1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. Country overview
1.1.1. Governmental System
The Moroccan political system is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. The king appoints the Head of the Government following elections. Several parties are involved in the Moroccan political field.
The legislative system has a bicameral parliament, consisting of the Chamber of Representatives (lower house) and the Chamber of Counselors (upper house). The prerogatives of the parliament relate to law-making and control of the governmental activities. Morocco has an independent judiciary system headed by the Supreme Court.
1.1.2. Geography and Climate
The Kingdom of Morocco is located in northwest Africa, with the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It is separated from Europe by the Straits of Gibraltar. The kingdom's capital is Rabat. The national territory stretches over an area of about 711,000 km2.
The Atlantic Morocco contains the most important plateaus and plains (Abda, Gharb, and Chaouia,) as well as the longest rivers (Sebou, Oum rabïe). This part of the Kingdom is the most populated, being home to about 65% of the total population.
To the north, the "Rif" mountains chain overhangs the Mediterranean shore and stands as a natural boundary to the eastern provinces, an area with a dry climate formed by sparsely populated high plateaus and the valley of the Moulouya river.
The chain of Atlas mountains, which stands up in the east and south of the Atlantic Morocco, is made up of the Medium, the High (peak at Jebel Toubkal, 4,165 m) and the Minor Atlas, which forms the southern boundary of the "Souss Valley".
To the South of the Minor Atlas stretches the Moroccan Sahara, dotted with oasis (Smara) and seasonal rivers (Drâa), with small inland towns and coastal modern cities (Laâyoune, Dakhla, etc.).
The Moroccan climate varies according to season and region. The north coast of Morocco and the interior mountains, the Rif, have a Mediterranean climate. The inland areas have continental climate, they are warmer and drier. In the south, the climate is hot and dry for most of the year, although the temperature can drop highly during nighttime, especially in the months of December and January. Rain falls from November to March in coastal areas, and the country is mostly dry with high temperatures in summer and a cooler climate in the mountains. The northwest of Morocco in particular is exposed to Atlantic depressions in winter and rainfall is moderately high. Morocco is characterized by a spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. The northwest on the average is wettest than the rest of the country. And even in this region, the total annual average rainfall varies considerably. For example, it can reach more than 800 mm on relief, where it does not exceed 300 mm on the surrounding plains.
The past demographic indicators of the Moroccan population are presented in Table 1. These data are derived from a projection based on the results of the general census of population and housing in 1960, 1971, 1982, 1994 and 2004. From 2004, the population projections until 2050 are based on the results of the 2004 census and the national population multiround survey of 2009-2010. An annual average growth rate of 1% could be expected for the next decades.
TABLE 1. POPULATION INFORMATION
|1990||2000||2010||2013|| Average Annual Growth Rate (%)
|Population Density (inhabitants/km2)||34*||40||71||74||4.85|
|Urban Population as % of total||48.6||54.2||57.7||59.2||0.68|
|Area (1000 km2)||710.85|
* Including Sahara Provinces from 1982.
Source: Morocco Statistics authority Directory / Haut Commissariat du Plan.www.hcp.ma
1.1.4. Economic Data
Morocco has a fairly stable economy with continuous growth over the past half-a-century.
The principles economic sectors are as follow:
Mining Sector: Morocco has considerable phosphate resources; it is the first exporter and third producer of unrefined phosphate world-wide. The country also contains other mines, such as baryta, lead, manganese, cobalt, copper, iron, zinc, antimony, molybdenum, fluorine. On the other hand, energy resources (coal, oil and natural gas) are very limited.
Agriculture sector: It used to contribute 15 % of GDP, but this share has decreased as it’s strongly influenced by rainfall irregularities. The main agricultural productions are cereals, vegetables, fruits, and sugar canes. Fruit tree cultivation and olive trees provide an additional large resource. Animal husbandry occupies a predominant place in the agro-pastoral sector.
Industrial Sector: This sector presents about 31% of the GDP and employs 20 % of the active population, with food industries textile industries, leather and the construction industry. On the other hand, thanks to “Emergence” plan, other industrial activities emerged and showed good performance in the last years, especially the manufacturing, aeronautics and automobile industries.
Transportation Sector: Transportion is a sufficiently developed sector in Morocco. The country has a road network of 59,474 km and a railway network of 1,893 km. The main airports are Casablanca, Rabat, Fez, Agadir, Marrakech, Tangier, Oujda, Nador and Laâyoun. The main ports are Casablanca, Mohammedia, Tangier city, Tangier Mediterranean, Dakhla and Nador.
Tertiary Sector: The tertiary sector is dominated by tourism which, in 2010, contributed 7.5% of GDP, employed 6.6% of the active population and received 9.3 million visiting tourists.
After a drop to 2.9% in 2012 due to low rainfall, the GDP is expected to rise to an average of 5.5% during the period of 2013-2017, according to IMF projections.
TABLE 2. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)
|GDP per capita, PPP* (current $)||1,115||1,940||2,586||3,508||4,682||4,952|
|GDP per capita (constant 2000 US$)||1,019||1,172||1,272||1,531||1,844||1,908|
|GDP (millions current US$)||18,821||25,821||37,021||59,524||90,803||100,221|
|GDP (millions constant 2000 US$)||20,086||29,312||37,021||47,201||59,908||62,633|
|GDP growth (annual %)||3.65||4.05||1.6||2.98||3.68||4.55|
* PPP: Purchasing Power Parity.
1.2. Energy Information
1.2.1. Estimated available energy
Morocco has very limited local energy resources and depends almost totally on external sources for its energy supply.
Fossil fuels: Local production of coal (anthracite) was provided by the Jerada mine until its closure in 2000. Current needs of coal are imported. Morocco has very large deposits of oil shale, especially in the south of the Kingdom. However, feasibility studies conducted so far for the recovery of this national resource for producing electricity and pyrolisys have shown that its use is not yet competitive using the present technologies. Morocco produces very small volumes of oil and natural gas from the Essaouira Basin and small amounts of natural gas from the Gharb Basin. The country is crossed by the Maghreb Europe pipeline (of about 10 bcm/year capacity), transporting Algerian gas to Europe through the Strait of Gibraltar. The gas royalties received by Morocco are used to feed the Tahaddart and Ain Beni Mathar power plants
Nuclear fuel: Morocco has very large amounts of uranium in its phosphates. This resource could prove useful in the future if economically competitive processes are developed for its extraction. According to IAEA’s recent studies, the estimated availability of uranium in the Moroccan phosphates is of about 6.9 million tons.
Renewable resources: Morocco continues to enhance its hydraulic potential for electric generation by increasing the capacity of this source. Furthermore, Morocco has huge renewable energy potentials. Two major renewable energy programs were launched recently by King Mohammed VI :
Solar energy programme: Launched In November 2009, this programme, which is worth US$9 billion, will involve five solar power generation sites across Morocco and will produce 2000 MW of electricity by the year 2020. The Ouarzazate Site will be the first one to be implemented by 2015.
Wind energy program: In June 2010, Morocco also announced an ambitious wind energy program worth $3.5 billion. This program will bring wind-based installed electric capacity from a current 250 MW to 2000 MW by the year 2020. Two Wind Parks are under construction and planned to start by 2014 : the Taza 150 MWe and Tarfaya 300 MWe projects.
TABLE 3. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Estimated available energy sources|
|Total amount in specific units*||-||-||-||6,900,000*||0.003||0.006||0.00002|
|Total amount in Exajoule (EJ)||-||-||-||-||-|
* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons; Hydro, Renewable: TW
** Average incoming solar radiation potential in Morocco is 5 kWh/m²/day.
Source: Annual Statistics of ONEE “Office National de l’Electricité et de l’Eau Potable” and the Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment.
1.2.2. Energy Statistics
TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS
|Average Annual Growth Rate (%)|
|1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2011*||2005 - 2011|
|- Solids (ktoe) ***||-||-||-||-||3,716||3,881||0.73%|
|- Liquids (ktoe)||-||-||-||-||7,582||10,681||5.88%|
|- Gases (ktoe)||-||-||-||-||379||801||13.28%|
|- Nuclear (ktoe)||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|- Hydro (ktoe)||-||-||-||-||251||521||12.94%|
|- Other Renewables (ktoe)||-||-||-||-||50||180||23.80%|
|- Liquids & Gas (ktoe)||-||-||-||-||45||66||6.59%|
|- Gases (In ktoe)||-||-||-||-|
|- Hydro (ktoe)||-||-||-||-||251||521||12.94%|
|- Other Renewables (ktoe)||-||-||-||-||50||180||23.80%|
|NET IMPORT (IMP - EXP)|
* Latest available data (2011)
** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy.
*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite
Source: Annual Statistics of ONEE and the Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment.
1.2.3. Energy policy
Information not available.
1.3. The electricity system
1.3.1. Electricity policy and decision making process
National policy for electricity supply is drawn by the National Utility of Electricity “ONEE, Office National de l’Electricité et de l’Eau potable/Electrical Branch” and submitted for approval to the Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment (MEMEE). Implementation of the policy is carried by ONEE. This policy is based on the following set of strategic orientations:
Continuation of mobilization of the national energy resources. In this regard, exploitation of the national renewable energy sources (hydraulic, wind and solar potentials) is being constantly increased. Recently, a huge national solar program was announced aiming at installing a solar production capacity of 2000 MW by 2020.
Diversification of the energetic mix. A good dosage is attained between the various types of imported fuel (coal, fuel-oil & natural gas).
Energy optimization through recourse to high-performance production technologies (combined cycle facilities) and implementation of energy conservation measures.
Consideration of the possibility of introducing Nuclear Energy in the long term
1.3.2. Structure of electric power sector
The electricity sector in Morocco is a multi-players environment. The main actors in the electrical system are:
Electricity Generation: ONEE/Electrical Branch is the public producer by an electric generation system including several power plants (coal, oil, natural gas, hydraulic and wind). Furthermore, since September 1997, some private producers participate in the national electric generation by supplying the power exclusively to ONEE through Power Purchase Agreements (PPA). The main private suppliers are Jorf Lasfar Electric Company JLEC (coal power plant with 6 units of 350 MW capacity each), Energie Electrique de Tahadart (400 MW NGCC power plant) and Compagnie Eolienne du Detroit (wind park). Other IPP projects are under construction or development.
In 2012, the national demand for electricity achieved 29.56 TWh, with 8.0 % growth rate between 2011 and 2012. The demand was satisfied during this year, by 37% coal power plants, 19.3% natural gas power plants, 17.7% oil fuels, 5.7% hydraulic , 2.3% wind power, 17.6 % imported (mainly from Spain) and 0.4% other producers.
Electricity Transmission: ONEE/Electrical Branch with a grid comprising HV/VHV lines (60, 150, 225 and 400 kV) with a total length of 21,854 km and MV lines with a total length of 74,765 km.
Electricity Distribution: Mainly ONEE/Electrical Branch and some private operators in the big cities of the country (LYDEC in Casablanca, REDAL in Rabat, AMENDIS Tanger/Tetouan).
Electrical neighborhood interconnections: Morocco has electrical interconnections with Algeria (1200 MW) and with Spain (1400 MW) which will be upgraded by a third interconnection to bring the total transit capacity to 2100 MW.
1.3.3. Main indicators
Because of the structural deficit of primary energy resources, Morocco imports and continues to import oil, coal and electricity (through interconnections with Algeria and Spain) to balance its energy demand. Coal, oil and natural gas power plants are used as base load generation facilities.
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2011*||2000 to 2011|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|- Other renewable||0||0||0||0**|
|Electricity production (TWh)|
|- other renewable||0||0||0||0**|
|- Total (1)||1.908||4.734||8.618||11.477|
|Total Electricity consumption
(1) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
* Latest available data.
**Solar Kits installed within the Global Rural Electrification Programme PERG (Programme d’Electrification Rurale Global).
*** Electricity imported from neighboring countries and purchased from Moroccan companies which produce their own energy needs “Self Producers”.
Source: Annual Statistics of ONEE/Electrical Branch and the Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment.
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||11,087||12,483||15,505||18,694||19,188|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)||-||242||360||490||636||781|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Ratio of external dependency (%) (1)|
(1) Net import / Total energy consumption.
Source: World Bank Website (http://databank.worldbank.org/)
2. NUCLEAR POWER STATUS
2.1. Historical development and current organizational structure
In the framework of the diversification policy of the energy primary sources and in compliance with governmental orientations, ONEE/Electrical Branch considers the nuclear power option as one of the technically viable solutions, able to meet the future electrical energy needs of Morocco. In this framework, ONEE/EB undertook in the early 1980’s site and technical-economic feasibility studies for the first Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Morocco, with the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Therefore, the site of Sidi Boulbra, located on the Atlantic coast, between the cities of Safi and Essaouira, was selected and qualified as a site able to receive an NPP under the required nuclear safety conditions.
Consideration of the nuclear solution was initiated in 1984 in the form of a technico-economic feasibility and site studies which were completed in 1994. Those studies were later updated by an ONEE/EB team project from 2002 to 2004 in the framework of a technical cooperation with IAEA.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)
A substantial part of the institutional nuclear infrastructure is already in place in Morocco. This component of nuclear infrastructure consists of the following governmental organizations:
Office National de l’Electricité et d l’Eau Potable (ONEE)
ONEE is a merger of two public utilities: the Office national de l’Electricité (ONE) and the Office national de l’Eau Potable (ONEP) in one public utility the Office National de l’Electricité et l’Eau potable (ONEE) composed of an Electrical Branch which is in charge of the generation, transmission and the distribution of the electrical energy in the country and the a Potable Water Branch which is in charge of production and distribution of potable water. The ONEE/EB is also responsible for the planning and development of the Moroccan electrical system (power generation plants and grid infrastructure). Therefore, ONEE/EB will be the main player in the nuclear power project.
The National Council of Nuclear Energy (CNEN)
The CNEN is a governmental committee that assists the Government in setting up the national policy on the peaceful use of nuclear energy to contribute to the technical, social and economic development of the country.
It is governed by a council headed by the Head of Government, and composed of representatives from different ministries. It includes three subcommittees; the first dealing with coordination of nuclear activities, the second being in charge of nuclear regulation and the third dealing with the international cooperation.
This council has played a major role to help issue the relevant license related to the construction of the nuclear research center of Maâmora.
The National Commission on Nuclear Safety (CNSN)
This national commission, created to assist, as consultant, the MEMEE, acting as regulatory body. It is composed of representatives from ministerial departments, as well as representatives of other independent national organizations.
All the permits regarding the safety of nuclear facilities are subject to submittal for consultancy to this Commission.
This Commission also has played a major role to help issue the relevant permits related to the construction and operation of the nuclear research center of Maâmora.
The Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN)
The ASN is a department of the MEMEE. As the nuclear regulatory body It deals with the control, inspection and licensing of nuclear installations. So far, the main contribution of the ASN in implementing nuclear installations in the country was the licensing of the 2 MWth TRIGA research reactor installed in the CNESTEN nuclear research center of Mamora. This licensing activity consisted of the issuance of the construction permit, the commissioning license and recently the operating license.
Presently there is a plan to strengthen this authority by combining the present ASN and the National Centre of Radiation Protection (CNRP) in one independent and unique Nuclear Safety Authority (NSA), in compliance with IAEA recommendations.
The new nuclear law is going through the legislative process by the Moroccan authorities and will certainly help setting up the NSA.
The National Centre of Radiation Protection (CNRP)
The CNRP is the radiological regulatory body in charge of the control, inspection and authorization of the use of radioactive sources. The CNRP is a Ministry of Health department. It operates in the areas of medicine, industry, agriculture, research, amongst others.
The CNRP is the counterpart of the WHO (World Health Organization) and provides training in radiation protection in collaboration with IAEA.
The National Centre for Nuclear Energy, Sciences and Techniques (CNESTEN)
The CNESTEN centre has the mission to promote the use of nuclear energy, to help in setting up a nuclear power programme and to provide training in a variety of nuclear fields. For this purpose, the CNESTEN has constructed its nuclear research center of Mamora, which consists of TRIGA research reactor, together with laboratories specialized in various technical fields. This will help CNESTEN to have a major contribution to the development of the nation’s future specialized nuclear technologies and manpower.
CNESTEN, acting as Technical Support Organization, is contributing to the establishment of nuclear regulations and assisting the regulatory body in variety of safety assessment and licensing.
Presently, the CNESTEN plays the role of the national center for radioactive waste management by ensuring the safe collection and safe interim storage of solid radioactive waste released by its own laboratories, industries and by national medical centres.
The CNESTEN serves, also, as the African platform for the IAEA training activities provided to French speaking African countries. Annually, this center organizes a post-graduate educational course in radiological safety, in collaboration with IAEA. It also accommodates a national training and support center for nuclear security to deal with all nuclear security aspects.
The Moroccan Universities
The national universities currently provide in their educational curricula courses of nuclear and reactors physics and perform research in collaboration with international research centres and universities. In terms of R&D, these universities are participating in international projects in fields of nuclear power. This could help in providing education and training to develop the human resources necessary for the nuclear power programme.
2.2. Nuclear power plants: Overview (Not applicable to Morocco)
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
TABLE 7. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
Table 7 is not applicable.
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals
2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The Moroccan governmental strategy aims at introducing nuclear power by 2025-2030. In a first step, the nuclear project will consist of two units of about 1,000 MWe each. Eventually, the introduced units could also be used for seawater desalination.
The national strategy regarding fuel procurement and radioactive waste management has not yet been decided as it depends on a lot of factors, mainly the reactor technology, the fuel cycle and the national strategy of waste management.
TABLE 8 - PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/Project Name||Type||Capacity||Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|Sidi Boulbra Nuclear Power Plant||Not known yet||2 x 1000 MWe||N.A.||2025-2030|
2.3.2. Project management
The establishment of an official NEPIO organization is under consideration by the Government. A “pre-NEPIO” organization called CRED (Comité de Reflexion sur l’Eléctronucléaire et le Dessalement) has been set up recently and has established a national report related to the status of national nuclear infrastructure development of the NPP project as recommended by IAEA guides, in order to prepare the nuclear programme implementation.
Waiting for the creation of the Moroccan NEPIO, the national organizations in charge of developing the nuclear power programme are as follow:
ONEE/EB, the national electrical utility, is presently the official developing organization of the nuclear project.
MEMEE, acts as the nuclear regulatory body for the project. An independent regulatory authority is expected to be created in the framework of the forecasted new nuclear law.
CNESTEN is the national entity in charge of the nuclear R&D activities. It could handle training responsibilities in the future to respond to manpower requirements of the project. It will play also the role of technical support organization of the safety authority.
2.3.3. Project funding
As needed, the Moroccan government contributes to the necessary funds for the development of the required nuclear infrastructures, such as the nuclear regulatory body and the manpower capacity at the academic level.
Regarding the financing of the Sidi Boulbra project, the financial scheme of the project is not yet considered. It will be studied in detail and defined later. The BOT implementation model, which has been successfully used for previous power projects, particularly for Jorf Lasfar and Tahaddart power plants, will be considered for the implementation of the nuclear project.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
The Moroccan electric grid is being continuously developed to ensure use of the electricity produced by both the existing, under construction and planned power plants. The necessary upgrades will be conducted on time to ensure the safe operation of Sidi Boulbra NPP.
2.3.5. Site Selection
Beginning from 1981, a large data collection program was initiated by ONEE/EB at the national level to enable a siting process which was undertaken between 1984 and 1994.
The siting studies undertaken by ONEE/EB were closely supervised by the IAEA. They resulted in the selection and qualification of the site of Sidi Boulbra. Sidi Boulbra site is located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast; it presents all the physical characteristics necessary for the safe and economic construction and operation of a NPP. The Sidi Boulbra site could receive up to 4 units of 1000 MWe each.
2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs
2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs
2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs
2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management
2.8. Research and development
2.8.1. R&D organizations
As mentionned above, the CNESTEN with its nuclear research center laboratories is in charge of promoting the use of nuclear energy technologies, and also participating in the implementation of the nuclear power programme and providing training in a variety of nuclear fields.
The Moroccan Universities
The national universities are currently involved in R&D activities related to nuclear physics and nuclear reactors, in collaboration with the nuclear research center of Maamora, international universities & laboratories, foreign organizations and IAEA.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
2.8.3. International co-operation and initiatives
Morocco participates in the activities of INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) and of IFNEC (International Framework For Nuclear Energy Cooperation). Other cooperation agreements are signed between Morocco and countries and organizations, e.g. with the European Union to set up the new regulatory body and develop TSO capabilities, with the USA government and laboratories (DOE, LLNL, NSSA), and with France and the CEA, IRSN and AREVA/TA.
2.9. Human resources development
The national universities currently provide in their educational curricula courses of nuclear physics and nuclear reactors. This will participate to provide the human resources development necessary to all the activities of nuclear project phases.
The CNESTEN also participates in the nuclear training activities. Annually, this center organizes a post-graduate educational course in radiological safety, in collaboration with IAEA.
2.10. Stakeholder Communication
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory framework
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
The Regulatory authority is a department of the MEMEE. It deals with the control, inspection and licensing of nuclear installations. So far, the main contribution of this authority in implementing nuclear installations in the country was the licensing of the TRIGA research reactor installed in the CNESTEN nuclear research center of Mamora. This licensing activity consisted of the issuance of the construction permit, the commissioning license and recently the operating license.
As mentioned above, there is a new nuclear law project to strengthen this authority by combining the SASN and the CNRP in one independent and unique Nuclear Safety Agency (NSA), in compliance with the IAEA recommendations.
The CNRP is in charge of the control, inspection and licensing of the use of radioactive sources. The CNRP is a Ministry of Health department. It operates in the areas of medicine, industry, agriculture, research, amongst others.
The Environment Department is the authority in charge of environment protection. Under the regulation of 2003, the industrial projects, such as a nuclear power plants, should provide an Environmental Impact Analysis and organize a public survey before getting a construction permit.
3.1.2. Licensing Process
Presently, the MEMEE is the authority responsible for issuance, jointly with other national authorities, of permits required for the construction, operation and shutdown of nuclear facilities:
Construction permit: Decree of the Head of Government after obtaining the approval of the local authorities and the consultancy of the national safety committee.
Permit for releasing radioactive effluents: Joint order of the ministers in charge of Energy, Public Health, Environment and Public Works.
Commissioning permit: Order of MEMEE.
Operation permit: Order of MEMEE.
Shutdown permit: Order of MEMEE.
The application for different licenses must be submitted with the corresponding Safety Analysis Reports (preliminary, temporary and final reports).
3.2. Main national laws and regulations in nuclear power
The international treaties and conventions to which Morocco has adhered stipulate that the national legal and regulatory framework must guarantee the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, the independence of the regulatory body vis-à-vis all other intervening parties, the transparency of information and the compliance with international agreements and treaties. It must also define principles and rules for licensing, monitoring, verification and inspection of nuclear facilities, and the areas of responsibility and levels of compensation.
The national legal and regulatory framework covers the following topics.
