1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1 Country overview
The Republic of Slovenia is a small European country bordering on the west to Italy and the Adriatic Sea, on the north to Austria, on the east to Hungary, and on the south to Croatia. Its capital is Ljubljana.
1.1.1 Governmental System
Under the Constitution, Slovenia is a democratic republic and a social state governed by law. The state’s authority is based on principle of the separation of legislative, executive and judicial powers, with a parliamentary system of government. The highest legislative authority is the National Assembly, which has right to enact laws. Elections to the National Assembly are held four years.
As of 1 May 2004 Slovenia is member of European Union and became full NATO member on 29 March 2004.
1.1.2 Geography and Climate
Slovenia is a mountainous land. In the north are the Julian and Karavanke Alps, and in the south, the Dinaric Alps. With 20,273 square km is one of the smallest European countries. Highest mountain is Triglav with 2,864 m.The highest elevation, mount Triglav (2.864 m) is in the Julian range. The climate is moderate, with mean temperatures of 0 °C to 2 °C in January and 18 °C to 19 °C in July. Precipitation varies between 800 mm and 1,200 mm per year, although it can exceed 2,000 mm in some locations.
About 23 percent of the land is arable; about 28 percent consists of meadows and pastures and about 50 percent is forested. The principal rivers are the Sava and the Drava. Slovenia has both mountain glacial lakes – such as the popular tourist resort, Lake Bled – and Karst lakes. At the lower levels, forests consist mostly of beech and oak trees; at higher elevations, coniferous trees predominate. The Postojna Caves, in the Karst, are the third – largest caverns in the world.
By 30 June 2008 population of Slovenia was 2,039,399 inhabitants. Population density is 99.6 inhabitants per square km. The 2002 census shows the following breakdown: Slovenian 83%, Italian 0.1%, Hungarian 0.3%, Croat 1.8%, Serbian 2.0%, Muslim 1.6%, others 2.2%, unknown 9.0%. Life expectancy for men is 74.98 and for women 82.26 years. Approximately one third of population live in towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants, the rest live in nearly six thousand smaller towns and villages. According to the 2002 census the most of population (58%) are Catholics.
TABLE 1. POPULATION INFORMATION
|Population density (inhabitants/km2)||85.7||94.4||99.2||98.1||98.8||100.7||0.29|
|Urban population (% of total)||37||48||50.4||50.8||51|
Source: World Bank World Development Indicators
1.1.4 Economic Data (all data are for 2008)
GDP per capita in EUR is 18,204. Real GDP growth rate in 2008 was 3.5%. Rate of unemployment by ILO standards was 4.4%. Labor productivity growth rate was 0.6% and annual inflation rate was 5.7%.
Slovenian economy is very export oriented and the main market is the EU market and the markets of former Yugoslav countries. Since independence in 1991, Slovenia’s economic development has been very successful, making it one of the most thriving countries in transition. Especially during the period 1995-2008, economic growth in Slovenia was stable, reaching an average slightly above 4%.
The Slovenian economy is open, and levels of internalization, measured by the average share of exports and imports in gross domestic product (GDP), have increased from 52% to 70% from 1995 to 2008. Thus in 2007 Slovenia reached 89.2% of the average GDP of the EU-27 per capita, expressed in terms of purchasing power parity.
On 1 January 2007, Slovenia became first new EU member to adopt euro, after the European Commission and the European Central Bank made favorable assessments of Slovenia’s readiness for the introduction of common European currency.
TABLE 2. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)
|Economic Information||Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
|1980||1990||2000||2005||2009||1980 to 2000||2000 to 2009|
|GDP (millions of constant 2000 US$)||..||..||19,283||22,744||25,700||..||3.24|
|GDP per capita (2000 US$/capita)||..||..||9,699||11,366||12,598||..||2.95|
|PPP (millions of constant 2000 int$)||..||..||33,537||39,843||44,900||..||3.30|
|PPP per capita (2000 int$/capita)||..||..||16,870||19,912||22,010||..||3.00|
Source: EEDB database
1.2 Energy Information
Slovenia is importing more than 50% of its primary energy demands. In 2008 the energy dependency was 55.7% according to IEA standards (nuclear fuel is treated as domestic energy carrier). The country is entirely importing, oil derivates, hard coal, coke and almost all (99.6%) of natural gas demand.
Energy intensity, concerning final energy demand, has been decreasing in the period 2000 – 2006. In 2007 it reached 170 toe/million EUR BDP, with an annual decrease of – 1.6% annually. Compared to developed EU countries, Slovenia is still using more energy per GDP, which brings its economy in a less favorable competitive status.
1.2.1 Estimated available energy
Slovenia has rather limited energy reserves (Table 3). The proven and recoverable reserves of low quality brown coal and lignite amount to 190 million tons. Oil reserves are very scarce, 850,000 tons with annual exploitation of 2,500 tons. The estimated hydro reserves of Slovenia are up to 9 TWh per year, out which 3.5 TWh are already exploited. The country is connected to three gas pipelines from Algeria, Russia and Austria respectively.
TABLE 3. ESTIMATED ENERGY RESERVES
|Estimated energy reserves in (*) (Solid and Liquid in million tons, Uranium in metric tons, Gas in billion cubic metres, Hydro in TWhr per year)|
|Solid (1)||Liquid (2)||Gas (3)||Uranium (4)||Hydro (5)|
(*) Sources: 20th WEC Survey of Energy Resources, 2004 and Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand ("Red Book")
(1) Coal including Lignite: proved recoverable reserves, the tonnage within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
(2) Crude oil and natural gas liquids (Oil Shale, Natural Bitumen and Extra-Heavy Oil are not included): proved recoverable reserves, the quantity within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
(3) Natural gas: proved recoverable reserves, the volume within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
(4) Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) under < USD 130/kgU
(5) Hydropower: technically exploitable capability, the amount of the gross theoretical capability that can be exploited within the limits of current technology
1.2.2 Energy Statistics
A significant share of Slovenian industrial production is very energy intensive such as steel production, aluminum, chemicals, pulp and paper industry, building material and manufacturing. In 2008, energy demand of the industry sector accounted for 33.6% of the total final energy demand. The high energy consumption in industry is also reflected in high energy use per unit of GDP, compared to most West European Countries. Energy use per capita is lower than the average for EU countries
TABLE 4. BASIC ENERGY SITUATION
|(Energy values are in Exajoule exept where indicated)||Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
|Total Energy Requirements||1980||1990||2000||2005||2009||1980 to 2000||2000 to 2009|
|Combustible Renewables and Waste||..||..||< 0.01||0.02||0.02||..||13.76|
|Other Renewables||..||..||> -0.01||> -0.01||-0.01||..||9.80|
|Final Energy Consumption||1980||1990||2000||2005||2009||1980 to 2000||2000 to 2009|
|Gases||..||..||< 0.01||< 0.01||< 0.01||..||-9.02|
|Combustible Renewables and Waste||..||..||< 0.01||0.02||0.02||..||16.18|
|Other Renewables||..||..||..||..||< 0.01||..||..|
|Net Import (Export-Import)||1980||1990||2000||2005||2009||1980 to 2000||2000 to 2009|
|Combustible Renewables and Waste||..||..||< 0.01||> -0.01||> -0.01||..||?|
1.2.3 Energy Policy
The Government of Slovenia laid down its energy policy objectives and main priorities for the development of energy system in its Resolution on the National energy plan (ReNEP) in 2004. The time horizon of NEP is 2003-2023. For the time being a new update of 2004 NEP is in a preparatory process.
According to the new NEP that should be accomplished in March 2010, it is foreseen that it will reach the Parliament for adoption by June 2010.
NEP will set the guidelines for the energy policy of the country taking into account the three main objectives of the energy sector:
security of energy supply,
competitive energy prices,
sustainable development and mitigation of environmental impacts of energy generation and consumption.
The main goals of the future energy policy could be summarized in the following activities:
to maintain the present availability of energy sources,
further improvements of technical reliability of energy networks and quality of supply,
implementation of measures foe efficient use of energy,
electricity at the level of final consumption should match the international standards,
promoting the opening of electricity and natural gas market,
promote the efficient use of energy,
increase the share of renewable sources of energy in the primary energy demand,
to maintain the long-term exploitation of lignite,
to keep the nuclear option for electricity generation,
to enable the 90 days reserves of liquid fuels
to comply with EU directives and other international requirements.
