1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. Country Overview
Note: The content of this section, including Tables 1 and 2, has been removed by the IAEA to better focus the report on nuclear power.
1.2. Energy Information
1.2.1. Estimated available energy
TABLE 3. ESTIMATED ENERGY RESERVES
|Total amount in specific units||1051.8 kt||1664 kt||4660 mil. m3||338 t|
Source: Ministry of Industry and Trade
1.2.2. Energy Statistics
General energy balance (energy statistics) is shown in Table 4 (for electricity see Table 5). The year 1995 can be taken as the bottom of a U-curve, i.e. the lowest level of economic activity after restructuring.
Brown coal remains the main source of energy and continues to cover approximately 58 % of the primary energy sources. But in absolute numbers its use has decreased by about 20 % in comparison to 1990. Both import of crude oil (mainly for transport) and natural gas has increased mainly as result of road transport expansion and replacement of coal by gas for heating. An increase in “Primary heat and electricity” (mainly nuclear) between 2000 and 2005 is a result of the commissioning of Temelín NPP.
TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS
|INDICATOR [PETA-JOULES]||1990||1995||2000||2005||2010||2012||2014||Average annual growth rate [%]
|ENERGY PRODUCTION TOTALS||1 730.5||1 409.8||1 246.7||1 343.0||1301.7
|Solid fuel||1 571.7||1 253.6||1 078.4||1 045.8||966.6||931.3||795.3
|Primary heat and electricity||148.4||141.5||153.8||277.6||309.2||334.7||332.0||5.65|
|NET IMPORT (IMPORT – EXPORT)||433.2||328.8||389.8||511.4||473.2||427.4||572.8||2.79|
|Solid fuel||-59.8||-277.7||-184.7||-152.5||-140.8||-115.2||- 40.5||10.27|
|GROSS CONSUMPTION OF PRIMARY ENERGY RESOURCES (TOTAL)||2 076.1||1 749.7||1 656.7||1 855.7||1845||1739||1699.9||0.18|
|Solid fuel||1 348.2||1 005.8||906.4||899.4||850.9||793||746.3||-1.38|
|Primary heat and electricity||146.0||143.0||117.8||231.9||255.4||273||273.4||6.20|
|FINAL CONSUMPTION (TOTAL)||1 303.2||1 091.3||1 002.6||1 130.8
Source: Czech Statistical Office
1.2.3. Energy policy
An updated version of the State Energy Policy of the CR prepared by the Ministry of Industry and Trade as an official document with a horizon 2040 was approved by the Czech Government on 18th May 2015. The Energy Policy specifies a comprehensive set of priorities and long-term goals taking into account energy issues together with environmental, economic and social aspects (see http://www.mpo.cz/dokument155315.html).
1.3. The electricity system
1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process
As the energy sector has been mostly privatized, there is no special electricity policy – parts of the energy policy can be interpreted as an electricity policy, and the decision making process is based on the decisions of individual companies inside of the legal and institutional framework which is described below.
The state still owns about 70% of shares of CEZ, a.s. (Czech Power Company, www.cez.cz), the major energy production and distribution company. In the long-term, state influence in the energy sector is anticipated only in the form of indirect measures (legislation, pricing and taxes), regulating natural monopolies in particular industries and of course assuring energy security (mainly by management of ownership rights).
The legislative background is as follows:
The Act on Business Conditions and Public Administration in the Energy Sectors (Energy Act No. 458/2000 Coll., as amended by the Act No. 158/2009 Coll.) establishing a new regulatory regime regulates business in the electrical power sector. According to the Energy Act, electricity generation, distribution, transmission and electricity trading is subject to licensing. Support for cogeneration of electricity and heat in the form of a duty to buy the produced electricity and in the provision of financial support to electricity production is stated there as well. The Energy Act introduces the market environment, opens the electricity and gas markets and establishes relevant institutions: the Energy Regulatory Office (www.eru.cz), the Electricity Market Operator (www.ote-cr.cz) and State Energy Inspection (www.cr-sei.cz).
The Energy Management Act (Act No. 61/2008 Coll.) stipulates the rights and obligations of natural and legal bodies in the management of energy, in particular electricity and heat, as well as gas and other fuels. It shall contribute to the economical use of natural resources and protection of the environment, as well as to more efficient use of energy, enhanced competitiveness, and reliable energy supplies and to the sustainable development of society.
Electricity trade is organized and regulated by the Electricity Market Operator (EMO) which is a state-owned stock company. The key role of the EMO is to organize the electricity market and flow of information between the market players.
