;

  • Regulation for on-site emergency preparedness and response in nuclear facilities/radiation activities;

  • Regulation for granting permits for design, manufacturing and transportation of fresh nuclear fuel and associated core components at nuclear facilities;

  • Regulations for determination of exclusion area, low population zone and distance from population centre in nuclear facilities;

  • General safety regulation for nuclear facilities and activities;

  • Management system regulations for nuclear facilities;

  • Regulation for granting permits during operation of BNPP-1;

  • Regulation for supervision over fire safety assurance at the BNPP-1;

  • Regulation for granting permits during siting, design, manufacturing, construction, commissioning and operation of BNPP-2;

  • Regulations for registration of the BNPP-2 vessels and pipelines operating under pressure;

  • Regulation on the BNPP-2 reactor plant passport;

  • Regulation for supervision over fire safety assurance at the BNPP-2.


  1. Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI),

  2. Nuclear Power Production and Development Company of Iran (NPPD Co.),

  3. Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI),

  4. Ministry of energy,

  5. Iran power generation, transmission and distribution company (TAVANIR Co.),

  6. Iran Radioactive waste Management Company (IRWA Co.),

  7. IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS),

  8. Uranium 2020: Resources, Production and Demand, Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), NEA No. 7551,


Multilateral agreements Entry into force
IAEA Statute 16 September 1959
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) 2 February 1970
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (NOT) 9 November 2000
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (ASSIST) 9 November 2000
Bilateral agreements
Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the IAEA 21 May 1974
Technical Cooperation agreements
Revised Supplementary Agreements concerning the provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA (RSA) 12 February 1990
Safeguards agreements
Agreement Between Iran and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (INFCIRC/214) 15 May 1974


Organization / company Address Email Website
Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) North Kargar St., Tehran
Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA) North Kargar Ave., Tehran
Nuclear Power Production and Development holding company of Iran (NPPD Co.) Tandis St., Above Zafar Ave., Nelson Mandela Ave., Tehran
Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI) North Kargar Ave., Tehran
Iran Radioactive waste Management Company (IRWA Co.) North Kargar Ave., Tehran

Coordinator information

Office of Strategic Programme and Plans Codification (OSPC), Islamic Republic of Iran

Institution: Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI)