1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. Country overview
Note: The content of this section, including Tables 1 and 2, has been removed by the IAEA to better focus the report on nuclear power.
1.2. Energy Information
1.2.1. Estimated available energy
TABLE 3. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Solid||Liquid||Natural Gas||Uranium||Hydro||Other Renewable|
|Total amount in specific units*||1 087||10||26||10 000|
|Total amount in Exajoule (EJ)||0.02||0.21|
* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons; Hydro, Renewable: TW
Source: Slovak Minerals Yearbook 2011
1.2.2. Energy Statistics
Slovakia has limited available domestic energy resources, i.e. brown coal, oil, natural gas and renewable resources.
TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS (in EJ)
|2000||2006||2007||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||Average annual growth rate (%)
|Net import (Import-Export)|
* Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy.
** Solid fuels include coal, lignite
Source: Statistics Office of SR
1.2.3. Energy policy
The Energy policy of the Slovak Republic was approved by the resolution of the Slovak Government in 2014. The Energy Policy of the Slovak Republic is a strategic document defining the energy sector's primary objectives and priorities until 2035 with a vision for 2050. The Energy Policy is a component of Slovakia's national economic strategy given that ensuring sustainable economic growth is conditioned by the reliable supply of affordable energy. The priority from this perspective is ensuring the reliability and stability of energy supply, efficient energy utilisation at optimum costs and ensuring environmental protection. A well-functioning energy market with a competitive environment will be strengthened by Energy Policy implementation. The task of the Energy Policy is to create a stable framework for a safely operating energy market that motivates investments into energy.
The Slovak Republic has been a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) since 1994 and a party to the Kyoto Protocol since 2002.
By resolution No. 256/2014 the Government of SR adopted the “Policy, principles and strategy for further development of nuclear safety“. The aim of the document is to summarize and strengthen the principles to protect the public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation associated with peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
1.3. The electricity system
1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process
On July 31st 2012, the Law on Regulation in Network Industries (Act No. 250/2012 Coll.) was approved by the Slovak Parliament. Its amendment was necessary due to belated transposition of gas and electricity directives of the third EU energy package. It came into effect on September 1, 2012.
This Law states that the Regulatory Office for Network Industries (Slovak abbr. URSO) is legally separated and functionally independent form any state, public or private institutions. Its representatives act independently, without any market or other interests and while performing their duties they do not follow instructions from any third parties.
1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector
Slovenské elektrárne, a. s. (Slovak Electric, SE) is the largest electricity producer in Slovakia, also generating and selling heat and providing ancillary services for the power grid. It has an installed capacity of 5 267.46 MW with an ideal production mix – nuclear, water and conventional sources in combination with biomass cofiring and photovoltaic sources. It operates thirty-five hydro power plants, two nuclear power plants, two thermal power plants and two photovoltaic plants.
Ownership structure of Slovenské elektrárne is the following: the Slovak Republic owns 34 % (shareholder's rights are executed by the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic) and the company Enel SpA owns 66 % of Slovenské elektrárne shares.
On December 18th, 2015, Enel Produzione S.p.A. signed a contract with EP Slovakia BV, a subsidiary of Energetický a prumyslový holding, a.s. ("EPH"), for the sale of the stake held by Enel Produzione in Slovenské elektrárne, a.s. ("Slovenské elektrárne"), equal to 66% of the latter’s share capital. The sale will be executed by way of a transfer of Enel Produzione’s entire stake in Slovenské elektrárne to a newly established company (“HoldCo”), and the eventual sale to EP Slovakia - in two phases - of 100% of the share capital of the HoldCo.
On the same topic, Enel Produzione and the Slovak Ministry of the Economy have signed a Memorandum of Understanding on December 21st, 2015.
Other electricity producers typically have one power plant at their disposal, and each of them has a market share of less than 5 % (e.g. PPC Power, U. S. Steel Košice, Tepláren Košice, Slovnaft, Mondi SCP, Slovintegra, Vodohospodárska výstavba). Generation in industrial power plants is secured mainly for self-consumption. The big CHP power plants provide electricity supply mainly to the so-called electricity end-consumers in households and small businesses.
The Slovak Republic’s transmission grid is connected to the wider European transmission system and Ukraine by means of 8 extra high voltage (400 kV) and 2 high voltage (220 kV) interconnectors including 5 with the Czech Republic (3 extra high and 2 high voltage), 2 EHV with Poland, 1 EHV with Ukraine, and 2 EHV with Hungary. Two new EHV interconnectors with Hungary are also in the planning stages and are on the EU list of projects of common interest. All neighbouring countries have interconnections with the Slovak Republic, apart from Austria. From the historical perspective Slovakia is also interconnected with the Czech Republic at the 110 kV level operated by the distribution system operator.
The transmission system is owned and operated by Slovenska elektrizacna prenosova sustava, a.s. (SEPS), which acts as power system operator. The Slovak Republic is the owner of 100% of company shares with the Ministry of Finance of the Slovak Republic acting on its behalf. The transmission system consists of 1,953 km of 400 kV lines, 826 km of 220 kV lines and 80 km of 110 kV lines. The Regulatory Office for Network Industries (URSO) approves the operation of the 110 kV lines.
The Slovak transmission system: http://www.sepsas.sk/
FIGURE 1: SLOVAK TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Distribution and supply
As of July 1st 2007, the legal unbundling of electricity supply from electricity distribution took place in the vertically integrated companies Západoslovenská energetika (hereinafter as „ZSE“), Stredoslovenská energetika (hereinafter as „SSE“) and Východoslovenská energetika (hereinafter as „VSE“). Thus, three legally independent companies emerged as operators of regional distribution systems: ZSE Distribúcia, Stredoslovenská energetika – distribúcia and Východoslovenská distribucná, with the license for conducting business in electricity distribution, and electricity supply is secured by these three so-called household electricity end-suppliers ZSE-Energia, SSE and VSE. Further electricity suppliers are represented by electricity producers, small businesses and electricity traders.
As of the same date (July 1st 2007), the electricity market is open to all electricity consumers including households, based on the European legislation provisions (Directive 2003/54/EC).
