This report provides information on the status and development of the nuclear power programme in China, including factors related to effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs).
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in China.
As of 31 July 2018, China has 41 operational nuclear power units (including two units that are connected to the grid but are not yet commercially operating) and 15 nuclear power units under construction (not including units that are connected to the grid but not yet commercially operating). Nuclear power accounted for 4% of the total electricity mix in 2017, and three units (Fuqing-4, Tianwan-3 and Yangjiang-4) were connected to the grid in 2017. Since the start of 2018, an additional three units (Sanmen-1, Taishan-1 and Yangjiang-5) have also joined the grid. By 2020, the installed capacity of operating nuclear power units will reach 58 GW, and that of units under construction will be over 30 GW. In January 2018, China’s largest nuclear producer, the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) and its largest nuclear construction firm, the China Nuclear Engineering Corporation (CNEC) merged.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY POLICY
The strategic policy of “economic, clean and safe” development of energy is adhered to in China, as China develops non-fossil energy in parallel with the efficient and clean utilization of fossil energy. To this aim, China seeks to gradually lower the proportion of coal consumption and raise the proportion of natural gas consumption and substantially increase the consumption proportions of renewable energy such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and nuclear power.
According to China’s Seventh National Report under the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the 2017 Annual Report of Nuclear Power Operation & Construction for China Nuclear Energy Association (CNEA) from 2013 to 2017, the proportion of thermal power generation in China was lowered step by step, dropping from 78.36% in 2013 to 73.48% in 2017; the proportion of electricity generated by wind power and solar energy increased from 2.78% in 2013 to 5.34% in 2017; and that of nuclear power increased from 2.10% in 2013 to 3.94% in 2017.
1.2. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY
China enjoys abundant energy, and mineral resources as well as renewable resources, although it is also characterized by the low per capita share of resources and uneven regional distribution. China is rich in coal resources, with an extensive range of coal types, but lacks quality resources and is affected by the uneven regional distribution. Regions rich in coal suffer from a fragile ecological environment, which is not an ideal condition for resource exploitation. The sustained and rapid development of China’s economy in the 1990s had boosted the oil and gas industry in China. However, there is a shortage of per capita resources and widening deficit of supply against a demand met with ever growing imports of gas and oil (see Table 1).
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Total amount in Exajoule (EJ)g||15 980||35||5.4||19.9||5.42||9.5|
a Coal, including lignite, proved reserves.
b Crude oil, remaining technologically recoverable reserves and proved reserves.
c Remaining technologically recoverable reserves and proved reserves. Natural gases include gas field, oil field (oil field gas layer gas, oil field associated dissolved gas) and coal field (coal bed methane). Remaining technologically recoverable reserves and proved reserves of shale gas.
e Installed capacity that may be technically developed according to the results of the 2003 water resources survey.
f The developable resource on land is 800 000 MW(1) and that offshore is about 150 000 MW.
g Solid and liquid are measured in hundred million tons; gas in trillion m3; uranium ore in ten thousand metric tonnes; hydro and other renewables in hundred million kW; and wind power in hundred million kW.
1.3. ENERGY STATISTICS
In 2013, China’s primary energy output reached 3.588 billion tons of standard coal equivalent. Production and consumption of coal, its dominant fuel, is the highest in the world. China is also the world’s second largest consumer of petroleum products (see Table 2).
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2016||Annual avg growth rate 2000–2016 (%)|
|Total final energy consumption (EJ)||17.64||28.89||42.60||106.07||126.44||128.18||7.11|
|Nuclear, hydro and other renewables||0.71*||1.47*||2.72||9.97||15.30||17.06||12.16|
|Total energy generation (EJ)||18.66||30.42||39.53||91.80||106.32||101.78||6.08|
|Nuclear, hydro and other renewables||0.71*||1.43*||2.73||9.55||15.42||17.20||12.19|
* Hydro only.
1.4. ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.4.1. Electricity policy and decision making process
Power projects are reviewed and approved by the State Council and competent departments of investment under the State Council and under local governments. Additional conditions to be met include the following(2):
Hydropower plant: Projects with a single station, total installed capacity of 500 MW and above, and constructed on transboundary rivers and inter-provincial rivers are examined and approved by the department in charge of investment under the State Council, of which projects with a single station, total installed capacity of 3000 MW and above or involving the move of 10 000 people or more are examined and approved by the State Council. All other projects are examined and approved by the competent departments of investment under local governments.
Pumped storage power station: Examined and approved by the competent departments of investment under government at the provincial level.
Thermal power plant: Examined and approved by the competent departments of investment at the provincial level, among which coal fired, thermal power projects are examined and approved within the framework of the State’s construction plan established in accordance with macrocontrol.
Cogeneration power plant: Examined and approved by the competent departments of investment under local governments, among which extraction and condensing, coal fired, thermal power projects are examined and approved by the government at the provincial level within the framework of the State’s construction plan established in accordance with macrocontrol.
Wind power station: Examined and approved by the competent departments of investment under local governments within the framework of the State’s construction plan established in accordance with macrocontrol and the annual development guidance.
NPP: Examined and approved by the State Council.
Power grid project: Transnational and inter-provincial (autonomous region and municipality) DC projects of ±500 kV and above as well as the transnational and inter-provincial (autonomous region and municipality) AC projects of 500 kV, 750 kV and 1000 kV are examined and approved by the department in charge of investment under the State Council, of which DC projects of ±800 kV and above and AC projects of 1000 kV are put on file to the State Council. All other projects are examined and approved by the competent departments of investment under local governments, among which DC projects of ±800 kV and above and AC projects of 1000 kV are examined and approved according to the State’s plan.
1.4.2. Structure of the electricity sector
Since the electric power system reform in 2002, the electric power industry has overcome an exclusive power operating system, solved the mandatory planning system, and removed separation of government and enterprises. The multivariate competition setup of the electric power market principal has also been formed. However, the electric power industry is still confronted with certain problems to be solved urgently through reforms. The Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China pointed out that the main achievements of reform would include having a natural monopoly industries held by State capital, but with a separation of government and enterprises, of government and funds and of franchise operation and government supervision. In broadening the reform of the electric power system, the focus will be on the following:
Power transmission and distribution as scheduled;
Opening the power distribution and sales business as scheduled;
Expanding the plan for power generation and consumption (aside from purposes for the public and market adjustments as scheduled);
Pushing the relatively independent and standardized operation of business forward;
Deepening the regional grid construction and the study of power transmission and distribution system applicable to China;
Further strengthening government supervision;
Further strengthening unified planning of electric power;
Further strengthening the safe and highly efficient power operation and reliable power supply.
The State Council issued the Plans Regarding the Restructuring of the Power Industry in 2002, which laid out the four step reform of separating the management of power plants from the power grid, separating subsidiary grid systems from the main grid systems, separating the management of power transmission from power distribution and putting power on the grid through price competition. The electric power structure and related organizations of China are as follows(3):
The National Energy Administration (NEA) is the competent monitoring and supervising department of the power and grid enterprises in China.
The five national power generation groups in China are all authorized by the State Council and include:
China Huaneng Group;
China Datang Corporation;
China Huadian Corporation;
State Power Investment Corporation (SPIC).
CNNC and the China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN) control many NPPs via shareholding, and the China Three Gorges Corporation constructed and operates some hydroelectric power plants.
The two companies responsible for the operation of the national power grid are the State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid. With all power networks state owned, there are six trans-provincial networks and one regional network in the mainland for distribution of the generated electricity. The Power Construction Corporation of China and the China Energy Engineering Group are two sideline corporations for electric power industry, founded in 2011.
State owned key enterprises offer power engineering and consulting services include:
China Power Engineering Consulting Group Corporation;
China Gezhouba Group Corporation.
1.4.3. Main indicators
In 2017, the total installed capacity of China was 1777.03 GW, of which the installed capacity of thermal power, hydropower and nuclear power accounted for 62.24%, 19.20% and 2.02%, respectively (see Table 3). Gross electric output in 2017 reached 6417.9 TW·h. Most of the electricity was produced by thermal power (73.48%), hydropower contributed 17.24% and nuclear electricity production 3.94% (see Table 4 for energy related ratios).
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND INSTALLED CAPACITY
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2017||Annual avg growth rate 2000–2017 (%)|
|Total installed capacity (GW effective)||65.87||137.89||298.57||966.41||1508.28||1777.03||11.06|
|Total electricity generation (TW·h)b||300.63||623.04||1355.6.||4227.80||5814.57||6417.9||9.58|
a —: data not available.
b Electricity losses are not deducted.
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ)||17.97||25.44||33.75||71.44||92.20||—*|
|Electricity per capita (kW·h)||306.00||549.00||1066.9||3134.8||4231.0||—*|
|Electricity generation/Energy generation (%)||4.72||6.00||9.98||15.1||19.70||—*|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||0||0||1.24||1.70||3.01||3.51|
* —: data not available.
2. NUCLEAR POWER
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
Qinshan NPP was first connected to the grid in 1991. Units 1 and 2 of Daya Bay NPP, imported from France, began commercial operation in 1994. In the 1990s, the Government of China presented the policy of ‘moderate’ development of nuclear power. Following the commercial operation of Qinshan NPP and Daya Bay NPP, nuclear power projects such as Qinshan Phase II, LingAo, Third Qinshan and Tianwan were constructed and put into commercial operation in succession in the early 2000s.
Forging ahead in the 21st century, the Government of China further presented the policies of ‘vigorously’ and ‘efficiently’ developing nuclear power on the basis of ensuring safety. In 2007, the 2005–2020 Mid-long Term Development Planning for Nuclear Power was issued, symbolizing a new phase of large scale development of nuclear power in China.
After the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the State Council held an executive meeting to discuss measures against the accident and four decisions were made: to carry out an immediate comprehensive safety inspection on China’s nuclear facilities; to adjust and improve the middle to long term development strategy for nuclear power; to urgently formulate planning for nuclear safety and nuclear power safety; and to suspend approving nuclear power projects.
In 2012, the State Council Executive Meeting released the reports on the comprehensive inspection on nuclear facilities and approved in succession the Twelfth Five Year Plan and 2020 Vision for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention, the 2011–2020 Planning for Nuclear Power Safety, and the amended 2011–2020 Mid-long Term Development Planning for Nuclear Power, which set the safety goals and regulatory principle for nuclear safety work. The meeting restored the normal construction of nuclear power in coastal areas.
In 2015, the NEA, the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and the State Administration of Science, and Technology and Industry for National Defence of the People’s Republic of China jointly published the Nuclear Safety Culture Policy Statement, which states the basic attitude towards nuclear safety culture, and the principle requirements for cultivating and practicing nuclear safety culture. China has integrated nuclear safety into the overall national security system, and specified the strategic positioning for nuclear safety, China has also actively carried forward the legislation process for the Nuclear Safety Act and the Atomic Energy Act. The drafts of the Atomic Energy Act was prepared and submitted to the State Council for legislative procedure. The Nuclear Safety Act was reviewed by the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China, and implemented from 1 January 2018.
2.2. CURRENT ORGANIZATION(4)
There are four competent departments to supervise nuclear power:
China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA);
Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) (MEE/NNSA);
National Health Commission.
The CAEA is the competent department for the nuclear industry. It is responsible for deliberating and drawing up policies, regulations, strategies, plans and industrial standards for China’s peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It is in charge of the communication and cooperation on nuclear issues between governments and international organizations, and it is responsible for the planning, supervision, review and approval in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. It takes the lead in dealing with the emergency management of nuclear accidents.
The NEA is the national managing department of the energy industry. It is responsible for drawing up and implementing development plans, access conditions and technical standards of nuclear power, proposing the audit opinion for major nuclear power projects, organizing the coordination and guidance of nuclear power research and organizing the emergency management of NPPs after nuclear accidents.
The MEE/NNSA is China’s regulating mechanism of nuclear safety. It carries out unified nuclear safety supervision of China’s NPPs. It also implements the supervision and management of environmental protection of China’s NPPs by issuing or revoking licences as one of its major measures, and inspection is also implemented for NPPs, nuclear materials and nuclear activities.
The National Health Commission, together with relevant authorities, formulates laws and regulations on prevention of radioactive occupational diseases, organization and coordination of national nuclear emergency medical preparedness and rescue, and guiding local health departments in proper nuclear emergency medical preparedness and disposal.
Currently, the three key state owned enterprises engaged in nuclear power industry are CNNC (China Nuclear Engineering Group Corporation being fully integrated into CNNC), CGN and SPIC. CNNC and CGN operate several nuclear power units. SPIC is mainly engaged in the introduction, assimilation, research and development, transfer, application and promotion of third generation nuclear power technology.
In addition, SPIC and the China Huaneng Group are equity participants in some nuclear power projects or hold controlling shares. China Datang Corporation, CHN Energy and China Huadian Corporation are also equity participants in nuclear power projects.
2.3. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS(5)
From 2013 to 2017, 22 nuclear power units were put into commercial operation in China, and construction of 11 nuclear power units began. By 31 December 2017, 37 nuclear power units were in commercial operation, with a total installed capacity of 35.807 GW (see Table 5 and Fig. 1). Another 19 nuclear power units were under construction, with a total installed capacity of 22.269 GW. From 2013 to 2017, the yearly cumulative generating capacity and on grid energy of Chinese nuclear power units grew steadily. In 2013, the yearly cumulative generating capacity of nuclear power units under business operation was 112.1 billion kW·h and comprised 2.1% of the country’s total generating capacity. In 2014, it was 130.6 billion kW·h (2.35%). In 2015, it was 168.3 billion kW·h (3.01%). In 2016, it was 210.5 billion kW·h (3.51%). In 2017, it was 247.5 billion kW·h (3.94%).
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|SHIDAO BAY-1||HTGR||200||Under Construction||HSNPC||TSINGHUA||2012-12-09|
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
Note: CNNO — CNNP Nuclear Power Operations Management; DNMC — Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations and Management; FQNPC — Fujian Fuqing Nuclear Power Corporation; GFNPC — Guangxi Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Corporation; HSNPC — Huaneng Shandong Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Corporation; HNPC — Hainan Nuclear Power Corporation; HTR — high temperature reactor; JNPC — Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation; LHNPC — Liaoning Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Corporation; NDNPC — Fujian Ningde Nuclear Power Corporation; NPIC — Nuclear Power Institute of China; PHWR — pressurized heavy water reactor; PWR — pressurized water reactor; QNPC — Qinshan Nuclear Power Corporation; SDNPC — Shandong Nuclear Power Corporation; SMNPC — Sanmen Nuclear Power Corporation; TNPJVC — Taishan Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company; TQNPC — Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Corporation; UCF — unit capacity factor; YJNPC — Yangjiang Nuclear Power Corporation.
2.3.1. Plant upgrading
After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident, to formalize the common improvement actions of NPPs in China, the MEE/NNSA issued the General Technical Requirements on the Improvement of NPPs after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident, and organized NPP operating organizations to discuss technical schemes and to track progress in implementation. In addition, site surveys against the implementation of improvements were made in September 2012 and September 2013, to ensure that all post-Fukushima improvement actions were completed with assured quality and quantity in NPPs.
The MEE/NNSA set the deadline for NPPs according to the degree of influence on safety and urgency of improvement actions. The improvement for operating NPPs is divided into short, medium and long term actions. The short and medium term actions were required to be completed in 2011 and 2013, respectively.
126.96.36.199. Short term improvement actions
The short term improvement actions implemented by the operating NPPs mainly included waterproof plugging, adding portable power supplies and portable pumps, improving earthquake monitoring and anti-seismic response capacity. The operating NPPs completed the all improvement actions as required in 2011.
188.8.131.52. Medium term improvement actions
Medium term improvement actions mainly included perfecting severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs), adding or rebuilding hydrogen elimination facilities, modifying spent fuel pool monitoring and water makeup, probabilistic safety assessments for external events, anti-flooding reconstruction of the Qinshan base, and in-depth assessment of earthquake and tsunami risks:
Improving SAMG: Daya Bay NPP and the Third Qinshan NPP amended and improved the existing SAMGs. Other operating NPPs developed and completed their new SAMGs. The MEE/NNSA entrusted the CNEA to organize a peer review of the SAMGs of NPPs and put forth modification and improvement comments.
Adding or rebuilding hydrogen elimination facilities: Each operating NPP analysed and evaluated the risk of hydrogen explosion of units. The result showed that the hydrogen elimination system of Tianwan NPP already met the requirements, and renovation was required in all other NPPs. At present, the work to add or rebuild hydrogen elimination facilities has been completed in all NPPs.
Modification for spent fuel pool monitoring and water makeup: Each operating NPP carried out modification for operation monitoring of spent fuel pool and water makeup system, including improving and revising the operation manual and procedures for spent fuel pool, modifying the spent fuel pool water makeup system and adding spent fuel pool monitoring instruments.
Probabilistic safety assessments for external events: Each operating NPP has implemented and completed the safety margin assessment work in case of extreme external events according to unified requirements, confirming that the units in all operating NPPs have certain ability to deal with external events beyond the design basis.
Qinshan site anti-flooding modification: After the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the MEE/NNSA believed after the comprehensive nuclear safety inspection that the anti-flooding measures for Qinshan NPP is insufficient with possible flooding under extreme conditions (the maximum storm surge combined with maximum astronomical tide). Therefore, Qinshan NPP was required to implement anti-flooding reconstruction. For this reconstruction project, site construction was started in December 2012, and the whole works was completed by the end of 2013. In the meantime, Qinshan NPP further raised the height of waterproof plugging for relevant buildings according to special subject analysis report. The anti-flooding and anti-flooding evaluation was also completed for the Qinshan Phase II NPP and the Third Qinshan NPP. The evaluation result showed that, even if based on the new design basis flood level, the existing anti-flooding facilities (seawall and wave walls) can satisfy the relevant safety requirements and need no modification. In addition, anti-flooding dampers were added for important plant buildings according to the evaluation report.
In-depth assessments of earthquake and tsunami risks: Following Fukushima Daiichi accident, the MEE/NNSA, together with the NEA and China Earthquake Administration and oceanologic departments, carried out re-evaluation with more conservative approach for the Manila Trench and Ryukyu Trench that might generate earthquake tsunami threat to NPPs in China. The preliminary results showed that the Manila Trench is a major potential source of an earthquake induced tsunami. The conservative assumption is that the maximum possible earthquake in Manila Trench could reach a magnitude of 8.8. The tsunami could affect NPPs on the coast of Guangdong, and the maximum height of the wave could reach 2.7 m offshore near Daya Bay NPP. For this tsunami evaluation result, Daya Bay NPP carried out detailed numerical model calculations and physical model tests, and further confirmed that the potential earthquake tsunami risk would not affect the operation safety of nuclear power units at the Daya Bay site
Formulating emergency response plans: Each operating NPP has formulated emergency response plans for simultaneous accident conditions of two units on a multi-reactor site, and submitted the plans to the MEE/NNSA for approval.
184.108.40.206. Long term improvement actions
The ongoing long term actions in operating NPPs mainly include improving emergency plans, raising the emergency response capacity of NPPs, completing the NPP information release procedures and strengthening nuclear knowledge popularization:
Improving emergency plans: Each operating NPP establishes communication channels with local meteorological, oceanic and anti-seismic departments, improves disaster prevention plans and organizes relevant drills. For example, the Qinshan site integrated and expanded a unified emergency framework, while the Daya Bay site and Tianwan NPP have also improved their emergency organizations and replenished emergency resources. Some NPPs have carried out studies on management of the planned restricted areas and established communication with local governments.
Raising emergency response capacity to nuclear accidents: Nuclear power group corporations have completed emergency resource censuses for NPPs, formed nuclear accident emergency rescue teams at the group level, jointly signed NPP nuclear accident emergency in-site support and cooperation agreements, and established emergency support mechanism between groups and between NPPs. In the meantime, the nuclear power group corporations have established three major nuclear accident emergency support bases in the east, south and north of China, specifically for daily drills of nuclear accident emergency rescue teams and emergency support and response during nuclear accidents.
Updating information release procedures and strengthening nuclear knowledge popularization: Each operating NPP has compiled or improved relevant schemes and management procedures for information release and disclosure, and persistently carried out popularization and public communication for nuclear knowledge in various forms such as holding press conferences, public opening day, setting up information exchange platform, and building new public information centres.
For units under construction, the main improvement actions implemented before the initial fuel loading include:
Anti-flooding improvement for nuclear safety related buildings and equipment;
Adding facilities such as portable power supplies and pumps;
Increasing the earthquake monitoring and anti-seismic response capacity;
Improving SAMGs, in-depth assessments of earthquake and tsunami risks, and probabilistic safety assessments for external events;
Completing contingency plans and increasing emergency response capability to nuclear accidents;
Preparing and completing information release procedures, completing the disaster prevention plans and management procedures, etc.
All nuclear power units realizing the initial fuel loading after the Fukushima Daiichi accident have completed improvements on schedule.
2.3.2. Plant life management
The ageing management work in NPPs is carried out according to the nuclear safety regulation requirements as laid out in the Periodic Safety Review in Nuclear Power Plant and Ageing Management of Nuclear Power Plants and the advanced experience in ageing management of the IAEA and other organizations, and with reference to the good practices in the nuclear power industry in China and other countries. Various ageing management work is carried out systematically in all phases of construction, commissioning and operation of NPPs, including the establishment and improvement of plant ageing management system, for both ageing management organizations and documentation systems, the activities of monitoring, testing, sampling and inspection, assessment of the ageing mechanism predicted at the design of NPP, and identification of conditions or performance deterioration that may occur in service but was not expected.
CNNO carried out ageing management review and time limit ageing analysis for the work on extending the operation permit of the 300 MW unit in Qinshan NPP, and established the standard system for ageing management and operation permit extension of NPPs in China.
All NPPs were required to carry out screening and classification of ageing sensitive equipment. Tianwan NPP has completed the screening and review of ageing management parts of Units 1 and 2, and is planning the implementation of ageing management for Units 3 and 4, the working schedule was set where the screening and analysis of parts for ageing management would start in 2016, to prepare the overall plan for the implementation of ageing management for the new units. Hongyanhe NPP completed the screening for 334 systems and 93 categories of structures in the plant, screening 145 systems, 10 categories of structures and 760 categories of parts in need of concern. Yangjiang NPP determined the levels 1, 2 and 3 lists for concern in ageing management for Units 1 and 2, and worked out different ageing management actions and strategies, the relevant work for Units 3 and 4 is in preparation.
In all NPPs, samples were retained for ageing management of structures and equipment. Tianwan NPP carried out ageing study for important power cables, screened out critical and sensitive power cables, retained samples and performed ageing status monitoring and assessment. Hongyanhe NPP has completed the sample retention for Units 1–4, and the samples are maintained and analysed on a unified basis by the CGN technical platform (Suzhou Nuclear Power Institute). Fangchenggang NPP completed the cable sample retention for Unit 1, prepared the management working procedure for the retained cable, and established a cable ageing management database with data entry. Taishan NPP initially screened out the list of cable samples to be retained for Unit 1.
All NPPs have carried out ageing management work for civil structures and pipes and developed NPP ageing management databases. Taishan NPP has developed the ageing data collection and record reservation system, to collect basic data for nine categories of important equipment, including reactor pressure vessels and steam generators. Fangchenggang NPP has developed and brought on-line the data collection and record reservation system for important equipment. In addition, Tianwan NPP has carried out the on-line life assessment for primary equipment, and Ningde NPP has carried out ageing management work for fluid accelerated corrosion.
2.3.3. Licence renewals
The MEE/NNSA issued the following licences to NPPs from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2018.(6)
220.127.116.11. Siting review comments
On 18 June 2014, approving the review comments for siting and environmental impact assessment report for siting stage for the CAP1400 demonstration project.
On 9 April 2014, approving the review comments for siting and environmental impact assessment report for siting stage for Units 1 and 2 of Xudapu NPP.
On 17 March 2014, approving the review comments for siting and environmental impact assessment report for siting stage for Units 3 and 4 of Haiyang NPP.
On 19 June 2014, approving the review comments for siting and environmental impact assessment report for siting stage for Units 1 and 2 of Lufeng NPP.
On 10 October 2016, approving the review comments for siting and environmental impact assessment report for siting stage for Units 1 to Units 4 of Zhangzhou NPP.
18.104.22.168. Construction permits
On 16 September 2013, the construction permit was issued for Units 5 and 6 of Yangjiang NPP.
On March 13, 2015, the construction permit was issued for Units 5 and 6 of Hongyanhe NPP.
On 6 May 2015, the construction permit was issued for Units 5 and 6 of Fuqing NPP.
On 23 December 2015, the construction permit was issued for Units 5 and 6 of Tianwan NPP.
On 23 December 2015, the construction permit was issued for Units 3 and 4 of Fangchenggang NPP.
22.214.171.124. The instrument of ratification for the first fuel loading
On 2 September 2013, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 2 of Hongyanhe NPP was issued.
On 25 October 2013, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 1 of Yangjiang NPP was issued.
On 8 November 2013, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 2 of Ningde NPP was issued.
On 30 May 2014, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 1 of Fuqing NPP was issued.
On 1 September 2014, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 1 of the Extension Project of Qinshan NPP (Fangjiashan Nuclear Power Project) was issued.
On 11 September 2014, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 3 of Hongyanhe NPP was issued.
On 15 December 2014, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 3 of Ningde NPP was issued.
On 23 January 2015, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 2 of Yangjiang NPP was issued.
On 15 May 2015, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 2 of Fuqing NPP was issued.
On 25 August 2015, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 1 of Changjiang NPP was issued.
On 2 September 2015, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 1 of Fangchenggang NPP was issued.
On 8 September 2015, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 3 of Yangjiang NPP was issued.
On 31 December 2015, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 4 of Ningde NPP was issued.
On 15 January 2016, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 4 of Hongyanhe NPP was issued.
On 1 April 2016, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 3 of Fuqing NPP was issued.
On 6 May 2016, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 2 of Changjiang NPP was issued.
On 17 May 2016, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 2 of Fangchenggang NPP was issued.
On 15 November 2016, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 4 of Yangjiang NPP was issued.
On 9 June 2017, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 4 of Fuqing NPP was issued.
On 18 August 2017, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 3 of Tianwan NPP was issued.
On 9 April 2018, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 1 of Taishan NPP was issued.
On 25 April 2018, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 1 of Sanmen NPP was issued.
On 21 June 2018, the Instrument of Ratification for the First Fuel Loading for Unit 1 of Haiyang NPP was issued.
126.96.36.199. Operation licence
On 5 December 2014, operation licence was issued for Units 3 and 4 of the Qinshan Phase IINPP.
On 1 March 2016, operation licence renewal application was approved for Units 1 and 2 of Daya Bay NPP and Units 1–4 of LingAo NPP.
On 21 October 2016, operation licence was issued for Units 1 and 2 of Ningde NPP.
On 20 December 2017, operation licence renewal application was approved for seven units of Qinshan Nuclear Power Base (Unit 1 of Qinshan NPP, Units 1–4 of the Qinshan Phase II NPP, Units 1 and 2 of the Third Qinshan NPP).
On 2 February 2018, operation licence was issued for Units 1 and 2 of Hongyanhe NPP.
On 14 February 2018, operation licence was issued for Units 1 and 2 of Yangjiang NPP.
On 21 February 2018, operation licence was issued for Units 1 and 2 of Fangjiashan NPP.
2.3.4. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
As of 31 December 2017, China had no nuclear power units which are in permanent shutdown or decommissioning.
2.4. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER
2.4.1. Nuclear power development strategy(7)
In 2012, the China’s State Council Executive Meeting debriefed reports on the comprehensive inspection on nuclear facilities and approved in succession the Twelfth Five Year Plan and 2020 Vision for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention, the 2011–2020 Planning for Nuclear Power Safety, and the amended 2011–2020 Mid-long Term Development Planning for Nuclear Power.
In 2013, the NEA was reorganized and reconstructed, and the Nuclear Power Department was created, which oversees drafting of nuclear power development programmes, plans and policies and planning of implementation, taking the lead in organizing of international nuclear power cooperation, as well as organizing of the nuclear accident emergency management of NPP. The establishment of the Nuclear Power Department is beneficial to the integration and perfection of nuclear power strategic objectives, development programmes and the industrial policies appropriate to it, to the unification of nuclear power technological routes and improving of the level of localization and independence of nuclear technological equipment.
From 2016 to 2020, China will construct safely demonstration projects of self-designed NPPs mainly along the coastal nuclear power belt, and complete the construction of AP1000 projects in Sanmen and Haiyang, in addition to other nuclear power projects. The HPR1000 demonstration projects in Fuqing and Fangchenggang will be constructed. The construction of CAP1400 demonstration project in Rongcheng as well as other new nuclear power projects along coastal areas will commence. Phase III project of Tianwan NPP will be speeded up; and the prophase works for inland nuclear power projects will be actively carried out. By 2020, the installed capacity of operating nuclear power units will reach 58 GW, and that of units under construction will be over 30 GW.
2.4.2. Nuclear power project management
The Government of China implements the effective planning, instruction, supervision and management of nuclear power development. The major departments engaged in the development of China’s nuclear power include the CAEA, the NEA, the MEE/NNSA, and the National Health and Family Planning Commission. The final approval of nuclear power projects is discussed and decided by the State Council Executive Meeting.
The CAEA is the competent authority for nuclear industry development for the Government of China, which is responsible for researching, drafting out and organizing the implementation of the policies, regulations, programmes, plans and industrial standards for the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in China. It is also in charge of the communication and cooperation among governments and also among international organizations in the nuclear field, and takes the lead in managing the nuclear accident emergency in the country.
The NEA is the nuclear power project industry management department. It is responsible for drafting nuclear power development planning, access conditions, technical standards and organization and implementation, proposing nuclear power major project audit opinions, organizing and coordinating nuclear power scientific research work, and organizing NPP nuclear accident emergency management work.
The MEE/NNSA is the regulatory body for nuclear safety in China, implementing the unified and independent regulation of the nuclear safety of NPPs, it is also in charge of regulation of environmental protection of NPPs throughout the country. The licensing system is one of main measures of the MEE/NNSA in regulation, and inspection is also implemented for NPPs, nuclear materials and nuclear activities.
The National Health Commission, together with relevant authorities, formulate laws and regulations on prevention of radioactive occupational diseases, organization and coordination of national nuclear emergency medical preparedness and rescue, and guiding local health departments in proper nuclear emergency medical preparedness and disposal.
The State Administration of Work Safety is in charge of hygiene examinations and completion acceptance of site selection and design for newly built, extended and reconstructed nuclear power projects.
According to nuclear safety regulations in China, the licensees (or applicant) of nuclear safety licences bear overall responsibilities for the safety of NPPs, nuclear materials and nuclear activities.
Nuclear power projects whose construction and preliminary work were approved before the end of 2017 have stocks held by CNNC, China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN), the China Huaneng Group and SPIC. Subsidiary nuclear power companies, as the owners, are responsible for the construction and operation of the nuclear power projects.
2.4.3. Project funding
The owners of the nuclear power projects that have been constructed, approved but awaiting construction, or with preliminary preparations approved are all large, state owned enterprises. The fundraising of the nuclear power projects is mainly carried out by the holding company of each project. China permits the eligible social capital to participate in new nuclear power projects as an equity participant.
2.4.4. Site selection(8)
There are a number of NPP sites in operation and under construction in mainland China located in coastal areas. The siting of most of these NPPs began at the end of the 1990s, and the siting procedures and external event evaluation were all as required in the nuclear safety codes, and reviewed and confirmed by the MEE/NNSA. Site selection is based on the requirements in the Code on Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Siting. The following factors are taken into considerations in the assessment of a site for its suitability:
The possible external natural events or human caused events in the surroundings of a certain site that may affect the NPP;
Site and environmental features that may cause the transfer of the released radioactive materials to people;
Density, distribution and other characteristics of the population of the peripheral zone relating to the possibility of implementing emergency measures and assessing personal and group risk.
The general assessment criteria include:
The site characteristics that could affect the NPP safety is investigated and assessed. The regional environmental characteristics that may possibly be affected by radiation consequences under operation and accident conditions are investigated. All these characteristics are observed and monitored throughout the whole lifetime of the NPP.
The safety of the recommended NPP site is reviewed on the basis of the occurring frequency and severity of natural events and external human events and various phenomena affecting the safety of the NPP.
The natural factors and human factors affecting the NPP safety in the area where the NPP is located are assessed for predictable evolution in the expected lifetime, and these factors need also be monitored throughout the whole lifetime of the NPP, especially the population growth rate and the population distribution characteristics. If necessary, appropriate measures are taken to ensure that the total risks are maintained at an acceptable low level.
Overall consideration are taken for the recommended site and for the NPP to determine its design basis external events. All external events related to major radiation risks are selected for consideration, and their design basis determined.
For an external event (or combination of events), the design basis parameter values for the NPP are selected to ensure that the structures, systems and components important to safety related to such event (or combination of events) can maintain their integrity without losing their functions at the time of, or after, the occurrence of a design basis event.
After an overall assessment of the site, if it is proved that the recommended measures cannot provide sufficient protection against the damage resulted from design basis external events, it is concluded that it is not suitable to build the recommended NPP on such a site.
In determining the design basis of relevant external events, their combination with the surrounding conditions (such as hydrological, hydrogeological and meteorological conditions) are taken into consideration. And the operation status of reactor is also taken into consideration.
The design basis of the site is assessed and included in the application documents for review by CAEA. The construction of relevant parts of the NPP can only start after the design basis is approved by the CAEA. In case of any dispute on the design basis related to such a site and it is not possible to actually provide sufficient protective provisions, a site would be determined as inappropriate, and the construction begins only after disputes have been settled.
The results of investigation and researches are documented in detail for independent review by the CAEA.
When a selected site is analysed for suitability, issues of storage and transport of new fuel, spent fuel and radioactive waste are taken into consideration.
The possibility of interaction between radioactive effluents and non-radioactive effluents are taken into consideration. For example, the interaction of hot or chemical substances with radioactive materials in liquid effluents.
For each recommended site, factors such as the population distribution, diet and nutritional behaviour, land and water utilization, and the radiation effect produced by other radiological releases in the area are assess to determine the radiation effect the NPP might cause under operation and accident conditions (including those accident conditions that might lead to emergency actions) to the residents near the site.
The total installed capacity of the site is determined as far as possible in the first phase of siting process. If it is necessary to increase the total nuclear power installed capacity above the originally approved level, the suitability of that site is re-evaluated.
The quality assurance programme is implemented for all activities that could influence the safety and performed to determine the site design basis parameters. The quality assurance programme can be implemented according to relevant stipulations.
In the selection of NPP sites, the MEE/NNSA requires that non-residence and planning restricted zones be set up around an NPP to take into full account the possible effect of external human induced event sources in the development planning for site area, and to control the future human activities in the area during the lifetime of the NPP.
When siting NPPs in China, the implement ability of off-site emergency plan is justified considering the current and expected environmental characteristics in the surrounding areas of the site. Meanwhile, China has established a nuclear emergency management system with hierarchic responsibilities, completed three national level nuclear emergency training bases, established over 30 national level professional rescue detachments and formed a national emergency rescue team with over 300 people, and made planning and deployment for rush rescue and emergency missions for major and extra nuclear accidents under complicated conditions. The nuclear emergency mutual support and cooperation mechanism has been established between nuclear power group corporations, and neighbouring NPPs have signed agreements on mutual support.
2.4.5. Public acceptance(9)
China attaches great importance to information publicity and public communication, and ensures the right of the public to know, to participate and to supervise. To this end, the MEE/NNSA issued the Scheme of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Information Publicity (for trial implementation) and the Notice on Strengthening Information Publicity of Nuclear and Radiation Safety in NPPs and promulgated the MEE/NNSA Work Scheme of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Public Communication and Administrative Measures of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Information Publicity, clearly specifying the scope of application and division of responsibilities for information publicity, and the contents, timing, methods and channels of information publicity.
The main contents of nuclear and radiation safety regulation information publicity cover the following:
Laws and regulations, standards, policies and planning of the Government of China on nuclear and radiation safety;
Release of administrative licensing procedures and licensing documents for nuclear and radiation safety;
Safety supervisory inspection reports on relevant nuclear and radiation safety activities;
General state of nuclear installation safety;
Radioactive environment monitoring results;
Nuclear and radiation emergency plans;
Important nuclear and radiation events (accidents) and their investigation and treatment conclusions.
The MEE/NNSA mainly communicates with the public and the media through the following:
Important information about regulation activities is issued on the official website of the MEE/NNSA, such as licence issuance, important review and inspection activities (and their results), reports on construction and operating events of nuclear installations, radioactive environment monitoring results, and relevant information on nuclear and radiation accident emergencies.
Publicizing knowledge and information related to nuclear and radiation safety on web sites, newspapers, periodicals, TV, publications and publicity materials.
Soliciting public opinions, distributing investigation questionnaires, and holding symposia and hearings before publishing important regulatory documents or decisions.
Inviting the media to participate in important experience exchange activities on nuclear safety regulation, and organizing experts to answer and explain questions of public concerns.
In addition, the acceptable investigations organized by various nuclear groups and NPPs are proceeding steadily:
Tianwan NPP has carried out a questionnaire in 27 villages and communities within 0–30 km away from the plant.
In 2006, Sanmen NPP organized five science activities, such as a quiz about the plant and a questionnaire in which more than 1000 people participated.
In 2008, the School of Electric Power at South China University of Technology organized a sampling survey among Shenzhen citizens on nuclear cognition.
In July and August 2015, the first open day for the public for the nuclear industry included 13 NPPs.
In September 2015, the China General Nuclear Power Group held a media visit activity and ten senior journalists from seven major Hong Kong media outlets(10) were invited to Daya Bay NPP.
In 2017, CNNC launched the third science promotion activity of Nuclear with You, during which public representatives from all walks of life visited and explored the nuclear industry chain by following the three routes of nuclear energy, the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power.
China General Nuclear Power Corporation continues to promote activities which popularize nuclear power in schools and classrooms. At present, there are over 120 primary and secondary schools involved, covering more than 20 000 students.
SPIC held the 1st Open Day Activity of NPP to the public with the theme of boosting green development and building a beautiful China, during which time the public visited the nuclear power science and technology centre, learned about the construction course of nuclear power project and enhanced their confidence in the utilization of nuclear energy.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
Organizations involved in China’s nuclear power design and engineering management mainly include:
China Nuclear Power Engineering Company;
China Guangdong Nuclear Power Engineering Company;
State Nuclear Power Engineering Company;
Nuclear Power Institute of China;
Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute.
China’s main construction and installation companies are:
China Nuclear Engineering Group Corporation;
China Nuclear Industry 22nd Construction Company;
China Nuclear Industry 23rd Construction Company;
China Nuclear Industry 24th Construction Company;
China Nuclear Industry 5th Construction Company;
China Nuclear Industry Huaxing Construction Company;
Other major nuclear power construction companies are:
SEPCO Electric Power Construction Corporation;
Guangdong Power Engineering Corporation;
Tianjin Electric Power Construction Company;
Anhui No. 2 Electric Power Engineering and Construction Corporation;
China Construction Second Engineering Bureau.
The major equipment suppliers are:
Harbin Electric Corporation;
Dongfang Electric Corporation;
Shanghai Electric Group Company;
China First Heavy Industries Corporation;
China National Erzhong Group Corporation;
Shenyang Blower Works Group Corporation.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE OPERATION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
At present, services for NPP operation are provided by (see Table 6):
China Nuclear Power Operation and Management Company;
Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations and Management Company;
Jiangsu Nuclear Company;
Liaoning Hongyanhe Nuclear Company;
Fujian Ningde Nuclear Company;
Fujian Fuqing Nuclear Company;
Yangjiang Nuclear Company;
Hainan Nuclear Company;
Guangxi Fangchenggang Nuclear Company;
Sanmen Nuclear Company;
Shandong Nuclear Company;
Taishan Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company.
TABLE 6. OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF NPPs
Note: CNNO — CNNP Nuclear Power Operations Management; DNMC — Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations and Management; FQNPC — Fujian Fuqing Nuclear Power Corporation; GFNPC — Guangxi Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Corporation; GNPJVC — Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company; HNPC — Hainan Nuclear Power Corporation; HTR — high temperature reactor; JNPC — Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation; LANPC — LingAo Nuclear Power Company; LDNPC — Lingdong Nuclear Power Company; LHNPC — Liaoning Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Corporation; NDNPC — Fujian Ningde Nuclear Power Corporation; NPQJVC — Nuclear Power Qinshan Joint Venture Corporation; QNPC — Qinshan Nuclear Power Corporation; SDNPC — Shandong Nuclear Power Corporation; SMNPC — Sanmen Nuclear Power Corporation; TNPJVC — Taishan Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company; TQNPC — Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Corporation; YJNPC — Yangjiang Nuclear Power Corporation.
2.7. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
As of 31 December 2017, China did not have any decommissioned nuclear power units.
2.8. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
2.8.1. Fuel cycle
China has an abundance of uranium reserves. By the end of 2012, China had made good progress in uranium exploration and natural uranium exploration both at home and aboard, and more than 350 proven uranium deposits had formed large scale uranium resources bases.
In the field of nuclear fuel processing, including uranium conversion, uranium enrichment and fuel assembly manufacturing, China is capable of scale production and can provide nuclear fuel assembly for various kinds of power plant to meet the need of nuclear power development. China has also adopted the closed nuclear fuel cycle technology. The first pilot plant for reprocessing power reactor spent fuel was build; with the successful hot functional test, the 200T large spent fuel reprocessing project for commercial use with China’s independent intellectual property rights will be started before 2020.
CNNC is the main supplier of nuclear fuel in China. As well as the CGNPC Uranium Company, subordinate to China General Nuclear Power Corporation, six subsidiaries of CNNC are the main producers of natural uranium and nuclear fuel:
China Nuclear Jinyuan Uranium Company;
China North Nuclear Fuel Company;
China South Nuclear Fuel Company;
Lanzhou Uranium Enrichment Company;
Shanxi Uranium Enrichment Company;
In China, the departments in charge of nuclear industry and relevant enterprises in nuclear energy industry jointly push forward the research, development and application of nuclear fuel technology, yielding important positive results. CNNC completed the development of two generations of CF series fuel assemblies (CF2, CF3), established an independent and integrated technological system for manufacturing CF series fuel assemblies. The R&D of fuels for other new reactor types led by CNNC is proceeding smoothly, and the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel production line of China North Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. was completed and produced more than 300 000 fuel balls. The STEP-12 pilot assembly and CZ zirconium alloy sample tube assembly developed by CGN with their own initiatives achieved significant breakthroughs in many links such as design, verification, manufacturing and material, gained excellent performance of out of reactor tests and are about to be put inside the reactor for exposure test. The CAP 1400 nuclear fuel prototype assemblies, independently developed and designed by SPIC, were taken off production line successfully in Baotou, and will enter into the overall performance test phase.
2.8.2. Laws and regulations on waste management
The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution states requirements in the management of radioactive waste, providing legal support for the goals of radioactive waste management. The law states that in prevention and control of radioactive pollution, the State applies the principles of putting prevention first, combining prevention and control measures, exercising rigorous control and giving priority to safety, thus establishing an efficient system for monitoring radioactive pollution. The administrative department for environmental protection under the State Council conducts nationwide, coordinated supervision and management of radioactive pollution protection and prevention. In conjunction with the relevant departments under the State Council, NPP operators are required to emit exhaust gas and waste liquid in a legal manner. NPP operators apply for the radionuclide emission from the department responsible for environmental impacts assessment and report periodically the result of related measurements. Radioactive waste liquid which cannot be emitted into the environment is to be properly disposed or stored. Low and medium solid radioactive waste is disposed near the surface in prescribed areas; high solid radioactive waste are backfilled deep into the earth in a centralized way.
The Regulation on the Safety Management of Radioactive Waste, adopted in 2012, specifies the disposition, storage, treatment, supervision and management of radioactive waste.(11) The regulation states that the proper management of radioactive waste conforms to the principle of reduction, decontamination, proper management and permanent safety. China implements the policy of categorized management. The Ministry of Ecology and Environment is responsible for the safety supervision and management of radioactive waste nationwide and is involved in establishing a national radioactive waste management information system together with departments in charge of nuclear industry and other relevant departments so as to share information.
Operational NPP enterprises draw up and implement an Outline of Waste Management and draw up measures concerning waste treatment, waste storage and disposition, effective limitation on radioactive liquid effluents. The outline, approved by the MEE/NNSA before going into effect, keeps the effluents within the operation limit and condition.
Operational NPP enterprises conduct effective waste management and relevant activities by stipulating detailed procedures in accordance with design intent and hypothesis, and by implementing proper supervision, training and quality assurance measures, so as to reduce probability of abnormal events correlated with waste management system and to minimize radioactive waste.
The radioactive protection department of NPPs formulate and implement the radioactive waste management programme and environment monitoring programme and assess the radiological effect of radioactive release to the environment. China’s NPPs have adopted series of effective measures to reduce and control the radioactive waste, monitor the procedure wherever produces waste so as to provide the source and feature of radioactive waste and prove the procedure was in accordance with the operating rules and regulations. The monitoring results show that the effluents of radioactive liquid during operation is far less than the maximum limitation set by the Government of China.
China’s NPPs have enough equipment to store the waste produced during normal operation and predicted operation events. Excessive storage of untreated waste should be avoided when processing the waste. The record and data of waste storage is to be saved in accordance with relevant laws and regulations.
It is clearly stated in the Nuclear Safety Plan issued by China in 2012 that the specific goal of contamination treatment and rectification is to build an advanced and highly efficient radioactive contamination treatment, rectification and waste treatment system adapting to the development level of nuclear industry. In essence, it seeks to complete disposal for low and medium level radioactive wastes in association with the development of the nuclear industry. The far term goal of 2020 is to carry out treatment and rectification of radioactive contamination in all aspects, achieve obvious result in the decommissioning of nuclear installations constructed early, basically to eliminate the safety risks of radioactive wastes left over in history, accomplish the top level design for treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and complete the underground laboratory.
China is preparing the Guide for Minimizing Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Power Plants, and the draft for comments was completed. The guide proposes that the minimization of radioactive wastes from NPPs be based on ensuring the plant operation safety and safety of wastes, with the safe disposal of wastes, ensure the unconfined discharge of gas and liquid effluents produced in the normal operation of NPPs by reducing the generation of wastes, treatment to reduce volume, recirculation and re-utilization and the corresponding management measures, so that the performance of the finally produced waste mass and packages produced can meet disposal requirements and the amount of wastes produced is as low as reasonably achievable. The guide aims to reduce the radioactive doses exposed to people in the treatment of radioactive wastes, reduce the radioactivity and the quantity of radioactive materials in the course of treating the radioactive wastes, and reduce the radioactive waste management cost of NPPs. Such measures include:
Source term control, using the best available process;
Optimizing equipment management;
Strict control and classified collection;
Reducing volume of wastes;
Strict access management for controlled zones;
Clean unconfinement to control and reduce effectively the amount of radioactive waste produced;
Monitoring the technological processes producing waste;
Providing information about the sources and characteristics of radioactive waste;
Confirming that it is consistent with operational procedures.
Monitoring results show that the discharge amount of radioactive effluents during operation of NPPs is far below the discharge limit stipulated by the national standards. NPPs in China have sufficient facilities to store radioactive wastes produced during the normal operation and anticipated operational events. Excessive accumulation of untreated wastes is avoided during waste treatment. Records and documents of the amount of stored wastes are well kept according to the requirements of relevant regulations and quality assurance.
2.8.3. Spent fuel management
To ensure and maintain the integrity and subcritical limits of the spent fuel, China’s NPPs use approved equipment to handle and store spent fuel in approved facilities in accordance with the written procedures. The underwater storage of spent fuel and the water quality conform to stipulated chemical and physical properties. Decommissioning storage of spent fuel has also been well prepared. NPPs in operation have signed agreements with relevant technology service enterprises to specify spent fuel disposition, and the responsibilities of outside transport and storage. In the meantime, research and development has been carried out for spent fuel shipping containers, in preparation for the transport of spent fuel. NPPs under construction have also signed long term service agreements and spent fuel agreements regarding receiving and storage with relevant technology service enterprises.
The off-plant storage facilities for spent fuel in China comply with design and safety requirements. Operating organizations have established the safe operation plans for a variety of topics, including spent fuel storage, including operation procedures, commissioning plan, quality assurance programme, training schedule, radiation protection programme and emergency preparedness. The operational limits and conditions for facilities have been defined, including parameters for subcriticality, radiation safety and residual heat removal.
The operation, maintenance, monitoring, inspection and testing of temporary dry storage facilities for spent fuel are performed according to the prepared and approved procedures. The above mentioned plans, stipulations, procedures and requirements include:
Spent fuel storage plan;
Management stipulations for storage module, storage cylinder, fuel basket position and numbering;
Fuel basket inspection and submerging under water;
Loading, drying up and welding;
Transport and lifting requirements;
Management stipulations for continuous gamma monitoring;
Radiation protection supervision;
Management stipulations for storage module area;
Daily inspection and supervision stipulations for storage cylinders, inspection and maintenance schedule for storage modules, storage cylinders, fuel baskets and shielded working cases;
Equipment maintenance, testing and acceptance procedures.
The temporary dry storage facilities for spent fuel can obtain all safety related engineering and technical supports.
Since 2011, to maintain reactor cooling, spent fuel pool cooling and maintain the necessary post-accident monitoring capacity of NPPs under station blackout conditions, all NPPs have made improvements according to the requirements on spent fuel pool monitoring means, monitoring scope, monitoring instruments and system availability in the General Technical Requirements on the Improvement of NPPs after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. In addition, all have added spent fuel pool monitoring equipment and means, such as level and temperature monitoring, to obtain necessary information of spent fuel pool after a potential accident.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
China’s main nuclear power R&D organizations include:
China Institute of Atomic Energy;
Nuclear Power Institute of China;
Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute;
China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute;
Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute;
Research Institute of Nuclear Power Operation;
China Institute for Radiation Protection;
Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University;
China Nuclear Power Engineering Company;
State Nuclear Power Technology Research and Development Center.
2.8.1. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
Since the inauguration of the nuclear power programme, China nuclear power has absorbed foreign technologies and independently pursued domestic research and development. China independently designed and constructed the Qinshan 300 MW NPP in 1991. Besides, China has acquired the design and construction technology of 600 MW and 1 GW pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by digesting and absorbing the M310 technology adopted in Daya Bay NPP.
Although China is a relative latecomer in nuclear power, there is a solid basis for its civilian nuclear pursuits. Hence by making use of this advantage, absorbing various advanced technologies and experience gained from NPP operation and management, China’s operating NPPs have continually improved their performance.
To realize sustainable development of nuclear power, China implemented a three step development strategy; namely, focusing on an epithermal reactor, fast neutron reactor and controlled nuclear fusion, giving priority to million kW level PWRs, actively pushing forward the basic research, development, design and construction of HTGRs, commercial reactor and other NPPs with good safety performance, paying heed to increase the capacity of independent innovation.
China's existing operating nuclear power units are all PWRs, except Third Qinshan NPP, which is a pressurized heavy water reactor (CANDU-6). Among the 19 nuclear power units under construction in China at the end of 2017, 6 units adopted million kW class, improved, second generation PWR unit, four units are adopted AP1000 technology, four units adopted HPR1000 technology, two units based on water cooled, water moderated technology, two units adopted European pressurized water reactor (EPR) technology and one unit adopted High Temperature Reactor–Pebble-Bed Module (HTR–PM) technology.