Safety of nuclear facilities
The earliest nuclear law promulgated at the national level is Law n°005 of October, 12, 1971, related to the “Protection against exposure to radiation from radioactive sources used for private or public activities”.
Decree n°2-94-666 of December, 7, 1994 on the “Licensing, control and inspection of the nuclear installations” defined the MEMWE as the sole competent authority regulating, at the national level, the safety of nuclear facilities.
All the laws regarding the safety of nuclear facilities are subject to submittal for approval to the National Commission on Nuclear Safety (CNSN). Furthermore, Decree n°2-97-30 of October, 28, 1997 on radiation protection appoints the Ministry of Health, represented by the CNRP, as the only national authority in charge of ensuring radiation protection of the public and delivering permits for use of radioactive sources. This decree deals with the conditions required for radiation protection and establishes, based on the fundamental standards of IAEA and the recommendations of the ICRP, a limit for the exposure to radiation with which the operator of a nuclear facility must conform by use of adequate measures and tools to ensure nuclear safety for its personnel and the public. This decree defines the area with limited access to a given nuclear installation, the requirements for the operator to regularly monitor the absorbed doses, to establish an emergency plan, to keep careful monitoring of all forms of radioactive releases, etc. It is planned in that same decree that all these measures will be imposed by laws developed jointly in collaboration with the Authority Body and the other concerned national entities.
Nuclear installations permits
Decree n°2-94-666 of December, 7, 1994 gave the authority to the MEMWE as regulatory body to issue the system of permits required for the construction and operation of nuclear installations as decrees, orders or join orders jointly with other national authorities.
The table below summarizes the prerequisites for each type of permit:
|Type of permit||Nature of the granted permit||Preliminary decisions||Required duration for obtaining the permit|
|Construction Permit||Decree by the Head of Government.||Provincial assembly |
Minister of the Interior.
Minister of Health.
Minister of Public Works.
Minister of Agriculture.
Minister of the Environment. And consultancy of National Commission for Nuclear Safety.
|Permit for radioactive effluents releasing||Joint order of the ministers in charge of Energy, Public Health, Environment and Public Works.||National Commission on Nuclear Safety.||6 months |
|Commissioning permit||Order of Ministry of Energy.||National Commission on Nuclear Safety.||6 months|
|Operation permit||Order of Ministry of Energy.||National Commission on Nuclear Safety.||6 months|
|Shutdown permit||Order of Ministry of Energy.||National Commission on Nuclear Safety.||6 months|
Inspections and verifications
Decree n°2-94-666 of December, 7, 1994 on the “Licensing, control and inspection of the nuclear installations”, grants the Minister of Energy full responsibility for all the inspection works required during all the phases of the project (construction, commissioning, operational, final shutdown) and in the occasion of specific modifications that might have an impact on the safety of the nuclear facility. To this end, the Minister of Energy might appoint nuclear inspectors.
Sanctions against the operator
Either suggest to the Prime Minister, the modification, suspension or withdrawal of the Construction Permit, or,
Decide, either alone or jointly with other national entities, the modification, suspension or withdrawal of any one of the Permits for Commissioning, Operation, Releasing radioactive liquid and gaseous effluents and Final Shutdown.
By way of application of Decree n°2-94-666 of December, 7, 1994 on the “Licensing, control and inspection of the nuclear installations”, the Minister of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment can, depending on the case and following consultancy with the National Commission of Nuclear Safety CNSN:
Civil Liability For Nuclear Damage
The issue of civil liability regarding possible nuclear damages is regulated by Dahir n°104-278 of January, 7, 2005 that promulgates Law n°12-02. This law stipulates that any operator of a nuclear facility is liable for any damage caused by:
An accident occurring at its facility,
A nuclear matter that comes or emanates from, or is sent to its facility.