Západoslovenská energetika („ZSE“): http://www.zse.sk/
Stredoslovenská energetika („SSE“): http://www.sse.sk/
Východoslovenská energetika („VSE“): http://www.vse.sk/
1.3.3. Main indicators
The volume of electricity produced from the sources in Slovakia in 2015 in the volume of 27.191 GWh was on the same level as in 2014 (a year-to-year index was 99.8%) what meant suspension of the production drop in the year 2014 against the year 2013.Total gross electricity consumption in Slovakia in 2015 amounted to 29.579 GWh. Compared to the year 2014, the electricity consumption increased by 1.224 GWh (a year-to-year index 104.3%). Increase of electricity consumption in the year 2015 was ensured by the increased import of electricity from abroad compared to the year 2014. In 2015, the share of import in the electricity consumption was increased to the value of 8.1%; in 2014 it was 3.9%.
In 2015 production volume of hydro-electric power plants was 4.338 GWh, which is less than in 2014 (a year-to-year index 94,9). Hydro-electric power plants in 2015 provided for 15.9% of the total electricity production in Slovakia. The highest share in the electricity production in Slovakia was attributed to nuclear power plants as a rule - 15.146 GWh (55.7%). Production of thermal power plants in 2015 was 5.252 which is 19.3% of electricity production from the resources on the territory of Slovakia. Renewable energy sources produced 2.384 GWh which is 8.8% of the total electricity production in Slovakia.
The Slovak transmission system: http://www.sepsas.sk/
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION & CAPACITY
|2007||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||Average annual growth rate (%)
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|- other renewable||-||-||0.01||0.02||0.19||1.25||1.21||1.20||0.9||111.69|
|Electricity production (TW.h)|
|- other renewable||-||-||-||0.02||0.40||3.3||2.77||2.72||-||241.50**|
|Total Electricity consumption (TW.h)||29.78||29.48||27.47||28.90||29.38||28.78||28.78||28.68||29.58||-0.08|
(1)Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
*Calculated for the years 2007-2014
**Calculated for the years 2010-2014
Source: Ministry of Economy of SR
FIGURE 2: MAP OF POWER PLANTS IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||144.45||139.77||141.38||129.54||136.88||132.56||133.12||133.12||138.40||-|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kW.h/capita)||5 395||5 517||5 453||5 069||5 321||5 443||5 315||5 336||5 348||5 453|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||41.55||42.54||39.30||39.81||38.53||39.17||38.37||38.37||38.64||-|
|Nuclear/Total electricity production (%)||61.91||51.47||56.64||51.25||50.41||52.45||53.85||54.56||54.98||55.72|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)(1)||64.3||66.2||63||64||60||59.6|
Source: Eurostat, SEPS, a.s., www.sepsas.sk
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical development and current organizational structure
Commercial utilization of nuclear power in the Slovak Republic started in 1972. There were six nuclear power units connected to the electricity grid from that time. Nowadays, there are four operational nuclear power plants: Bohunice Units 3, 4 (V-2) and Mochovce Units 1, 2. NPP Bohunice V-1 and NPP Bohunice A1 are in permanent shutdown (decommissioning stage). Construction of NPP Mochovce Units 3, 4 was reactivated in mid-2009.
Current organizational chart(s)
FIGURE 3: SLOVAK INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN THE NUCLEAR SECTOR
Slovenské elektrárne, a.s. (SE, plc.): http://www.seas.sk/
JAVYS, a.s.: http://www.javys.sk/
Governmental organizations with responsibility in nuclear field:
Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic: http://www.ujd.gov.sk/
Ministry of Health - Public Health Authority: www.uvzsr.sk
Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic: http://www.economy.gov.sk/
Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic: http://www.minzp.sk
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic: http://www.employment.gov.sk
2.2. Nuclear power plants: Overview
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
FIGURE 4: MAP OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN OPERATION AND UNDER CONSTRACTION
The owner and operator of the operating nuclear power plants is the utility, Slovenské elektrárne, a. s. The owner and operators of the NPP Bohunice V-1 and NPP Bohunice A-1 is the utility JAVYS, a. s.
NPP Bohunice Unit V-2
Construction of NPP Bohunice V-2 started in 1976, built by Skoda. The NPP Bohunice V-2 units commenced operation in 1985. From 2005 to 2008 operator, Slovenské elektrárne, a. s., carried out a major modernization programme on the two Bohunice V-2 units, to improve seismic resistance, cooling systems, and instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with a view to extending operational life to 40 years (2025). This was followed by a progressive uprating programme of both units, eventually bringing the capacity of each unit from 440 MWe gross to 505 MWe gross (472 MWe net) by November 2010.
Mochovce Unit 1, 2
In 1982, construction on the first two units of the four unit Mochovce nuclear power plant was commenced by Skoda, using VVER-440 V-213 reactor units. Units 1, 2 started up in 1999 and 2000. These two units have been significantly upgraded and instrumentation and control (I&C) systems replaced with assistance from Western companies. Uprates of 7% at Mochovce 1,2 were implemented by June 2008. Each Unit produces annually more than 3,000 GWh of electricity.
Mochovce Unit 3, 4
In 1987, the construction of two additional units began based on the same type of Soviet VVER 440/213, but due to lack of funds, the construction was stopped in 1991 and the plant was preserved. In November 2008, construction started again. .
NPP Bohunice A-1
In 1958, the Czechoslovak government started building its first nuclear power plant, a gas cooled heavy water pressure tube reactor at Bohunice. This 110 MWe net Bohunice A-1 reactor, built by Skoda was completed in 1972 and ran until 1977. In 1977 it was closed due to an accident arising from refuelling. In 1979 it was decided not to renew the operation of NPP Bohunice A-1 and to prepare it for phasing out. Decommissioning process of Bohunice Unit A-1 is spread over five successive stages in time. Completion of the decommissioning process of NPP Bohunice A-1 is planned for 2033. In 2014, work directed at increasing the levels of the radiation-safe condition of the wrecked NPP Bohunice A-1 and reducing the risk of its effect on the operating personnel and the environment was performed within the 2nd NPP Bohunice A1 decommissioning stage. Through the continuous lowering of the radioactivity decontamination inventory and the dismantling of unused technical equipment, the structural parts of the NPP Bohunice A1 ‘s decommissioned facilities and continuous processing of historical operating RAW, JAVYS successfully fulfilled the 2014 legislative requirements for the 2nd NPP Bohunice A1 decommissioning phase with positive socio-environmental and safety-economic terms.
NPP Bohunice V-1
In 1972, construction of the Bohunice V-1 nuclear plant commenced, with two VVER-440 V-230 reactors supplied by Atomenergoexport of Russia and Skoda. The first was grid connected in 1978, the second two years later. Despite major upgrade work on the two Bohunice V-1 units, the units were shut down at the end of 2006 (unit 1) and 2008 (unit 2) as a condition of Slovakia's accession to the European Union. The Strategic Decommissioning Plan was prepared, which identifies activities, expected results, the corresponding performance indicators and milestones to allow the tracking of activities during the V-1 NPP‘s decommissioning. The document also provides the cost estimate that reflects the actual costs incurred to date for decommissioning and updated estimates of future costs for ongoing projects and projects whose implementation is expected in the future. Decommissioning of NPP Bohunice V-1 is planned in two stages, with completion date in 2025. First stage ended in December 2014 and second stage started from January 1st 2015.
TABLE 7. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|BOHUNICE A1||HWGCR||93||Permanent Shutdown||JAVYS||SKODA||1958-08-01||1972-10-24||1972-12-25||1972-12-25||1977-02-22|
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table 7 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals
The NPPs have been significantly upgraded throughout their operational lifetime. Improvement of the containment tightness/integrity of existing plants is one of the major achievements.
In accordance with the legal requirements all plants are subject to Periodic Safety Reviews with 10 years periodicity. The latest periodic review in NPP Bohunice 3,4 was completed in 2008, in NPP Mochovce 1, 2 in 2009. Based on the results of the review ÚJD SR issued operational permit for subsequent 10 years of operation. The permits are associated with approval of safety upgrading programme of the plants aimed at closer compliance of the safety level with contemporary safety standards. The programmes also include implementation of comprehensive severe accident mitigation measures.
Since 1991 there were in total around 20 missions from the IAEA (site review, design review, OSART, IPSART missions), 6 WANO missions, 2 RISKAUDIT missions and 1 WENRA mission.
Based on WANO recommendations during the period from April to October 2011 the non-standard tests and inspections of equipment, that is important for coping with extreme conditions exceeding the basic design, were successfully performed on the operating units. The tests included verification of the long-term run of diesel generators, the possibility for delivery of cooling water from the bubbler-condenser to the spent fuel pool, feed water supply to steam generators from a mobile source, supplying of water from cooling towers to essential service water system, connection of a back-up power supply from the hydro power plant, and others.
Safety improvement of NPP Bohunice 3, 4 (V-2)
The Programme on Modernization and Improvement of NPP Bohunice 3,4 (V-2) safety started in 1994. It was focused on solving safety issues and the decision of operational issues connected with 15-years operation of NPP Bohunice 3,4: physical wearing and moral obsolescence of devices mainly causing problems concerning the operational reliability of devices, spare parts and service at control and electric systems. The modernization programme also included measures focused on improvement of technical-economic parameters of NPP Bohunice 3,4 units, first of all the primary and secondary unit output regulation, improvement of efficiency and nominal unit output and improvement of their life of service.
The programme of modernization of NPP Bohunice 3,4: Raising of seismic resistance of buildings, constructions and equipment; Fire protection; Modification of technological systems for improvement of emergency situation course and cooling of reactor unit; Replacement and modification of I&C systems to improve the unit management in normal operation, transient and emergency conditions; Replacement and modification of electric systems to improve the power output and feeding of the unit’s on-site consumption in normal operation, transient and emergency conditions; Implementation of measures for improvement of operational economics.
Mochovce 1,2 Safety Improvements
The construction of the NPP Mochovce started in 1981. The political and economic changes resulted in the suspension of the construction in the early 90s. In 1996 a “Mochovce NPP Nuclear Safety Improvement Programme” was developed in the frame of unit 1 and 2 completion project.
The safety improvement programme was based on:
the document titled “Safety Issues and their Ranking for NPP WWER-440/V213”,
outcomes of the safety review conducted by RISKAUDIT in 1994,
conclusions at the IAEA Safety Improvement of Mochovce NPP Project Review Mission – SIRM taking place at Mochovce in June 1994.
The programme of modernization of NPP Mochovce 1,2: modification of instrumentation and control systems in order to improve performance of safety functions (modifications to emergency protection systems, addition of diagnostic systems; modification of electrical systems in order to improve performance of safety functions (improvement in reliability of emergency power supply systems – diesel generators, batteries; comprehensive assessment of the radioactive material confining barrier in case of emergency (thermal-hydraulic calculations of containment conditions in case of accident, strength calculations of the bubble-condenser system in case of accident; improvement of NPP safety during operation through improvement of procedures used (operating procedures, emergency procedures, performance of tests and inspections, investigation of unusual events, radiation protection of personnel, emergency planning); minimization of external risks which could result in the loss of ability of safety systems to perform their safety functions (earthquake, aircraft crash, other industrial activities – gas explosion, etc.); minimization of internal risks which could result in the loss of ability of safety systems to perform their safety functions (fire, internal flooding, turbine missiles, fall of heavy loads, etc.).
Starting from June 1st 2011, operators of nuclear power plants reviewed the response of the nuclear plants to extreme situations, in particular the operators had to check and improve mitigation measures available after a potential loss of safety functions, caused by any reason. That includes the loss of electrical power or loss of ultimate heat sink for heat removal from the reactor and the management of loss of core cooling functions in their reactors. These measures are taken in view of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident on March 11th 2011.
2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The document „New nuclear source at the Jaslovské Bohunice site“ was approved by the Slovak Governmental Resolution in 2008, in which the Slovak Government required the analysis of legal and economic implications in the context of further aggrieved alternative areas utilization in the locality of NPP Bohunice and establishment of a joint venture consisting of companies JAVYS and CEZ (where JAVYS has a majority status). This joint venture will implement the construction of New Nuclear Source at the Jaslovské Bohunice site.
The proposal for establishment of the company „Nuclear Energetic Slovak Company“(JESS) was approved by the Slovak Governmental Resolution in December 2009. JESS was established as a joint venture consisting of the companies JAVYS and CEZ. The shares of both investors are in compliance with the stockholder contract – 51% for JAVYS and 49% for CEZ.
2.3.2. Project management
In 2012, the Feasibility Study, which assesses the key aspect of the planned new nuclear power plant in the Slovak Republic, was elaborated and presented. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Report is being finalized with expected completion in the second half of 2015. Based on the detailed analysis, part of the EIA Report will be detailed assessment of the new nuclear power plant impacts on the various components of the environment and on human health. Following the EIA Report, public consultations of the proposed activity will be held at the levels of involved municipalities, including cross-border consultations and meetings.
Development of the EIA Report immediately follows the Preliminary Study for the Proposed Activity. The Preliminary Study was submitted to the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic on March 5th 2014.
Following publication of the Environmental Impact Assessment Report there were a public hearings to this document held on the level of the concerned municipalities in Slovakia and cross border in Hungary, Austria, Germany, Ukraine.
The EIA process was concluded by the positive Final Statement on the project in the first half of 2016. This statement is an indispensable basis for further licensing activities in the context of the authorization procedure, within the meaning of the Atomic Act and the Construction Act.
2.3.3. Project funding
Project of the new nuclear source is expected to be funded and financed by private sectors.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
In the presence of JESS’ and SEPS’ managements, the results of the Feasibility Study and the requirements for further cooperation in the implementation of Project NNPP were presented.
All necessary information: http://www.jess.sk/en/
2.3.6. Public Acceptance
2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs
The contractual strategy adopted for the completion of units 3 and 4 of the Mochovce nuclear power plant is multi-contractual (more than 100 contracts). The architect engineer role is held by the owner (Slovenské elektrárne). Main contracts are:
Civil works: Inžinierske stavby Košice
Mechanical systems: Škoda JS, ENSECO, VUJE
Electrical systems and equipment: PPA
Control system: Areva / Siemens
Other suppliers: ASE, Rolls-Royce, GSE
As architect engineer, SE has planned to create a large project team that will have more than 300 resources at the peak: its task is to manage and coordinate engineering, construction and commissioning activities throughout the execution of the entire project.
SE’s policy for national and local industrial involvement is to maximize the project spin-off for the Slovak and Czech market: more than 85% of awarded contract are in the Slovak and Czech market so far.
2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs
The ownership structure of SE is the following: the National Property Fund owns 34 % and the company ENEL SpA owns 66 % of SE shares. The company’s line of business includes electricity generation, imports, exports, sales and distribution. SE provides heat generation and sales. Joint-stock company SE is the operator of two nuclear power plants, two thermal power plants, and 34 hydroelectric power plants.
SE keeps relationships with different external organizations either in business area or based on valid legislation. SE co-operates with contractors who provide specific services such as selected maintenance activities, deliveries of components and equipment or research works. It co-operates with national and international supervisory and advisory authorities: UJD SR of the SR, IAEA, WANO and others.
The following companies provides services for the operator
2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs
JAVYS is holder of the license for decommissioning of NPP Bohunice A-1 and NPP Bohunice V-1, which main activities are focused on:
decommissioning of nuclear facilities,
spent nuclear fuel management and spent nuclear fuel and fresh nuclear fuel transportation,
radioactive waste management and radioactive waste transportation.
2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management
The basic concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste management (RAW) is given by the Strategy for the Back end of Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy in SR, which was approved by the Government Resolution No. 26/2014 of January 15th 2014. Basic features of the current concept for spent nuclear fuel management in SR can be summarized as follows:
Nuclear reactors operated in Slovakia apply open fuel cycle. Currently it is not possible to realize a closed fuel cycle, because the WWER-440 reactors are not licensed to use reprocessed MOX fuel.
For SNF management it is not considered to export SNF for reprocessing to abroad and a subsequent return of products from reprocessing (Pu, U, and VRAO) back to Slovakia.
Short-term storage of SNF (3 - 7 years after being removed from the reactor) is in the pools next to the reactors (BSVP), which are located at each reactor unit.
Long-term storage of SNF (40 - 50 years after its utilization in the reactor) is in a separate storage facility for SNF at Bohunice site – Interim Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS).
Long-term goal in the concept for SNF management is to build an interim storage facility (60 – 70 years) for SNF produced by NPP and a deep repository for SNF and VRAW in the Slovak Republic.
Possibilities are verified to export SNF for permanent storage abroad, or for reprocessing SNF abroad without returning products from reprocessing back to SR.
Possibilities are verified for international or regional solutions for final disposal of SNF; new technology in SNF management is followed.
In the Slovak Republic (the Act No. 541/2004 Coll.) radioactive waste shall mean any unusable material in gaseous, liquid or solid form, which due to the content of radio-nuclides or due to the level of their contamination with radionuclides cannot be released into the environment. The limit of concentrations allowing release to the environment for the individual radionuclides is stated in Annex 3 to the Government Regulation No. 345/2006 Coll. Classification of radioactive waste is based on their ability to be disposed and is defined in Section 5 of Decree of ÚJD SR No. 30/2012 Coll., setting the details of requirements for handling nuclear materials, radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.
2.8. Research and development
2.8.1. R&D organizations
Research and development activities in Slovakia are based on national long-term strategic plans transferred into medium-term projects, which reflect country specific conditions and Slovakia’s nuclear energy needs. The strategic plans and projects are bound to international research and development activities, particularly those conducted within EU or OECD/NEA countries.
Research and development in Slovakia is financed from the state budget and is completed by funds from private sector or support from EU. The expenditures on research and development in Slovakia are limited. They represent several hundred thousand USD per year.
Utilities technical support organizations and universities initiate the research and development. The activities are focused on effective and efficient use of nuclear fuel, efficient conversion of nuclear energy into heat and electricity, treatment and disposal of radioactive materials and spent fuel, improvement and validation of analytical computer codes, emergency preparedness and planning, and in support of safety enhancement of nuclear facilities. The Slovak regulatory body initiates the research and development work where it considers that there is a need for additional studies beyond those undertaken by utilities or it can apply to suitable critical considerations in its review and assessment.