A regulatory role is performed by two state bodies: technical status is inspected by the State Energy Inspection which is the government body supervising energy facilities.
From an economic point of view the regulatory function is performed by the Energy Regulatory Office (ERO) as defined in the Energy Act. It is a central state administration body appointed by and responsible to the Cabinet. Its operating costs are covered by the state budget approved every year by the Parliament. The general mission of the ERO is to support economic competition and protect consumers’ interests in the energy sector, aiming to meet all reasonable requirements for energy supply, i.e. electricity, gas and heat supplies.
1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector
About two thirds of electricity production is concentrated in CEZ, a.s. (plc.), the joint-stock company which owns 12 coal power plants on Czech territory, two nuclear power plants (Dukovany and Temelín), 31 hydro power plants (including three pumped-storage hydro power plants), 14 solar power stations and two wind power plants. The remaining electrical power production is provided by plants owned largely by independent producers (e.g. International Power Opatovice a.s., Elektrárna Kolín a.s.) or by auto producers in industry and local heat producers (co-generation), and by regional utilities.
Electricity is distributed (as well as imported and exported) by the Czech electricity transmission system CEPS, a.s. (www.ceps.cz), state owned shareholding company, which owns and operates the backbone high voltage power transmission system (400 kV, 220 kV and some 110 kV lines) and a dispatching centre.
Electricity distribution to final consumers is provided by three electrical power distribution companies (utilities) - CEZ, a.s., E.ON Distribution, a.s. (https://www.eon.cz/en/about-corporate/index.shtml) and PRE Group (http://www.pre.cz/en.html). Since 2006, a consumer of any size (including households) can select its electricity supplier and the role of former utilities is in servicing of distribution lines and providing them to the delivery organization at the cost defined by the ERO.
1.3.3. Main indicators
Table 5 shows electricity production and installed capacity, and Table 6 energy related indicators. The energy sources for electricity production have been quite stable for several years since the nuclear power plant (NPP) Temelín has been in full operation and the main hydro potential, which cannot be further substantially increased due to physical conditions, was utilized.
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CAPACITY
|Indicator||1991||2000||2005||2010||2012||2014||Average annual growth rate [%]
|Electricity production (TWh)|
|- Power plants, total||60.527||73.466||82.579||85.910||87.573||86.003||1.13|
|- Steam power plants2)||47.138||57.550||52.269||53.905||51.643||50.117||-0.98|
|- Hydroelectric power plants3)||1.257||2.313||3.027||3.381||3.381||2.961||1.78|
|- Nuclear power plants||12.132||13.590||24.728||27.998||30.324||30.325||5.90|
| - Internal combustion
engines and gas turbines
|Nuclear share (%)||20.0||18.5||29.9||33.9||34.6||35.2||4.70|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|- Installed capacity, total||14.957||15.324||17.412||20.073||20.520||19.2||1.62|
|- Steam power plants2)||11.626||11.431||10.698||11.726||11.758||12.6||0.70|
|- Hydroelectric power plants3)||1.360||2.097||2.167||2.203||2.216||2.11||0.04|
|- Nuclear power plants||1.760||1.760||3.760||3.900||4.040||4.29||6.57|
| - Internal combustion
engines and gas turbines
|Nuclear share (%)||11.8||11.5||21.6||19.42||19.7||22.3||4.84|
(2) incl. combined cycle
(3) incl. wind power plants
Source: Czech Statistical Office
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|1991||2000||2005||2010||2013||2014||Average annual growth rate [%]
| Energy consumption per capita
| Electricity production per capita
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||20.0||18.5||29.9||33||37.4||35.3||4.72|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)(2)||16||23||28||21.8||21.8||19.8||-1.06|
Source: Czech Statistical Office
(2) Net import / Total primary energy consumption
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical development and current organizational structure
The nuclear power era in the former Czechoslovakia started in the 1950s during the first boom of nuclear power. The decision to build a NPP was founded on good grounds: well established R&D, a machinery industry with a long tradition of success and lack of fossil fuels (an absence of significant resources of oil and gas and shrinking coal reserves). A relatively technically complicated heavy water gas-cooled reactor was built and operated in Jaslovské Bohunice (now Slovakia). It was commissioned in 1972 after more than 10 years of construction, and permanently shut down in 1976 after two serious accidents. Even though a bigger reactor of the same type was in a design stage it was decided to switch to the PWR type under the influence of the former Soviet Union in Eastern Europe.
In the 70s, four reactors of type WWERs 440/213 were built at the Dukovany site. The Soviet design was adopted and Czech industry was gradually involved in the production of almost the whole of the plant equipment with the exception of fuel and the main circulation pumps. Czech industry also became the supplier of these parts for other Eastern European countries (e.g. 20 reactor vessels were made by Škoda Company). In the middle of the 80s, construction of the WWERs 1000 began at Temelín site. In 1993, the government decided to change the reactor control system (I&C) and the fuel to meet the state-of-the-art criteria of safety, and Westinghouse was selected as a supplier. The project manufacture of four units was reduced to two units. Finally, at the beginning of the 21st century, the two units were completed and put into commercial operation in 2003.
During restructuring of economy and due to the lack of demand for nuclear equipment most of the industrial capacity was lost in the 1990s. In the few last years they were partially renewed for sub-deliveries mainly for Areva Company for Olkiluoto 3 (Finland) and Jules Horowitz (France) reactors.
In August 2009, CEZ, a.s. launched a tender for the construction of two more units at the Temelín NPP site (Temelín 3 and 4). Final selection should have been made in September 2013 but the decision has been delayed and afterward cancelled.
According to the State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic, the main primary objectives include: (1) supporting and acceleration the process of negotiating, preparing and implementation of new nuclear units at existing nuclear power plant sites with a total output of up to 2 500 MW, or annual production of app. 20 TWh by years 2030 – 2035; (2) creation conditions to extend lifetime of the Dukovany plant to 50 years and, if possible, to 60 years.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)
The Organization of the Czech government can be seen in Figure 1. The Ministry of Industry and Trade is a political ministry which has the principal responsibility for overall energy policy and support of selected fields. The State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB) belongs, together with e.g. the State Energy Inspection, to a group of “non-political” Offices of the Government (i.e. they have their own budget not connected to any “political” Ministry). Heads of these organizations are appointed by the Cabinet on a professional basis.
FIGURE 1: POSITION OF THE SÚJB IN THE STATE ADMINISTRATION
2.2. Nuclear power plants: Overview
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
In the Czech Republic, there are
Four units operating at Dukovany (WWER 440/V213 type PWRs) with the total installed power of 2040 MWe and
Two units at Temelín (WWER 1000/V320 type PWRs) with the total installed power of 2110 MWe.
TABLE 7. STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table 7 is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
FIGURE 2. MAP OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN THE CR
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
In 2015, NPP Dukovany completed thirty years and NPP Temelín fifteen years of operation. The SÚJB conditions the obtaining of approval for operation of both NPPs by performing Periodic Safety Review (PSR) to the extent specified in the IAEA Safety Guide No. NS-G-2.10. The first review at Dukovany NPP was performed in 2005 – 2006, the second in 2013 – 2014. Results of this review served as the basis of an application for a permit for operation after 2015 (after 30 years of operation).
In September 2015, CEZ Inc. as an operator of Dukovany NPP applied for SÚJB´s approval of operation of the unit Dukovany-1 to 2025. After implementing all required conditions and in accordance with the Atom Act No. 18/1997, SÚJB issued an operating license for Unit 1 for indeterminate period. The new operating licence issued on 30 Mach 2016 (valid from 1 April 2016) includes almost a hundred conditions, which if not fulfilled could be the reason for withdrawal of the licence. The license imposes on CEZ Inc. an obligation to inform SÚJB about operation beyond the license to ensure the efficient performance of the state administration as well the regulatory body.
As regards Temelín NPP, its first PSR was performed in 2008 – 2010. Results of this review served as part of the basis of an application for a permit for operation after 10 years of operation.
For more information about upgrades and modernization of both NPPs please refer to the latest National Report of the Czech Republic under the Convention on Nuclear Safety.
The Post Fukushima National Action Plan drafted on the basis of the EU Stress Tests is a new stage of further enhancement of their safety level.
2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The updated State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic considers nuclear power to be a feasible option.
Within the time frame of the State Energy Policy what is important in terms of dependence on predicting the balance of production and consumption is (1) support the development of nuclear energy within the target of nuclear energy comprising 50 % of the amount of electricity generated and maximizing heat supplies from nuclear power plants; (2) support and accelerate the process of negotiating, preparing and implementing new nuclear units at existing nuclear power plants sites with a total output of up to 2 500 MW, or annual production of approx. 20 TWh by the years 2030 – 2035; (3) create conditions to extend the lifetime of the Dukovany plant (to 50 to 60 years) taking account of technology, safety and security, the economy and EU rules; (4) schedule the potential construction of a new block at existing nuclear power plant sites in line with the expected decommissioning of the Dukovany NPP, i. e. after 2035; (5) make decision concerning the storage of nuclear waste by 2025.
In addition, the document recommends to start making greater use of heat energy produced from nuclear sources to heat large urban agglomerations. If nuclear power were to continue to be used for a long period of time, it would also be necessary to explore and prepare, as needed, sites for future additional nuclear power stations after 2040.
2.3.2. Project management
It is assumed that the delivery of new units will be a “turn-key” project.
2.3.3. Project funding
At the moment no official plan has been announced.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
The backbone internal electric grid owned by CEPS, a.s. (see above) is adequate for internal transfers. New investments will be oriented mainly to the strengthening of the connection of new units.
2.3.5. Site Selection
The primary site selected for two new units is the existing site at Temelín which was originally planned for four units (only two have been built). For a possible further expansion the site of the NPP at Dukovany is considered mainly due to the existing infrastructure and acceptance by the public.
2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs
Since most of the equipment and all construction parts of both NPPs were produced inside of the country or in Slovakia (second part of the former Czechoslovakia), involvement of domestic companies is expected. Some of them are listed below in Appendix 2.
There are no domestic specialized capacities in the area of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, and spent fuel processing and heavy water production. The only exception is research in fuel coating and spent fuel processing.
2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs
It is assumed that CEZ, a.s., operator of both existing NPPs, will operate any new NPP. It is the only organization licensed to operate a NPP.
2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs
The basic obligations of a licensee (as per the “Atomic Act”, see below) include the obligation to evenly create financial reserves for the preparation and actual decommissioning of nuclear installations. The amount of this reserve shall be established based on the decommissioning technology approved by the SÚJB and based on the estimate of the costs for given decommissioning technology verified by the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority. The method of creating reserves is governed by a separate legal regulation issued by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic. The creation of reserves is controlled by the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority. Monetary reserves for decommissioning are created in compliance with legal regulations for all nuclear facilities operated by the CEZ, a. s. The funds for decommissioning of nuclear installations are kept on a blocked account and can only be used for preparation and implementation of decommissioning. The issue of decommissioning documentation preparation is assured at the licensee (CEZ, a. s.). Currently, proposals for the decommissioning method have already been approved for Dukovany and Temelín NPPs and the Spent Fuel Storage Facilities (Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility Dukovany, Spent Fuel Storage Facility Dukovany and Spent Fuel Storage Facility Temelín.
2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management
Nuclear fuel is supplied to both NPPs by the TVEL Company. In addition, the fuel for the Czech research reactors comes from the Russian Federation. Under the GTRI, research reactors at both the Czech Technical University and the Nuclear Research Institute at Rež, a.s./Research Centre Rež, s.r.o. (Ltd) have been converted from the use of highly enriched uranium (36 %) to low enriched uranium (less than 20 %); and also spent fuel from all Czech research reactors was repatriated to the country of its origin in 2007.
The uranium ore is still mined at Dolní Rožínka operated by Diamo, s.p. (the state enterprise). The ore is processed to a “yellow cake” form and delivered to fuel producers to produce fuel for CEZ, a.s. But the amount is not sufficient; therefore, additional uranium is being sourced in the world market under medium-term contracts. In January 2016, the Czech government made a decision about gradual decommissioning of a mine Rožná at Dolní Rožínka in period by the end of 2017. Utilization of domestic uranium should be considered in the light of its potential contribution to the economy of the Czech Republic. In the extreme and unlikely case of disintegration of the global uranium market, domestic uranium may be utilized using the latest environmentally friendly technologies.
The storage of spent fuel is ensured by its originators, i.e. CEZ, a.s. (from NPPs) and Research Centre Rež (from its research reactors). The spent nuclear fuel removed from the reactors is stored in a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) pool (approximately 7 – 10 years) and then in dry storage facilities (approximately 40 – 60 years), which are situated at power plant sites.
There are (interim) dry cask-type (CASTOR) spent fuel storage facilities at both NPPs. The first interim storage at the NPP Dukovany, with the capacity of 600 tonnes of heavy metals, was in operation 1995 - 2006. The second storage at Dukovany, with the capacity of 1340 tonnes of heavy metals (sufficient to cover the remaining production of spent fuel at all four units of NPP Dukovany) was put into operation in 2006. Since 2010, spent fuel storage has also been in operation at the NPP Temelín (with the capacity of 1370 tonnes of heavy metals).
The construction of a deep geological repository is proposed in the “Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management in the Czech Republic”, prepared by the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) in co-operation with a number of other organizations and updated in 2014. The updated Concept respects the requirements of Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom. In compliance with a recommendation contained in these directives and recommendations provided by the Working Group of the European Nuclear Energy Forum (“Information and Transparency”), discussion is under way on implementing into the national legislative frameworks in the site selection process. Based on a preliminary timetable, the selection of the final site is scheduled for 2025; deep geological repository construction is scheduled for 2050 – 2064; the commissioning of the repository is scheduled for 2065.
The issue of reprocessing still remains open, and has been left to the operator. Basically, a decision to either reprocess or directly dispose of spent fuel (after its conditioning) as waste can be suspended for the time of its storage in the interim storage facility (40 to 50 years).
A shallow land repository of radioactive waste is operated by RAWRA within the Dukovany NPP site. It is designed to accommodate all future low level and intermediate level radioactive waste from both the Dukovany and Temelín NPPs.
A repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste from medical and industrial use is located in an abandoned mine “Richard” near Litomerice on the north of the Czech Republic. It was put in operation in 1964. Another repository “Bratrství” for the waste containing natural radionuclides is located near Jáchymov on the north-west of the Czech Republic and has been in operation since 1974. Repository “Hostim” near Beroun was closed in 1997 and now is monitored by RAWRA.
2.8. Research and development
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The responsibility for the research state policy in the area of nuclear energy is divided between the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic and the SÚJB. While the first ministry sponsors any general research in the area, SÚJB supports projects aiming to increase nuclear safety.
Most activities in the area of nuclear energy research and development are carried out by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rež, a.s. (founded in 1955), its daughter company, Research Centre Rež, s.r.o. (established in 2002); and by the Czech Technical University in Prague.
ÚJP Praha, a.s. performs specialized research into fuel element cladding – it is a successor of the former Nuclear Fuel Institute (ÚJP) established in 1966 as a subsidiary of the state-owned enterprise DIAMO.
Several institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences and other universities such as the West Bohemia University in Plzen are marginally included in the nuclear power research as well.
At present, three research nuclear reactors are operated in the Czech Republic. Two experimental reactors are located in the vicinity of Prague at the Research Centre Rež, s.r.o. – LVR-15 and LR-0 – and one training reactor VR-1 is operated by the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
The Czech Republic is an active member of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) which provided several studies as in-kind contributions in its framework.
The Nuclear Research Institute at Rež, a.s. together with the Research Centre Rež , s.r.o. is engaged in several international research projects under the EU Framework programmes on nuclear safety, waste management and other topics in the nuclear area.
2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives
The Czech Republic has fruitful international co-operation with a number of foreign nuclear-oriented organizations and is a member of a number of international nuclear organizations and associations – e.g. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA).
A very intensive cooperation is carried out within the European Union. The Czech Republic is intensively involved in the development of European legislation in the European Council as well as in planning and realization of EuropeAid projects under the INSC and IPA.
The SÚJB is a member of the following associations
Western European Nuclear Regulators’ Association (WENRA)
WWER Forum (established by the regulatory bodies of countries operating Soviet designed pressurized water reactors)
Association of countries with small nuclear programs (NERS).
In the area of safeguards, the Czech Republic is a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and Zangger Committee.
CEZ, a.s. is a member of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO).
Czech scientists take part in research activities organized by international organizations such as OECD/NEA, ISOE, INEX, IRS and programmes of CERN, Dubna, etc.
The Czech Republic has concluded agreements about information exchange with all neighbouring states and general cooperation agreements with other countries having a substantial nuclear programme.
The Czech Republic is a member of international conventions and treaties listed in Appendix 1.
2.9. Human resources development
In the Czech Republic the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is the central authority in education responsible for overall strategy, educational policy and distribution of financial resources from the State budget and introduction of the general scientific research and development policy.
The Czech Republic, a country with developed nuclear energy, dedicates systematic care to educating and training human resources and specialists to ensure provision of reliable operation and manufacturing of various nuclear devices, and carrying out research and developmental activities.
Basic courses (on MS level) in nuclear physics and its application and engineering in full scale are provided at four main universities (Prague: Charles and Technical Universities, Brno: Masaryk University and Plzen: University of West Bohemia). These universities also provide post graduate courses and PhD. studies. There are many partial courses on the use of radioactive sources and radiation protection as part of education in chemistry, biology and other sciences.
The Czech Republic continues to implement one “national” project under the IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme – “Strengthening Human Resource Capacity and Nuclear Knowledge Preservation in Relevant Fields”. The Programme is focused on education and improvement of the age structure of various institutions in the field of non-industrial utilization of nuclear energy in the country. Target institutions are hospitals, universities, research institutes and relevant organizations within the state administration; the project is coordinated by the SÚJB.