The HPR1000 proposed the active plus passive safe design concept, which is designed with the reactor core including 177 fuel assemblies, multiple redundant security system, single core arrangement and double layer containment. It fully abides by the design principle of defence in depth and provides perfect measures for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents. The safety indicators and technical performance reach the advanced international level of third generation nuclear power technology. It has fully independent intellectual property. On 7 May 2015, the first HPR1000 — the construction of Unit 5 of Fuqing NPP — was started. The construction of the other three units that adopt HPR1000 technology — Unit 6 of Fuqing NPP and Units 3 and 4 of Fangchenggang NPP — were started soon after. On 20 August, construction of the first HPR1000 overseas project — Unit 2 of the Pakistan Karachi NPP — began. This indicates that China has third generation nuclear power technology with independent property rights in addition to France, the Russian Federation and the United States of America.
188.8.131.52. EPR, AP1000 and CAP1400
Construction of Units 1 and 2 of Taishan NPP began in 2009 and 2010 respectively. On 29 June 2018, Unit 1 was connected to the grid for the first time, becoming the world’s first EPR nuclear power unit to be connected to the grid.
The first batch of four AP1000 units is under construction in Sanmen, Zhejiang and Haiyang, Shandong. Unit 1 of the Sanmen NPP was connected to the grid for the first time on June 30, 2018. China is actively absorbing and re-innovating AP1000 technology.
CAP1400, the major special demonstration project of an advanced PWR NPP has been designed, and has passed the safety review and achieved the conditions for starting construction. CAP1400 adopts a large unit design, featuring apparent scale effect and better economic efficiency; with the advanced passive design concept, the safety of reactor under extreme accidents can be ensured without the external power supply. In addition, the discharge of waste heat and safe discharge of core decay heat can be guaranteed; with the simplified design, it can significantly reduce the number of parts required, ease the pressure of maintenance and inspection, and significantly reduce the chance of failure. The CAP1400 model power plant is located in Shidao Bay, Rongcheng, Weihai City, Shandong Province. It is proposed to build two nuclear units with a design life of 60 years and the installed capacity of single reactor of 14 MW. Currently, for the CAP1400 model project, various preliminary works have been completed. It is expected to be officially commence construction at the end of 2018.
HTGRs have such features and advantages as inherent safety, multiple functions and modular construction. It uses advanced nuclear power technology with fourth generation reactor safety features with fully independent intellectual property rights. After more than 30 years of basic research, test reactor operation and model project construction, China has achieved all of the key technologies of HTGR. The construction of HTR–PM at Shandong Shidao Bay NPP is proceeding smoothly. It is expected to be completed by 2020. By the end of 2017, the main part of the HTGR demonstration project entered the height of installation and commissioning. The following important nodes were completed: hoisting and adjusting No. 1 reactor metal internals; installation of No. 2 reactor ceramic internals; 220kV energization; and the covering of No. 2 reactor pressure vessel, etc. Equipment manufacturing, construction and installation and commissioning were conducted steadily.
In addition, China Nuclear E&C Group is accelerating the industrialization process of HTGR technology. It is promoting the selection and reservation of plant site at home and abroad. At home, it has carried out site selection for 600 MW HTGRs in Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces, including site survey, general selection and preliminary feasibility study. Overseas, it has signed memoranda of understanding (MOU) on HTGRs with Saudi Arabia, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates, among others.
In July 2011, the China Experimental Fast Reactor realized initial synchronization and power generation successfully. In October 2014, the overall plan of the demonstration fast reactor project was approved by the state. On 29 December 2017, the demonstration fast reactor project with a unit capacity of 600 MW was built in Xiapu site, Fujian Province.
184.108.40.206. Other reactors
Meanwhile, China places emphasis on the development of other advanced nuclear power technology, such as minor scale reactors, floating nuclear power reactors, space nuclear power reactors, travelling wave reactors, high temperature fused salt reactors and nuclear fusion reactors. ACP100, the small modular reactor developed by CNNC, adopts complete passive safety equipment in the design. In 2016, ACP100 got through the general reactor design review by the IAEA. China has a framework agreement on joint design and development of offshore floating NPP based on ACP100 with the United Kingdom, which is also known as ACP100S. China has also signed an MOU on collaborative construction of floating reactor with the Russian Federation. In 2015, CNNC signed MOU on joint development of next generation NPPs with TerraPower, United States of America, which plans to complete the design and technical and commercial operation of travelling wave reactors. China is taking vigorous actions to carry out the study of a thorium based molten salt reactor and plans to construct the first 10 MW solid fuel thorium molten experimental reactor and one 2 MW liquid fuel thorium molten experimental reactor. At present, it has developed the key technologies, and the R&D of prototyping system is progressing. In 2015, China solved the bottleneck problems through a fusion reactor study, successfully completing the post-spallation neutron exposure performance test of the first batch structural material — China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel. In addition, China participated in the developing and undertook to manufacture part of the equipment in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project.
2.8.2. International Cooperation and initiatives
China participated in the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) guided by the IAEA. So far, China designated specialists to attend the steering committee, seminars, and technical conferences of INPRO and assisted INPRO with its various tasks.
China joined the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). China participated in the steering committees of HTGRs and of sodium cooled fast reactors. A few officials and specialists from China have become members in the task force of GIF work group.
China is one of the five founding members of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). China actively participates in the work of The International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) and holds the post of vice president of INFNEC.
China gives priority to a forward looking international cooperation programme concerning long term energy supply. China joined the ITER programme and set up the special programme of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Implementation Program. So far, the Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Southwestern Institute of Physics, ShanXitaigang and GuiZhouxinli has conducted feasibility research on China’s ITER procurement package. By February 2012, China had completed the conclusion and signing of procurement agreements for 10 out of the 12 procurement packages for manufacturing, which were promised at the admission to ITER, The first procurement package of China was completed in December 2015.
CNNC signed an MOU on Collaboration in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Industrial Chain with the Nuclear Power Plant Research Institute Trnava (VÚJE), Slovakia, in November 2015, at the 4th Leader’s Meeting of China and Central and Eastern European Countries.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
The Government of China stresses on the development of human resources on nuclear power. The Government fosters talents on nuclear power to meet increasing need by supporting the construction of nuclear power major in universities and colleges, strengthening on the job training and fortifying cooperation between universities and colleges, scientific research institutions with enterprises:
Completing talents cultivating system: In the form of governmental support and close cooperation between universities and enterprises, majors related to nuclear power are established in universities, more students are enrolled into nuclear majors in higher schools, and discipline and specialty structure optimized, while the universities have well combined fundamental education and specialty education with the pre-job training and on the job training of enterprises, and the pattern of university and enterprise joint education has gradually taken shape.
Investing more resources in talent training: Operators of NPPs have constantly increased their resource investment in talent training by equipping full range simulators, various principle simulators and training simulators. Other approaches include setting up a skill training centre, human caused failure behaviour prevention training centre, etc. Training outlines and training textbooks according to the difference of positions have been developed and compiled. An ever increasing body of full time and part time teaching staff was built up, with their respective training skills and levels being constantly cultivated, polished and improved. At the group level, employee training centres were established to achieve scale effect of training by integrated and coordinated investment of resources. Periodic safety reviews of operating NPPs also include the examination of human resources deployment.
Expanding ways of talents fostering and recruitment: Different training systems were established according to the features of talents in nuclear power supervision, design, engineering and operation. At the same time, means of expanding university enrollment, public recruitment and head hunting of renowned experts home and abroad have been adopted to meet the need for talents.
Valuing the importance of fostering high end talents:
Select and foster various high end talents ahead of the launch of new projects;
Foster the mainstay with global horizon in management and technology by expanding education exchanges and cooperation in nuclear power field;
Fully utilize social resources and bring in high end talents needed in the development of nuclear power.
Actively establishing a nuclear power specialist support system:
Gather talents information at home and aboard;
Establish talent information pool and platform for sharing nuclear power talents by establishing nuclear power specialist committee at different levels and technical working groups in specialized fields;
Using the talents and technical resources from the nuclear power technical support units to train employees in crucial positions;
Certify and authorize qualification;
Provide expert advice and suggestion for policy making and events initiated by department in charge, supervision department and operators.
Exchange of talents: Job rotations are arranged between departments in NPPs, between different plants in a nuclear power group and between senior managements of nuclear power groups to realize circulation of nuclear power professionals, and accumulate and exchange management experience.
Strengthening the international cooperation and exchange to develop people of talent: Dispatch technical and management professionals to other countries for training and studying via multilateral organizations and bilateral agreements, strengthen the international cooperation and exchange to develop people of talent.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER COMMUNICATION
The public participates in every stage of environment assessment from the site selection to the decommission of NPPs. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Appraising of Environment Impacts and the Temporary Act of Environmental Impact Assessment of Public Participating stated that with regard to projects which may generate negative impact on environment or to the public interest of environment, public hearings, expert consulting, verification and other necessary measures are to be conducted to solicit opinions from relevant units, experts and the general public for the environment impacts report, before the project proposal is submitted for approval.
A chapter of public participation is to be included in the environment impact report during site selection. Constructors and operators are to take into account suggestions from relevant units, experts and the public, explanation for adoption or rejection of which will be attached to the environment impacts report to be sent for approval. Administrative department for environmental protection under the State Council will not accept those environment impacts reports without a chapter of public participation.
In the stage of site selection approval, construction units, before extensive public consultation, will publicize nuclear power related knowledge to the local public in a direct, effective way, such as distributing brochure of nuclear power knowledge, giving lectures on nuclear power knowledge, holding nuclear power exhibitions, and arranging site visits to the NPP.
The procedures of the implementation of public participation in environment impacts assessment during the site selection are as follows:
Construction units are to publicize relevant information about the construction project within seven working days once the institution for environment impact assessment is designated.
When the preliminary conclusion of environment impacts assessment is made by the entrusted institution, the construction unit for NPP is to inform the public of the major content and relevant information of the environment impact assessment and publicize brief edition of the assessment in the media familiar to the public, such as local newspapers, magazines, Internet, television, radio, etc.
After the publication of the environment impact assessment and brief edition of the assessment in the local media, public opinions are to be solicited openly by means of Internet, public reception, distributing questionnaire, holding discussion meetings or public hearings, etc.
Construction units or its designated environment impact assessment institutions are to deal efficiently with public opinions and suggestions collected from public participation and to give timely feedbacks on the dedicated web site or in the environment impacts assessment report.