Organizations, which conduct the research and development in Slovakia, are:
VUJE, a.s. Trnava
VUEZ, a.s., Levice
DECOM SLOVAKIA, s.r.o., Trnava
Relko, Ltd., Bratislava
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Slovak Technical University, Bratislava
Commenius University Bratislava and others.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
Slovakia participates in the project Allegro, which is a low power Gas Cooled Fast Reactor studied in the European framework.
2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives
Slovakia is a member of following international organisations:
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA).
The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO).
Western European Nuclear Regulatory Associations (WENRA).
Forum of State Nuclear Safety Regulators of Countries with WWER Reactors (WWER Forum).
The Nuclear Regulatory Authority takes part in several international co-operations including:
European High Level Group on Nuclear Safety and Waste Management organised by the EU- ENSREG (cooperation to progressively develop a common understanding and furthering common approaches in priority domains related to the safety of nuclear installations).
Standing committees of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (CNRA, CRPPH, RWMC).
NERS (association of countries with small nuclear programmes).
Zangger Committee (dealing with controlling the export of nuclear materials and equipment).
Nuclear Suppliers Group ((NSG) dealing with controlling the export of nuclear materials and equipment and the dual use materials and equipment).
Slovakia has bilateral governmental agreements with neighbouring countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine and Hungary and with others: Canada, the United States of America, Germany, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia and France.
2.9. Human resources development
High quality of human resources is the basic prerequisite for providing safe, reliable, economic and ecological operation of nuclear installations. The term “high quality human resources“ means a summary of professional, health and mental capacity of employees for performance of work activity with licensees according to General Safety Aspects National Report of SR Page 59 / 169. From the view of influence of work activities on nuclear safety, the staff of the licensee is divided into two basic groups:
Employees having direct impact on nuclear safety – selected employees, whose special professional competence is verified by an exam (written exam, oral exam and verification of competencies on a representative full-scale simulator) and a practical exam conducted by an examination committee established by ÚJD SR, which issues License of Special Professional Competence.
Employees having impact on nuclear safety – professionally competent employees, whose professional competence was verified by an expert committee established by the operator of a specialized facility in a form of written and oral exams and which issues a Certificate of Professional Competency. Depending on the nature of their work, they are divided into daily and shift professionally competent employees.
Special professional competence of employees according to Atomic Act means a summary of expertise, practical experience, principal attitudes and knowledge of generally binding legal regulations and operating procedures issued by the licensee for ensuring nuclear safety, which is necessary for performing work activities having direct impact on nuclear safety.
Professional competence means summary of expertise, practical experience, knowledge of generally binding legal regulations and operating procedures issued by the licensee and necessary for performing work activities of licensee’s employee. Professional competence is acquired by successful completion of training at a specialized facility.
The licensee is responsible for general (professional, health and mental) capacity of his employees to perform work activities at nuclear installations. The licensee charges his employees with performance of work activities. For every selected and professionally competent employee “Authorization to perform work activities” is issued as part of integrated management system (IMS) of quality assurance for the nuclear installation – licensee. Authorization to perform work activities is issued for the given job position and a specific nuclear installation only for those selected and professionally qualified staff of the licensee, who hold valid certificates of special competence or certificates of professional competence and have completed the relevant type of training. The authorization is an evidence of working competency of an employee in relation to regulatory authorities.
In the system of professional training each position has defined requirements for education, experience, training, health and mental capacity. The direct supervisor of the employee is responsible for meeting these requirements.
The system of professional training is updated on the basis of operational experience, implemented organizational changes, technical solutions (modernization) carried out on the equipment, and requirements of regulatory bodies, audits, reviews and recommendations from the IAEA. This is provided for by necessary human, financial and material resources.
Professional training of employees of the license holder, as well as the staff of the third parties (third parties are the contractor organizations) is carried out in compliance with the management documentation of the quality assurance programme developed and maintained in compliance with:
Generally binding legal regulations,
The IAEA standards, recommendations and guides,
STN EN ISO 9001:2001 and 14001:2004 standards,
Management documentation of the Quality System.
Management documentation for the area of human resources including professional training and development of employees and the management set procedures and responsibilities for:
Selection and assignment of employees to positions,
Determination of types and phases of training, education and development of employees,
Acquisition, maintenance and improvement in qualification – professional and special competence of employees,
Development of employees,
Acquisition and maintenance of general competencies of contractor staff,
Re-training for change in position.
Source: National Report of the Slovak Republic, June 2013
2.10. Stakeholder Communication
It is important that the general public is as well informed about the operation of power plants as possible. Therefore, all activities that contribute towards that goal are supported and operators organize a number of their own initiatives, such as Open plants, a series of family public events where citizens have a chance to take a tour of power plants. In October 2014 SE, a. s. opened a new information centre ENERGOLAND, located close to their nuclear power plants in Mochovce. The project was equipped with the latest interactive and display technologies in order to bring visitors of all ages closer to the story of energy from the universe to the near future.
SR considers local communities to be of primary importance.
The Bohunice Local Information Commission (OIK) was established to improve public awareness amongst the inhabitants of the region within the danger perimeter of the nuclear facilities at Jaslovské Bohunice, including all aspects of their operation, the safety and influence of these nuclear facilities on the environment through delegates of the SE, JAVYS, JESS and the ZMO, region JE Jaslovské Bohunice. The OIK Bohunice has 16 members, made up by representatives of the ZMO, region JE Jaslovské Bohunice, and of JAVYS and SE, JESS.
The Mochovce Local Information Commission was established to improve awareness amongst the inhabitants of the region within the danger perimeter of the Mochovce nuclear energy compound about all aspects of its operation and about the safety and influence of the Mochovce NPP and the National Radioactive Waste Repository (NRWR) on the environment through the citizens’ delegates.
The OIK Mochovce is made up of representatives of townships and institutions from within a 20 km radius of the Mochovce NPP. The representatives of the citizens work together with appointed representatives of SE, a. s. and JAVYS, a.s..