2.10. Stakeholder Communication
Communication of governmental institutions with the public is operated with openness and transparency and is governed by the Act on provision of information (Act No. 106/1999 Coll.) In practice, it is implemented by internet services (http://www.statnisprava.cz, https://portal.gov.cz, www.sujb.cz, www.mpo.cz).
Formal communication (content of communications and terms) between the SÚJB and its license holders and other stakeholders is ruled by the Administration Act (Act No. 186/2006 Coll.) As regards the most important communication between CEZ, a.s. and the SÚJB concerning events at the NPPs, the information duties are primarily given by the Technical Specification of NPPs operation (Limits and Conditions) and in addition by an agreement of CEZ, a.s. and SÚJB on this matter.
International communication on emergency matters is ruled by the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident. The Czech Republic has also concluded bilateral agreements with all neighbouring states which usually also cover matters related to the exchange of information in case of emergency and mutual cooperation in the field of peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
Mutual information has a prominent role in relations with Austria and Germany. The respective agreements are formulated very carefully in terms of their details and are followed by several arrangements establishing technical details.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory framework
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
The SÚJB was established as the Czech Republic’s national regulatory authority in the nuclear safety and radiation protection field on 1 January 1993 by Act No. 21/1992 Coll. The competencies of the former Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission were divided into regulatory activities (nuclear safety and safeguards) transferred to the SÚJB and promotional activities transferred to the Ministry of Industry and Trade. In 1995, the SÚJB assumed regulatory responsibility in the overall area of radiation protection (from the Ministry of Health) and in 2005 extended the scope of its responsibilities to regulation in the area of material and technologies which can be used for chemical and biological weapons (from the Ministry of Industry and Trade). To simplify the inspection process in important mechanical parts in nuclear installations (like pressure tubes or vessels) “technical” safety responsibility in the area was also transferred to the SÚJB.
The legal framework of the SÚJB is given by the Act on the Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Ionizing Radiation (the “Atomic Act”, Act No. 18/1997 Coll.) Other legal documents specifying powers of the SÚJB are listed in the part titled Main National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power below.
The SÚJB is an independent central body of the state administration with its own budget. It is headed by a Chairperson appointed by the Government. The Chairperson can, on request, be present at the meeting of the Government. Regulatory decisions of the SÚJB (except of fines) cannot be changed by any other governmental body. Deputy Chairpersons, Directors of Departments and Heads of Divisions, as well as nuclear safety and radiation protection inspectors are appointed by the Chairperson of the SÚJB.
The SÚJB has about 200 employees. Its organizational chart is presented in Figure 3.
FIGURE 3: ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF THE SÚJB
3.1.2. Licensing Process
The licensing process legislative framework is defined by Act No. 183/2006 Coll., on Spatial Planning and Building Rules (the Building Act), the Atomic Act and their implementing decrees.
In the case of construction of a nuclear installation, the Building Act establishes a three-stage procedure for its permitting (site decision, construction permit and final inspection approval). The Ministry of Regional Development exercises the competence of a building office to issue a site decision (siting) pursuant to Section 13 paragraph 2 of Act No. 183/2006 Coll. The construction permit and operating licence (permanent operation) are issued by the department of planning and building control of the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Their resolutions are conditional upon positions issued by specialized regulatory bodies, including the SÚJB. The department of planning and building control of the Ministry of Industry and Trade can issue the operating licence only with the approval of the municipal department of planning and building control competent to issue the site decision, which verifies observance of its conditions; the approval is not an administrative action. If neither site decision nor site approval is issued, the opinion of the municipal department of planning and building control on compliance of designed site with projects of regional planning shall be sufficient.
The Atomic Act establishes the way of utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, as well as conditions for the performance of activities related to the utilization of nuclear energy and radiation practices. A precondition for the performance of such activities is a licence issued by the SÚJB with an administrative procedure, which is independent of the above-described procedure required under the Building Act. The Atomic Act explicitly forbids launching siting, construction, operation and other activities at nuclear installations, requiring the licence issued by the SÚJB, before the respective licence becomes legally effective.
That means that the approval procedure, besides the three-stage process mentioned above, also includes a number of other partial licences issued by the SÚJB in accordance with the Atomic Act during different stages of the service life of a nuclear installation.