China attaches great importance to information publicity and public communication, and ensures the right of the public to know, to participate and to supervise. The MEE/NNSA issued the Scheme of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Information Publicity (for trial implementation) and the Notice on Strengthening Information Publicity of Nuclear and Radiation Safety in NPPs and promulgated the MEE/NNSA Work Scheme of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Public Communication and Administrative Measures of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Information Publicity, specifying the scope of application and division of responsibilities for information publicity, in addition to the contents, timing, methods and channels of information publicity. The main contents of nuclear and radiation safety regulation information publicity cover:
Laws and regulations, standards, policies and planning of the State on nuclear and radiation safety;
Release of administrative licensing procedures and licensing documents for nuclear and radiation safety;
Safety supervisory inspection reports on relevant nuclear and radiation safety activities;
General state of safety of nuclear installations;
Radioactive environment monitoring results;
Nuclear and radiation emergency plans;
Important nuclear and radiation events (accidents) and their investigation and treatment conclusions.
Nuclear power companies actively explore effective means of public communication, establish an open and transparent system of communication, and to let the public understand nuclear power with a rational and objective view. The main modes of communication with the public include:
Through on-line information, press conference and corporate social responsibility reports, nuclear power companies actively disclose information to the public. Each nuclear power company has established a normalized information release mechanism and spokesperson team. In addition to nuclear safe production, the information being released includes strategic planning, technology development and social responsibility, etc.
Through social media, such as micro-blog and WeChat, the affiliated companies, staff and experts are encouraged to actively communicate with the public by the Internet.
Through face to face communication with the public, each nuclear power company established a regular dialogue mechanism with the public, carrying out polls, forums, dialogue, telephone and network consultation, focusing on the communication with and feedback from various aspects and accepting active external supervision through dialogue. From July 2015, jointly organized by the industrial authorities, the Open Day for Public Experience activity became the common activities of all nuclear plants in the country and the whole industry. Over 3000 representatives, including governmental employees at various levels, enterprises in the nuclear power industry chain, the media, industrial association and non-governmental organization, went to the 16 domestic nuclear power bases and surrounding communities to hold dialogue with nuclear power companies.
Through promoting popularization of nuclear science in schools, CNNC has established a nuclear science lecturer team and organized the nuclear science competition. China General Nuclear Power Group Co., Ltd. has developed nuclear power science materials with a view to obtain support from local government for integrating the materials into the local junior high school curriculum.
Through actively carry out nuclear power related tourism and exhibitions, each NPP has established an exhibition hall or auxiliary facilities at the project location and nearby cities. China General Nuclear Power Group Co., Ltd. has established ten nuclear science exhibition halls in the country and carried out industrial tourism projects for more than ten years. In 2015, the number of public visitors reached more than 250 000. Qinshan Nuclear Power Base is planning to establish a nuclear power service centre integrating scientific and technical design, training and tourism in Haiyan County, Zhejiang Province. In addition, the nuclear power companies also make full use of overseas exhibition, international nuclear industry exhibition, China-Tech Expo and China High-Tech Fair Exhibition for public awareness, targeting the peers, professional groups and technology enthusiasts.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
China has promulgated the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution, Emergency Response Law of the Peoples Republic of China, Regulations on the Emergency Management for Nuclear Accidents of Nuclear Power Plant and a series regulations and guides, which specify the national emergency management system and emergency preparedness of NPP operating organizations. In 2013, the State Council officially approved the revised National Nuclear Emergency Plan after its issuance, further defining the scope of management for nuclear emergency work, making clear the work principles and major bodies of responsibilities, enhancing the commanding mechanism, setting detailed rules for emergency preparedness and guarantee measures, formalizing the information reporting and release procedures, and also specifying the work after an accident with nuclear installation.
A three level emergency organization system has been formed for nuclear accident emergency in China, which consists of Nuclear Accident Emergency Organizations of the State, those of the provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) where the NPP is located and those of NPP operating organizations. The National Coordinating Committee for Nuclear Accidents Emergency organizes and coordinates the nuclear accident emergency preparedness and emergency disposal in the whole country. The daily work is undertaken by the National Nuclear Emergency Office Nuclear emergency committees at the provincial level, which are in charge of the nuclear accident emergency preparedness and emergency disposal in their administrative areas, and command the off-site emergency response actions for nuclear accidents in their own administrative areas. The nuclear emergency headquarters of nuclear installation operating organizations organize the onsite nuclear emergency preparedness and emergency disposal work, command the nuclear emergency response actions in their organizations, cooperate with and assist in the off-site nuclear emergency preparedness and response work, and promptly put forth suggestions on entering the off-site emergency state and taking off-site emergency protection measures. The group corporations of nuclear installation operating organizations lead and coordinate the nuclear emergency preparedness work in these organizations, allocate its emergency resources and forces under accident conditions and support the response actions of nuclear installation operating organizations.
China carries out multilevel and all round cooperation in the nuclear emergency field with IAEA and other international organizations, and expands cooperation and exchange with relevant nuclear countries in the world in the nuclear emergency field. China actively performs the international obligations specified in international conventions such as the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Convention on Assistance in the case of Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, and responds to all advocates proposed by the IAEA. China has participated in a number of convention exercises activities organized by the IAEA. On 26 June 2015, France, Pakistan and the IAEA dispatched officials and experts to view and emulate the Shendun-2015 nuclear accident emergency joint exercise held in China, for this exercise, notification was made to the IAEA according to the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident.
China actively carries out bilateral cooperation and exchange in nuclear emergency field. China has signed bilateral nuclear energy cooperation agreement with 30 States, including Argentina, Brazil, France, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, to carry out cooperation and exchange including nuclear emergency. In the framework of Sino-US Agreement on Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy, the CAEA and the Department of Energy have jointly carried out a number of training activities, such as nuclear emergency medical rescue training sessions and nuclear emergency consequence assessment symposia. Within the framework of regular meetings of the premiers of China and of the Russian Federation, the China–Russia Nuclear Issue Subcommittee mechanism was set up to study and discuss regularly issues on cooperation and exchange in the nuclear emergency field. China has also established the China–France nuclear energy cooperation coordination committee mechanism with France, and the China–Korea nuclear energy cooperation joint committee mechanism with the Republic of Korea, to carry out relevant activities regularly. China has aided Pakistan in building an NPP, and carried out extensive cooperation and exchange in the nuclear emergency field.
China actively develops multilateral cooperation, and carries out cooperation and exchange in nuclear emergency field with all countries. China officially joined the radiation emergency medical preparedness and rescue network of the World Health Organization and the International Nuclear Emergency Response and Aid Network, China plays an active role in regional cooperation and exchange via mechanisms such as Asia Nuclear Safety Network, the Asia Nuclear Cooperation Forum, and the Asia-Pacific Region Nuclear Technology Cooperation Protocol. China, Japan and the Republic of Korea established nuclear accident early notification framework, expert exchange mechanism and the Senior Officials Meeting mechanism, adopting the implementation plan for nuclear safety cooperation actions of the three States, to carry out cooperation and exchange in relevant fields. China has continually sponsored international academic exchange activities in nuclear emergency field. China held the Asia-Pacific Region training session on Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response under Severe Nuclear Accidents in 2014.
3. STATE LAWS AND REGULATIONS AND THE RELEVANT INSTITUTIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
The regulator for China's nuclear safety is the MEE/NNSA, the main duties of which include:
It is responsible for the supervision and management of nuclear and radiation safety. It draws up and puts into implementation the related policies, plans, laws, administrative regulations and departmental rules, standards and specifications, concerning nuclear and radiation safety, electromagnetic radiation, radiation environmental protection, nuclear and radiation emergency.
It is responsible for the coordinated supervision and management on nuclear safety of nuclear facilities, radiation safety and radiation environmental protection.
It is responsible for the licensing, design, manufacture, and installation of nuclear safety equipment, the supervision and management of nondestructive inspection activities, and the safety inspection of imported nuclear safety equipment.
It is responsible for the supervision and management of the controlling and physical protection of nuclear materials.
It is responsible for the supervision and management of nuclear technology projects, and radiation safety and radiation environmental protection of uranium (thorium) and accompanying radioactive mines. It is also in charge of the supervision and management in radiation protection.
It is responsible for the supervision and management of radioactive waste treatment and radiation safety of disposal and environmental protection work, and the supervision and examination of the prevention and control of radioactive pollution.
It is responsible for the supervision and management of radioactive substance transport safety.
It is responsible for the nuclear and radiation emergency response, investigation and handling in the MEE/NNSA, also involved in the prevention and treatment of nuclear and radiation terrorism.
It is responsible for the personnel qualification administration of operators for reactor and nuclear equipment.
It carries out supervision and monitoring over the ambient radiation, nuclear facilities, and the major source of radiation.
It is responsible for the domestic implementation of related international convention concerning nuclear and radiation safety.
It is obliged to guide the related business involving nuclear and radiation safety surveillance sites.
Conduct scientific research and study of applied technology in nuclear and radiation safety area.
The administrative competent department of environment protection of the State Council conducts the unified surveillance and management for the prevention and remedy of the radioactive contamination nationwide. The health administrative department under the State Council, as well as other relevant departments, in accordance with the stipulated duties of the State Council, and in accordance with this law supervise and manage radioactive pollution prevention and control work. The daily inspection work is carried out mainly according to the provisions in the law and the relevant procedures and coordination mechanism, inspections concerning important nuclear safety issues and major safety inspection programmes (such as the comprehensive safety inspection of nuclear installations in the whole country after the Fukushima nuclear accident) are usually carried out jointly by the nuclear safety regulatory body (NNSA) and the industry competent authorities (CAEA and NEA); when some special fields are involved, the relevant professional departments on nuclear safety also participate in the law enforcement activities, for example, seismological and meteorological departments would participate in the evaluation on earthquakes and tsunami for sites of nuclear installations, and when transport and traffic issues are concerned, the transport department is invited to the relevant activities.
For sanctions in law enforcement, the nuclear safety regulatory body (NNSA) would usually solicit opinions from the competent authorities, and impose sanctions in strict accordance with the administrative sanction procedures. Sanction notice is sent first, with appealing procedures indicated, after the final sanction is made, the letter of sanction is usually copied selectively to the competent authorities of the industry (CAEA and NEA), the guarantee departments of the nuclear industry (the Ministry of Finance and the State owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission) and relevant professional departments.