The Slovak Nuclear Society (SNUS) is a voluntary association of experts. The Society’s professional and study interests revolve around nuclear technology, nuclear energy and the uses of ionizing radiation, and is also a member of the European Nuclear Society (ENS). SNUS coordinates expert activities of other organizations in the Slovak Republic as well as international relations and co-operation. It works with social, governmental and municipal organizations and authorities, with companies and the media.
Cooperation with institutions is very open and effective. Interagency task groups have been formed to address various issues, including the EIA process, public access to information and others. In addition, there are numerous and frequent contacts with representatives of institutions on a need-to-need basis.
Media are recognized as primary means of information dissemination to the public. Therefore operators and regulatory bodies give full attention to all media requests. Regular meetings with journalists are organized, both formal and informal, to give them comprehensive information on the activities in nuclear field.
All international obligations of the Slovak Republic are fulfilled and good relations with neighbouring countries are maintained. Regular meetings on exchange of information and co-operation are organized annually.
SE, a. s. takes an active approach with respect to its participation in stakeholder organizations and provides various level of support depending on the relevance and significance of each organization.
2.11. Emergency preparedness
National Organization of Emergency Preparedness
The Act No. 387/2002 Coll. establishes the scope of powers of the public authorities in managing the state in crisis situations outside time of war and hostilities, the rights and obligations of legal entities and of individuals in preparing for emergencies outside time of war and hostilities, and in resolution of these, and sanctions for breach of obligations established by this Act. Crisis management bodies are: Government of the Slovak Republic; the Security Council of the Slovak Republic; ministries and other central government authorities; the National Bank of Slovakia; security council of the region, district office; security council of the district; municipality. The Government of the Slovak Republic, as the supreme authority of crisis management, in compliance with the Act No. 378/2002 Coll. establishes a Central Crisis Staff as its executive body that coordinates the activity of government bodies, local government bodies and of other components designed to resolve a crisis situation during a crisis period, i.e. during resolution of an incident or an accident of a nuclear installation or during transport of nuclear material (but does not have a preventive function). The Chairman of the Central Crisis Staff is the Minister of Interior of the Slovak Republic. In order to provide for the necessary measures to cope with the emergency status of the nuclear installation and measures to protect the public and the economy in case of an accident with impact on the surroundings, the national organization of emergency preparedness is structured in three levels: The first level consists of emergency committees of nuclear installations, the main functions of which are managing works and measures on the territory of nuclear installations so that they allow establishing the status of technological equipment and to manage measures for coping with the emergency situation and to limit the consequences on the personnel, equipment and consequences on the environment and the public. Another function at this level is an information function for the activities of bodies of state administration on the level of local government, which secures information about the status of equipment and the possible impacts on the surroundings. The second level is organized on the level of region and it consists of crisis staff of local government and self-government, the territory of which falls within the area of risk, where there can be danger to life, health or property and where there are measures planned to protect the population. This area is defined by the boundaries of the plant of nuclear installations JAVYS Bohunice (only the territory of NPP Bohunice V1, NPP Bohunice A1, TSÚ RAW and ISFS), 21 km around NPP Bohunice V2 and by radius of 20 km around NPP Mochovce.
The third level is a national level, the Central Crisis Staff of the Government of the Slovak Republic with its supporting units (e. g.: Emergency Response Centre of ÚJD SR, Centre of Radiation Monitoring Network – ÚRMS, Central Monitoring and Control Centre - CMRS). Their task is to address an emergency, if the scope of an extraordinary event exceeds the territory of the region. Included in this level are Emergency commissions of the licensees, which closely cooperate with ERC of ÚJD SR, but also with local state administration. The main task of Emergency commission is mainly to organize and coordinate quick liquidation of major and emergency events in corresponding production and distribution facilities.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory framework
3.1.1. Regulatory Authority(ies)
Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (Úrad jadrového dozoru SR – UJD SR)
UJD SR is a central state administration authority. It provides the execution of state regulatory activities in the field of nuclear safety of nuclear installations, including regulation of management of radioactive waste, spent fuel and other parts of the fuel cycle, as well as transport and management of nuclear materials including their control and record keeping system. It is responsible for the assessment of the goals of the nuclear energy programme and of the quality of the classified equipment, as well as for commitments of the Slovak Republic under International agreements and treaties in the said field.
Role of the Regulatory Authority (UJD SR)
Pursuant to § 29 of Act No. 575/2001 Coll., UJD SR provides for the exercise of state regulation for nuclear safety of nuclear installations, including regulation of the management of radioactive waste, spent fuel and other parts of the fuel cycle, as well as of nuclear material, including their control and record keeping system. It ensures assessment of goals of nuclear energy use programme and of quality of classified equipment and nuclear technology equipment, as well as the commitments of the Slovak Republic under international agreements and treaties concerning nuclear safety of nuclear installations and management of nuclear materials. Pursuant to the Act No. 541/2004 Coll., UJD SR performs the state regulation of nuclear safety of nuclear installations; in particular it:
carries out inspections of workplaces, operations and premises of nuclear facilities, operations and premises of approval or authorization holders; checks the fulfilment of obligations pursuant to this Act, generally binding legal provisions issued on its basis, operational procedures issued by the authorization holder, whether limits and conditions of safe operation and safe decommissioning, quality assurance system, as well as of duties arising from decisions, measures or orders issued pursuant to the Atomic Act, are being observed; inspects fulfilment of commitments under international agreements and treaties signed by the Slovak Republic in respect of UJD SR competency,
inspects the system of professional training of employees, training programmes of employees with professional competency, training programmes of licensed employees of authorization holders, and inspects professional competency as well as special professional competency of authorization holder employees,
investigates in site the status, causes and consequences of selected failures, incidents and accidents at nuclear installation or events during transport of radioactive materials.
FIGURE 5: STRUCTURE OF UJD SR
Public Health Authority of SR
The regulation of health protection against radiation is provided by the Public Health Authority according to the provisions of Act No. 355/2007 Coll. on protection, support and development of public health. The body of public health supervision at the nuclear installations is ÚVZ SR.