This law also requires from the operator to cover all probable nuclear damages by means of financial guarantees that equal the amount of its civil liability. The details and conditions of this financial coverage are subject to approval by the concerned civil authorities. The financial amount required from the same nuclear operator for covering the nuclear damages arising from one nuclear accident is set at 100 million SDR . However, Public Administration can set a lower amount provided that in no case, the said amount is less than 5 million SDR.
The State has the responsibility to ensure the complementary financial amount in case the insurance or financial guarantee of the nuclear operator is not enough to meet the requirements of repair for all nuclear damages. The complementary amount ensured by the State should not, however, exceed the amount for civil liability applicable to the operator. It also has to be noted that Morocco published via Dahir of May, 19, 2000, its agreement concerning the complementary repairs for nuclear damage.
Law n°1-99-304 of November, 12, 2002, published the “Convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials”, opened for signature in Vienna and New York on the 3rd March 1980.
The Convention related to Nuclear Safety was signed by Morocco in December 1994.
Radioactive waste and fuel
Dahir of November, 14, 1998, promulgating Law n° 17-83, gave to the CNESTEN:
The monopoly for importing, storing and distributing nuclear fuel,
The responsibility to collect and store radioactive waste in collaboration with the competent national departments.
Also, Morocco ratified, by Dahir of May, 19, 2000, the joint agreement for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive wastes. The aim of this agreement is to improve the level of safety in the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste.
The principal laws concerning the environmental protection are as follows:
Law n°12-03 relating to the environmental impact studies
Law n°13-03 relating to the air pollution.
Dahir of 12 July 1999 has published the protocol concerning the prevention of pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by the transborder movements of dangerous waste and their elimination.
Notification of emergency situations related to nuclear accidents
In 1993 Morocco ratified two agreements: one related to the early notification of any nuclear accident and the other concerning assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or emergency radiological situation.
In addition, further to the occurrence of a radioactive accident in an industrial unit in the south of Spain, which demonstrated the potential danger of radioactive contamination, the Prime Minister created in July 1998 a ‘Committee for coordination and vigilance against the radioactive harmful effects'. The objective is to “establish coordination between the various actors and to set up a single and reliable interlocutor for information.”
This Committee is placed under the aegis of the head of government.
Non-proliferation treaty and additional protocol
Morocco ratified the the Non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and signed the additional protocol. Moreover, Morocco also signed an agreement with the IAEA for the application of safeguards in this regard.
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
|International treaties, conventions and agreements||Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the IAEA||1977-03-30||acceptance: 1977-03-30|
|Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||2002-09-22||Signature: 1980-07-25|
|Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||Signature: 1984-11-30|
|Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||1993-11-07||Signature: 1986-09-26|
|Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||1993-11-07||Signature: 1986-09-26|
|Convention on Nuclear Safety|| ||Signature: 1994-12-01|
|Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention|| ||Signature: 1988-09-21|
|Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||2001-06-18||Signature: 1997-09-29|
|Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||2003-10-04||Signature: 1997-09-29|
|Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage|| ||Signature: 1997-09-29|
|Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA (RSA)||1989-03-20||Signature: 1989-03-20|
|African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) - Third Extension||2005-06-20||acceptance: 2005-06-20|
|Nuclear Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)||Ratification:1970|
|Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)||Ratification:2000|
|Africain Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty||Signature :1996|
|Global Initiative Against Nuclear Terrorism||Active member|
|International Framework for Nuclear Energy Copperation IFNEC||Signature 2008-10-01|
|SC resolution 1540 (non-proliferation of WMD)|
|Code of conduct on safety and security of radioactive sources|
|International convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism|
|Safeguards Agreements||Application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (with Protocol)||1975-02-18||Signature: 1973-01-30|
|Additional Protocol to the Agreement between the IAEA and Morocco for the application of safeguards in connection with NPT||2011-04-21||Signature: 2004-09-22|
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|Name of report coordinator:||Mr. Ahmed Mehdaoui|
|Institution:||ONEE/Electrical Branch |
|Contacts:||Tel : (212) 5 22 66 84 52 |
Fax: (212) 5 22 66 80 85