In 2013, China launched a new round reform of administrative approval system, to further streamline administration and delegate power to the lower levels. The MEE/NNSA made partial exploration and practice in this regard for the nuclear and radiation safety regulation. For some items with low risks and assured safety, the review and approval process has been simplified or exemption management adopted. In the meantime, licensing matters are streamlined. At present, there are 20 administrative licensing items on nuclear and radiation safety directly undertaken by the MEE/NNSA as approved by the State Council, concerning the licensing of NPP operators, nuclear materials licensing, and the design, manufacturing, erection and non-destructive testing of nuclear safety equipment.
3.1.2. Licensing programme
China’s NPP licences include:
Site selection audit review;
First fuel loading permit;
Examination and approval documents of environmental impact, statements, and evaluation report of NPP occupational disease hazard during the phases of site selection, construction and operation;
Other documents that are required to be approved, including decommissioning permit, etc.
The application and approval process for permit is shown in Fig. 2.
FIG. 2. The application and approval of a licence and permit.
The applicants submit the application and safety analysis report and the other relevant documents in line with rules and regulations for approval by the MEE/NNSA before they conduct nuclear activities.
In the process of examination and approval, the MEE/NNSA solicit opinions and advice from the relevant departments of the State Council, and the provincial, autonomous regional and municipality governments where NPP locates.
The MEE/NNSA decides whether to issue a permit, and provides necessary permit conditions after having obtained the technical evaluation results, consulted the relevant departments of the State Council and the local governments, and received consultation and deliberation of Nuclear Safety Committee of Experts.
3.2. MAIN NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
Up to 31 December 2017 the following laws and regulations concerning nuclear power have been issued.
3.2.1. State laws
The Nuclear Safety Law of the People’s Republic of China
(Passed on 1 September 2017, during the 29th meeting of the twelfth session of the standing committee of the National People’s Congress of People’s Republic of China)
The Environmental Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China
(Passed on 26 December 1989, during the 11th meeting of the seventh session of the standing committee of the National People's Congress of People’s Republic of China)
The Occupational Disease Prevention Law of the People’s Republic of China
(Passed on 27 October 2001, during the 24th meeting of the ninth session of the standing committee of the National People's Congress; revision passed on 31 December 2011 during the 24th meeting of the 11th session of the standing committee of the National People's Congress)
Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People’s Republic of China
(Passed on 28 October 2002, during the 30th meeting of the ninth session of the standing committee of the National People's Congress)
Law on the Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution of the People’s Republic of China
(Passed on 28 June 2003, during the 3rd meeting of the tenth session of the standing committee of the National People's Congress)
3.2.2. Administrative rules and regulations of the State Council
The Civilian Nuclear Safety Supervision and Management Regulations of the People’s Republic of China (HAF001)
(Issued by the State Council on 29 October 1986)
The Nuclear Material Control Regulations of the People’s Republic of China (HAF501)
(Issued by the State Council on 15 June 1987)
The Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear Emergency Management Ordinance (HAF002)
(Issued by the State Council on 4 August 1993)
The Civil Nuclear Safety Equipment Supervision and Management Regulations
(Issued by the State Council on 11 July 2007)
Radioactive Goods Transportation Safety Management Regulations
(Issued by the State Council on 14 September 2009)
Radioactive Waste Safety Management Regulations
(Issued by the State Council on 20 December 2011)
Radioisotope and Ray Devices Safety and Protective Regulations
(Issued by the State Council on 14 September 2005)
The Nuclear Export Control Regulations of the People’s Republic of China
(Issued by the State Council on 10 September 1997, and revised in 2004)
The Dual-purpose Nuclear Goods and Correlated Technologies Export Control Regulations of the People’s Republic of China
(Issued by the State Council on 10 June 1998, and revised in 2004)
3.2.3. Departmental rules
Detailed Rules No. 1 for the Implementation of the Civilian Nuclear Safety Supervision and Management Regulations in the People’s Republic of China
The application and issuing of Nuclear power plant safety permit (HAF001/01)
(Issued by the NNSA on 31 December 1993)
Detailed Rules No. 1, Attachment 1 for the Implementation of the Civilian Nuclear Safety Supervision and Management Regulations in the People’s Republic of China
NPP operator licence issuance and management programme (HAF001/01/01)
(Issued by the NNSA on 31 December 1993)
Detailed Rules No. 2 for the Implementation of the Civilian Nuclear Safety Supervision and Management Regulations in the People’s Republic of China
Nuclear safety surveillance (HAF001/02)
(Issued by the NNSA on 14 June 1995)
Detailed Rules No. 2, Attachment 1 for the Implementation of the Civilian Nuclear Safety Supervision and Management Regulations in the People’s Republic of China Nuclear power plant operating unit reporting system (HAF001/02/01)
(Released and approved by the NNSA on 14 June 1995)
Detailed Rules No. 1 for the Implementation of the Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear Accident Emergency Management Regulations
Emergency Preparedness and Emergency Response of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Unit (HAF002/01)
(Released and approved by the NNSA on 12 May 1998)
Nuclear Power Plants Quality Assurance Safety Regulations (HAF003)
(NNSA Decree No. 1 on 27 July 1991)
Nuclear Power Plant Site Selection Safety Regulations (HAF101)
(NNSA Decree No. 1 on 27 July 1991)
Safety Requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Design(HAF102)
(Approved and Promulgated by NNSA on 18 April 2004)
Nuclear Power Plant Operation Safety Regulations (HAF103)
(Approved and Promulgated by NNSA on 18 April 2004)
Nuclear Power Plant Operation Safety Regulations, Attachment 1
Nuclear Power Plant Refuelling, Modification and Trip Management (HAF103/01)
(Approved and Promulgated by NNSA on 2 March 1994)
The Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities Safety Regulations (HAF301)
(NNSA Decree No. 1 on 17 June)
Radioactive Waste Safety Supervision and Management Regulations (HAF401)
(Approved and Promulgated by NNSA on 5 November 1997)
Detailed Rules for the Implementation of Nuclear Materials Regulations of the People’s Republic of China (HAF501/01)
(Released by NNSA, Department of Energy, National Defense Science and Technology Industry Committee on 25 September 1990)
The Civil Nuclear Safety Equipment Design and Manufacture of Installation and Nondestructive Inspection Supervision and Management Regulations (HAF601)
(Decreed by State Environmental Protection Administration (NNSA) on 28 December 2007)
Civil Nuclear Safety Equipment Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification Regulations (HAF602)
(Decreed by State Environmental Protection Administration (NNSA) on 28 December 2007)
The Civil Nuclear Safety Equipment Welding Operator Qualification Regulations (HAF603)
(Decreed by State Environmental Protection Administration (NNSA) on 28 December 2007)
The Import of Civil Nuclear Safety Equipment Supervision and Management Regulations (HAF604)
(Decreed by State Environmental Protection Administration (NNSA) on 28 December 2007)
Implementing Rules No. 2, Attachment 3 of the Civilian Nuclear Safety Supervision and Management Regulations
(Approved and released by NNSA on 28 January 2006)
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities Reporting System (HAF001/02/03-1995)
(Approved and released by NNSA on 14 June 1995)
List on the Administration of Construction Project Environmental Impact Assessment (No. 2 Decree of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China)
(Approved and released by the Ministry of Environmental Protection on 2 September 2008 and revised in 2015)
Management Measures for Radioactive Goods Transportation Safety Licence (HAF701-2010)
(Approved and released by NNSA on 25 September 2010)
The Measures for the Administration of Security Licence for Radioisotopes and Radiation Devices (HAF801)
(Promulgated by NNSA on 6 December 2008)
The Measures for the Administration of Safety and Protection of Radioisotopes and Radiation Devices (HAF802)
(Promulgated by NNSA on 18 April 2011)
The Measures for the Administration of Electromagnetic Radiation Environmental Protection
(Promulgated by NNSA in 1997)
INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA
Agreement between the People’s Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in China
Additional protocol to Agreement between the People’s Republic of China and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in China
Supplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA
I–1. MAIN INTERNATIONAL TREATIES
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material;
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident;
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency;
Convention on Nuclear Safety;
Safety Convention on Spent Fuel Management and Radioactive Waste Management.
I–2. BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
There are bilateral agreements for cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy between the Government of China and the European Atomic Energy Community and 26 States (Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America, Viet Nam).
MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA)
Add.:A8, Fuchenglu, Haidian District, Beijing, P. R. China
Tel.: +86-10-8858-1381 / +86-10- 8858-1286
National Energy Administration (NEA)
Add.: Yuetan South Street No.38, Xicheng District, Beijing, P. R. China
Post code: 100824
National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA)
Attached to Ministry of Ecology and Environment
Add.:No.115, Nanxiaojie, Xizhimennei, Xicheng District, Beijing, P. R. China
China National Nuclear Corporation
Add.:No.1, Nansanxiang, Sanlihe, Xicheng District, Beijing, P. R. China
China General Nuclear Power Corporation Co., Ltd.
Add.: South Building, CGN Tower, 2002 Shennan Boulevard, Futian district, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, P. R. China
State Power Investment Cooperation Limited
Add.: Building 3, No.28, Financial Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, P. R. China
China Huaneng Group
Add.: No.6, FuXingMenNei St, Xicheng District, Beijing, P. R. China
Post code: 100031
Tel: +86-10- 63228800
Fax: +86-10- 63228866
Hualong Pressurized Water Reactor Technology Corporation, Ltd.
Add.: No.12, Chegongzhuang Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, P. R. China
Post code: 100037
CNCC 404 co., LTD
Add.:Lanzhou, Gansu Province, P. R. China
Post box:508, A4
Nuclear Power Institute of China
Add.: No.328, 1 section, Chang Shun Avenue, Huayang, Shuangliu County, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P. R. China
Shanghai Nuclear Engineering and Design Institute
Add.:No.29, Hongcao Road, Shanghai, P. R. China
China Nuclear Power Engineering co., Ltd.
Add.: No.117, Sanhuan north road, Haidian District, Beijing, P. R. China
Post code: 100840
China Institute of Atomic Energy
Add.:Beijing, P. R. China
Tel:+86-10-6935-7493 / +86-10-6935-7280
China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation
Add.:Beijing, P. R. China
Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University
Add.: Haidian District, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China
School of Nuclear Science and Engineering of Shanghai JiaoTong University
Add.: No.800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, P.R.China
Post code: 200240 ,
School of Energy and Power Engineering of Xi’an Jiaotong University
Add.: No.28, Xianning Road, Shanxi Province, Xi'an City, P. R. China
Post code: 710049,
College of Nuclear Science and Technology of Harbin Engineering University
Add.: No.145, Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China
Post code: 150001,
Name of report coordinator:
Mr. LONG Maoxiong
China Nuclear Energy Association