The Public Health Authority of SR provides in the field of radiation protection, inter alia:
conditions for the implementation of activities leading to exposure, and the release of radioactive substances and radioactive contaminated objects and materials under administrative control,
determines the dose limits to optimize radiation protection for individual activities leading to exposure and individual sources of ionizing radiation,
issues permits for activities leading to exposure and permits for release of radioactive substances and radioactively contaminated objects under administrative control,
exercises state health supervision in nuclear installations,
orders measures to prevent occurrence of diseases and other health disorders related to exposure to ionizing radiation,
performs monitoring of radiation situation and data collection on the territory of the Slovak Republic for the purposes of assessment of exposure and assessing the impact of radiation on public health and manages the activity of the radiation monitoring network,
issues directives and guides for ensuring radiation protection in implementing activities leading to exposure when releasing radioactive substances and radioactively contaminated materials from administrative control,
maintains central register of sources of ionizing radiation and a central register of doses, and issues personal radiation passes to external staff, provides information to the public on radiation situation, extraordinary events and on potential exposure, on the risks caused by exposure and on measures and interventions to reduce the irradiation during radiation accidents,
searches workplaces and facilities, where abandoned radioactive sources may occur,
co-operates with the European Commission and relevant bodies and institutions of the Member States, and represents the Slovak Republic in international organizations in matters of radiation protection.
3.1.2. Licensing Process
To obtain a license for activity in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy the applicant shall demonstrate its capacity to comply with and to fulfil all the requirements set by the laws and regulations valid in Slovakia, in particular the requirements of the Atomic Act and of the implementing regulations of ÚJD SR hereto. The applicant must further demonstrate that the nuclear installation will be or is operated in a safe manner.
The licensing procedure for the nuclear installation consists of five main phases, that is: siting of the nuclear installation, its construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. Before granting an operating license the regulatory body performs inspections according to the approved schedule of programme of individual phases of commissioning the nuclear installation (tests, fuel loading, physical start-up, energy start-up and trial operation).
The basic condition for granting authorization is the elaboration and submission of safety documentation listed in annexes of the Atomic Act necessary for issuance of particular types of decisions and meeting of legislative requirements for nuclear safety. An essential criterion is also the fulfilment of conditions of preceding approval procedures and decisions of regulatory authority.
District construction authority issues decisions on siting of nuclear installation construction and its decision-making pends on the approval of UJD SR and of other regulatory authorities (Public Health Authority of the SR, labour inspection bodies). Authorization for nuclear installation construction, permission for temporary use of the facility instruction (including authorization for trial operation) and decision on construction approval (including authorization for operation of nuclear installation) are already issued by UJD SR as a construction authority. UJD SR exercises its competency as a construction authority and state administration authority for nuclear safety. Its decisions are based on its own partial decisions (partial approval of safety documentation), as well as on the opinion of relevant regulatory authorities - Public Health Authority of the SR (radiation protection), National Labour Inspectorate, Labour Inspectorate (labour inspection and health and safety protection at work) and other bodies and organizations of state administration (fire prevention, civil defence).
Documentation, attached to the application for issuance of certain decisions of UJD SR and essential for submission, is listed in annexes No. 1 and 2 of the Atomic Act. Details concerning the scope, content and method of preparation of nuclear installation documentation needed for certain decisions are defined in the UJD SR Decree No. 58/2006 Coll and No. 31/2012 Coll.
3.2. National laws and regulations in nuclear power
The most important Act in the area of peaceful use of nuclear power in the Slovak Republic is Act no. 541/2004 Coll. on Peaceful use of nuclear energy (Atomic Act) and on amendment and alterations of several acts.
Laws and Regulations in the field of nuclear safety
Overview of legislation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy:
Act No: 541/2004 Coll. l. on peaceful use of nuclear energy (the Atomic Act) and on changes and amendments to certain laws as amended.
Act No. 54/2015 Coll. I. on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on changes and amendments to certain laws.
Act No. 94/2007 Coll. l., amending the Act No. 541/2004 Coll. l. on peaceful use of nuclear energy (the Atomic Act) and on amendments and supplements to certain laws as amended and amending the Act No. 238/2006 Coll. l. on the National Nuclear Fund for decommissioning of nuclear installations and for spent nuclear fuel management and radioactive waste management (the Nuclear Fund Act) and on changes and amendments to certain laws as amended by the Act No. 528/2006 Coll. l.
Act No. 143/2013 Coll. l., amending and supplementing the Act No. 541/2004 Coll. l. on peaceful use of nuclear energy (the Atomic Act) and on changes and amendments to certain laws as amended, and which changes and amends the Act No. 238/2006 Coll. l. on the National Nuclear Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and for the spent fuel management and Radioactive waste management (Nuclear Fund Act) and on changes and amendments to certain laws as amended.
Act No. 335/2007 Coll. l., amending and supplementing certain laws in connection with abolition of regional offices Act No. 238/2006 Coll. l. on the National Nuclear Fund for decommissioning of nuclear installations and for spent nuclear fuel management and radioactive waste management (the Nuclear Fund Act) and on changes and amendments to certain laws.