According to the provisions of Section 17 of the Atomic Act, the licensee shall verify nuclear safety during all stages of the installation's service life (in the scope appropriate for the particular licences), assess it in a systematic and comprehensive manner from the aspect of the current level of science and technology, and ensure that results of such assessments are translated into practical measures. The verification/assessment shall be documented. The content of the documentation is specified in the Appendix to the Atomic Act. Safety assessment is, in compliance with the Atomic Act, reviewed by the SÚJB, both analytically and within its inspection activities.
The implementing decrees complement the Atomic Act to establish basic criteria for nuclear safety assessment of a nuclear installation during different stages of its service life.
For more information, see the latest National Report of the Czech Republic under the Convention on Nuclear Safety.
3.2. Main national laws and regulations in nuclear power
The Czech Republic’s legislative framework in nuclear safety and radiation protection is based particularly on the Atomic Act and appropriate decrees of the SÚJB, as well as the Government Resolutions. The following list contains the complete legislation relating to the responsibilities of the SÚJB, and also includes norms concerning the ban on chemical and biological weapons. Both Laws and Decrees are continuously updated; for the current situation consult http://www.sujb.cz/en/legal-framework/ .It is necessary to note that since May 2004 the Czech Republic has been a member of the EU and therefore Acquis communautaire is also fully applicable in the country.
Act No. 18/1997 Coll., on Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Ionizing Radiation (the Atomic Act), as amended (including amendments and additions to related acts regarding the state supervision over the nuclear safety of nuclear installations and licensing activities amended by the Act No. 13/2002 Coll. and Act No. 310/2002 Coll.).
Act No. 19/1997 Coll., on Some Measures Concerning Chemical Weapons Prohibition and on Amendments and Additions to Related Acts.
Act No. 281/2002 Coll., on Some Measures Related to Prohibition of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Amendments to Trades Licensing Act.
Act No. 458/2000 Coll., (Energy Act) on Business Conditions and Public Administration in the Energy Industry Sectors and on Amendment to Other Laws. Now the Act is amended in the full wording of the Act No. 91/2005 Coll.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 144/1997 Coll., on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities and their Classification, amended in Decree of the SÚJB No. 500/2005 Coll.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 145/1997 Coll., on Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials and their Detailed Specification, amended in Decree of the SÚJB No. 316/2002 Coll.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 146/1997 Coll., Specifying Activities Directly Affecting Nuclear Safety and Activities Especially Important from Radiation Protection Viewpoint, Requirements on Qualification and Professional Training, on Method to be Used for Verification of Special Professional Competency and for Issue Authorizations to Selected Personnel, and the Form of Documentation to be Approved for Licensing of Expert Training of Selected Personnel, amended in Decree of the SÚJB No. 315/2002 Coll.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 215/1997 Coll., on Criteria for Siting Nuclear Facilities and Very Significant Ionizing Radiation Sources.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 106/1998 Coll., on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Assurance during Commissioning and Operation of Nuclear Facilities.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 195/1999 Coll., on Basic Design Criteria for Nuclear Installations with Respect to Nuclear Safety Radiation Protection and Emergency Preparedness.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 324/1999 Coll., on Limits of Concentration and Amount of Nuclear Material for which Nuclear Liability Requirements does not apply.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 307/2002 Coll., on Radiation Protection. The Decree Repeals Decree of the SÚJB No. 184/1997 Coll. Now the Decree is amended in the wording of Decree of the SÚJB No. 499/2005 Coll.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 317/2002 Coll., on Type Approval of Packaging Assemblies for Transport, Storage and Disposal of Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Substances, on Type Approval of Ionizing Radiation Sources and on Transport of Nuclear Materials and Specified Radioactive Substances (“on Type Approval and Transport”), amended in Decree SÚJB No. 77/2009 Coll. (the Decree Repeals Decrees of the SÚJB Nos. 142/1997 Coll. and 143/1997 Coll.)
Decree of the SÚJB No. 318/2002 Coll., on Details of Emergency Preparedness of Nuclear Facilities and Workplaces with Ionizing Radiation Sources and on Requirements on the Content of On-Site Emergency Plan and Emergency Rule, amended in Decree SÚJB No. 2/2004 Coll. (the Decree Repeals Decree of the SÚJB No. 219/1997 Coll.)
Decree of the SÚJB No. 319/2002 Coll., on Performance and Management of the National Radiation Monitoring Network, amended in Decree SÚJB No. 27/2006 Coll.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 419/2002 Coll., on Personal Radiation Passports.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 474/2002 Coll., on Some Measures Related to Prohibition of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Amendments to Trades Licensing Act.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 185/2003 Coll., on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installation or Category III. or IV. Workplace (the Decree Repeals Decree of the SÚJB No. 196/1999 Coll.).