Current effective decrees after incorporation of amendments:
Regulation No. 46/2006 Coll. on dual-use goods, which are under the ÚJD SR supervision
Regulation No. 47/2006 Coll. on maximum limits of small quantities of nuclear material and radioactive waste in respect of which no nuclear damage is expected and therefore subject to exclusion from the third party liability regime
Regulation No. 48/2006 Coll. on details of notification of operational events and events during shipment, as well as details of investigation of their reasons
Regulation No. 51/2006 Coll. on details concerning requirements for provision of physical protection
Regulation No. 52/2006 Coll. on professional competency
Regulation No. 54/2006 Coll. on accountancy for and control of nuclear material as well as notification of selected activities
Regulation No. 55/2006 Coll. on details concerning emergency planning in case of nuclear incident or accident
Regulation No. 57/2006 Coll. on details concerning the requirements for shipment of radioactive material
Regulation No. 58/2006 Coll. on details concerning the scope, content and method of preparation of nuclear installation documentation needed for certain decisions
Regulation No.430/2011 Coll. (pdf, 200kB) on details on nuclear safety requirements for nuclear facilities
Regulation No. 431/2011 Coll. (pdf, 118kB) on a quality management system
Regulation No. 30/2012 Coll., laying down details of requirements for the handling of nuclear materials, nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel
Regulation No. 33/2012 Coll., on the regular, comprehensive and systematic evaluation of the nuclear safety of nuclear equipment
Regulation No. 170/2015 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic of 6 July 2015 Establishing a List of Radioactive Materials, Their Quantities and Their Physical and Chemical Parameters Justifying the Low Risk of Nuclear Damage
Regulation No. 101/2016 amending Implementing Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No 30/2012 laying down details of requirements for the handling of nuclear materials, radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel
Regulation No. 102/2016 amending Regulation No 58/2006 Coll. of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, which lays down details of the scope, content and means of preparation of nuclear installation documentation necessary for individual decisions, as amended by Regulation No 31/2012 Coll. of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic
Regulation No. 103/2016 changing and amending Implementing Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No 430/2011 on nuclear safety requirements
Regulation No. 104/2016 amending Implementing Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No 431/2011 on a quality management system
Regulation No. 105/2016 changing and amending Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No 57/2006, laying down details of requirements for the transport of radioactive materials
Regulation No. 106/2016 amending implementing decree No 33/2012 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic on the regular, comprehensive and systematic evaluation of the nuclear safety of nuclear installations
Act No. 133/2013 Coll. l. on construction products and on changes and amendments to certain laws.
Act No. 39/2011 Coll. l. on dual use items and on amendment to the Act of NC SR No. 145/1995 Coll. l. on administrative fees, as amended.
Act No. 575/2001 Coll. l. on organization of the government activities and organization of central government, as amended.
Act No. 50/1976 Coll. on spatial planning and the building code (the Building Act), as amended.
Act No. 355/2007 Coll. l. on protection, support and development of public health and on changes and amendments to certain laws, as amended.
Act No. 251/2012 Coll. l. on the energy sector and on changes and amendments to certain laws, as amended.
Act No. 250/2012 Coll. l. on regulation in network industries.
Act No. 238/2006 Coll. l. on the National Nuclear Fund for decommissioning of nuclear installations and for spent nuclear fuel management and radioactive waste management (the Nuclear Fund Act) and on changes and amendments to certain laws, as amended.
Government Regulation No. 312/2007 Coll. l., laying down the details on the method of collection and payments of mandatory contributions to the National Nuclear Fund for decommissioning of nuclear installations and for spent nuclear fuel management and radioactive waste management as amended.
Act No. 24/2006 Coll. l. on environmental impacts assessment and on amendments and supplements to certain laws as amended.
Act No. 314/2014 Coll., Amending and supplementing Law no. 24/2006 Z.z. on the assessment of impacts on the environment and on amendments to certain laws, as amended, and amending and supplementing certain laws.
Act No. 145/2010 Coll. l., amending and supplementing the Act No. 24/2006 Coll. l. on environmental impacts assessment and on amendments and supplements to certain laws, as amended.
Act No. 42/1994 Coll. l. on civil defence, as amended.
Act No. 125/2006 Coll. l. on labour inspection and on amending and supplementing Act No. 82/2005 Coll. l. on illegal work and illegal employment and on amendments and supplements to certain laws as amended.
Act No. 124/2006 Coll. l. on occupational health and safety and on amendments and supplements to certain laws, as amended.
Act No. 264/1999 Coll. l. on technical requirements for products and on conformity assessment and on amendments and supplements to certain laws, as amended.
Act No. 71/1967 Coll. on administrative proceedings (administrative procedure), as amended.
Act No. 215/2004 Coll. l. on the protection of classified information and on amendments and supplements to certain laws, as amended.
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS Selected Generally Binding Legal Regulations and Safety Guidelines in Relation to Nuclear and Radiation Safety.
Treaty on Non-Proliferation on Nuclear Weapons.
Implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Additional implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (Seabed Treaty) Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water.
Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty.
Agreement between the CSSR and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.
Amendment to the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident.
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.
Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage.
Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention.
Convention on Nuclear Safety.
Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.
Revised supplementary agreement concerning the provision of technical assistance by the IAEA to the Government of the SR.
Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context (ESPOO).
Convention on Access Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus).
Governmental Bilateral Agreements
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Hungary on Exchange of Information and Co-operation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Federal Government of Germany on Questions of Common Interest in Connection with Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Austria on Questions of Common Interest in Connection with Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of People’s Republic of Bulgaria on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Czech Republic on Co-operation in the Field of State Supervision of Nuclear Installations and of State Supervision of Nuclear Materials.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Republic of Poland on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents, on Exchange of Information and Co-operation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Canada for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic, the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Russian Federation on Co-operation in the Field of Transportation of Nuclear Fuel between the Slovak Republic and the Russian Federation across the Territory of Ukraine.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic, the Government of the Czech Republic, the Government of the Russian Federation and Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Co-operation in the Field of Transportation of Nuclear Materials between the Czech Republic and the Russian Federation across the Territory of the Slovak Republic and the Territory of Ukraine.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents, on Exchange of Information and Co-operation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection.
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for the Exchange of Information in the Field of Nuclear Safety.
Bilateral Agreements with other Regulatory Authorities
Renewal agreement between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the USA and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the SR for the exchange of technical information and cooperation in nuclear safety matters.
Agreement between UJD SR and the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate of the French Republic (DSIN) for exchange of Information and Co-operation in the Regulation of Nuclear Safety.
Administrative Arrangement between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the SR and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada Pursuant to the Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Slovak Republic for Co-operation in the field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.
Agreement between the Ministry of Economy and the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes of the Republic of Bulgaria on Co-operation in the Field of State Supervision of Nuclear Safety in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.
Agreement between the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic and Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of Russia on Co-operation in the Field of State Supervision of Nuclear Safety in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
Name of report coordinator
Ms Dagmar Zemanova
Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR)Chairperson's OfficeBajkalska 27P.O. Box 24820 07 BRATISLAVA 27SLOVAKIA
Tel.: +421 2 58221138
Fax: +421 2 58221166