Decree of the SÚJB No. 193/2005 Coll., on list of theoretical and practical areas forming content of education and of preparation required for performance of regulated activities within the scope of power of the State Office for Nuclear Safety.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 309/2005 Coll., on provision of technical safety for classified equipment.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 462/2005 Coll., on distribution and collection of detectors intended for identification of buildings with an increased level of exposure to natural radionuclide and on conditions for acquirement of state budget subsidy.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 132/2008 Coll., on Quality Assurance System in carrying out activities connected with utilization of nuclear energy and radiation protection and on Quality assurance of selected equipment in regard their assignment to classes of nuclear safety (repeals Decree of the SÚJB No. 214/1997 Coll.).
Decree of the SÚJB No. 208/2008 Coll., Implementation the Act on Some Measures Concerning Chemical Weapons Prohibition.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 165/2009 Coll., Laying down a list of Nuclear-related items.
Decree of the SÚJB No. 166/2009 Coll., Laying down a List of Nuclear - related Dual-use items.
Government Resolution No. 416/2002 Coll., on Payments of Radioactive Waste Producers to the Nuclear Account and Annual Amount of Contribution to Municipalities and Rules for its Provision.
Government Resolution No. 11/1999 Coll., on Emergency Planning Zone.
Government Resolution No. 73/2009 Coll., on transferring information in connection with international transportation of Radioactive Waste Material and spent fuel.
APPENDIX 1: International, Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements
The list of international conventions and bilateral agreements signed/ratified by the government of the Czech Republic in the field of nuclear power is indicated below.
Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency
Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the International Atomic Energy Agency to the Government of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
The Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of Austria on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
The Protocol between the Government of the CR and the Government of Austria by which is changing the Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of Austria on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
The Agreement between the Government of the CSFR and the Government of Germany on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
The Agreement between the Government of the CSFR and the Government of Hungary on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of the Russian Federation on Co-operation in the Nuclear Energy Field
The Amendment to the Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of the Russian Federation on Co-operation in the Nuclear Energy Field
The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of Canada on Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of the Slovak Republic on Co-operation in the State Regulation of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Materials
The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of Ukraine on Co-operation in the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Industry
The Agreement between the Government of the CR, SR, RF and the Government of Ukraine on Co-operation in the Transport of Nuclear Materials between CR and Russian Federation over the territory of SR and Ukraine
The Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Republic of Korea for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of the Republic of India on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of the Socialistic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
The Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Republic of Poland on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and on Exchange of Information on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of the SR on early notification of a nuclear accident
The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of Australia on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and Transfer of Nuclear Materials
Agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the USSR on Further Extending of Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreements/Arrangements of Ministries and Regulatory Bodies
The Agreement between the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (France) and the State Office for Nuclear Safety (Czech Republic) for the Exchange of Information and Co-operation in the Regulation of Nuclear Safety
The Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic (SÚJB) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States of America (US NRC) for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety Matters
Implementing Agreement between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRS) and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety (SUJB) Relating to Participation in the US NRC Program of Severe Accident Research (CSARP)
Implementing Agreement between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRS) and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety (SUJB) on Application of Thermohydraulic Codes (CAMP)
Statement of Intent concluded between Minister of Science and Technology of the Republic of Korea on one side and Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade of the CR and the Chairman of the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the CR on the other side
The Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of State Supervision of Nuclear Safety and Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy between the Federal Regulatory Authority of the Russian Federation (Gosatomnadzor) and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety
The Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the State Commission for Nuclear Supervision of Ukraine on Co-operation in the Area of State Administration and Supervision of Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Uses of Nuclear Energy
Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Safety between the SÚJB CR and the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
The Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration for the Exchange of Information.
The Agreement for Cooperation between the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland and the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic.
The Memorandum of Understanding on Nuclear Cooperation between State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the Atomic Energy Council of the Republic of China (Taiwan, China).
The Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic on the Exchange of Data from the Networks of Radiation Situation Monitoring.
Programme of Cooperation between the SÚJB of the Czech Republic and the ÚJD of the Slovak Republic
Administrative Arrangement between the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic pursuant to the Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Czech Republic for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Committee for Nuclear Energy of the Romanian Socialist Republic and the Federal Committee for Technical and Investment Development of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
APPENDIX 2: Main Organizations, Institutions and Companies Involved in Nuclear Power Related Activities
Name of report coordinator:
Ms. Silvia Habadova
State Office for Nuclear Safety;
Senovážné námesti 9;
11000 PRAGUE 1;
Tel.: +420 221 624 770;