1.3 The electricity system
1.3.1 Electricity policy and decision making process
The following services are carried out within the public service obligations scope: electricity transmission, transmission system operator (TSO), electricity distribution, distribution system operator (DSO), electricity supply to the tariff customers, and market operator. The transmission and distribution companies are required to ensure the access to the electricity network in a transparent and non-discriminatory manner following the principles of regulated third party access. The information on distribution and transmission networks traffic is public. The Energy Agency determines the prices for the use of energy networks in a manner that encourages the efficiency of providers and users separately for transmission and distribution networks, and individual ancillary services, except for those services for which a competitive market is organized.
Electricity is being traded via bilateral contracts and on the market organized by Borzen, the market organizer. When dispatching generating installations, priority is given to qualified producers using renewable energy sources or waste and cogeneration units, and generating installations using indigenous primary energy fuel sources, to an extent not exceeding in any calendar year 15 % of the overall primary energy necessary to produce the electricity consumed in Slovenia, as laid down in EU electricity directive.
Generating installations using renewable energy sources or waste and cogeneration units are eligible for qualified producer status. Producers have to meet environmental acceptability standards. Power plants are divided into four groups, depending on the installed power, as follows: micro power plants (up to and including 36 kW), small power plants (from 36 kW to including 1 MW), medium power plants (from 1 MW to 10 MW), and large power plants (above 10 MW).
The feed-in price for the produced electricity is set by the government. The assumption is, that the feed-in tariff for the qualified production will stimulate qualified production development, and it is projected that by the year 2010 the share of the qualified production will double compared to 2002. Electricity distribution companies are required to buy the electricity from qualified producers.
The Energy Agency was established by the Energy Act with the purpose of providing transparent and non-discriminatory operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of all participants. The Agency is an independent organization that controls the functioning of the electricity and natural gas markets, having the following duties and authority:
Setting the use of the system charges (The Agency's duties will be broadened by amendments of the Energy Act in accordance with the Directive 2003/54/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, the Directive 2003/55/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and Regulation 2003/1228/EC on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity). Taking decisions about the justification of costs and other elements of the price for use of system charges on the basis of data and criteria for the evaluation of cost justification.
Taking decisions in case of disputes, originating from:
- denial of access to electric or gas system,
- to charge for the use of electric or gas system.
Granting of licenses for performing energy activities in accordance with the provisions of the Energy Act and the decree.
Beside the above listed tasks, the Agency also executes the following duties:
cooperates with competent authorities and inspectorates,
publishes annual reports and information for the public,
performs other tasks connected with the control of functioning of the electricity and natural gas markets.
The founding of the Market Operator has been one of the obligatory elements introduced by the Energy Act, and at the same time one of the fundamental conditions for opening up the electricity market. The organized electricity market is the meeting point of supply and demand of electricity.
The operation of the organized electricity market and the rights and duties of the Market Operator have been set forth in detail in the Rules on the Operation of the Electricity Market. Borzen d.o.o. has been established in March 2001 and has the role of Market Operator.
The Market Operator is responsible for ensuring transparency of the organized electricity market by publishing special indices, price lists and quantities based on transactions concluded on the electricity market in different time periods. This provides market participants with the possibility to develop appropriate strategies for trading purposes and for forming their own bids. The Market Operator is also responsible for registering of all bilateral agreements and balancing groups settlement.
1.3.2 Structure of electric power
In 2007, Slovenia had 3,064 MW of total electricity production capacity, 696 MW of which was provided by the only nuclear power plant in Krško, and 1,017 MW and 1,351 MW in hydro and thermal power plants, respectively. Total production in 2007 amounted to 14,043 GWh, of which 5,428 GWh were produced in the nuclear power plant, 3,215 GWh in hydro and 5,400 GWh in thermal power plants. As it can be seen from presented data, Slovenia has fairly diversified primary sources for electricity production.
There are eight generating companies, each with one main power station. In the case of hydro-power, a company operates a chain of power plants on a single river system. Most of the major players in electricity production are connected under the parent company of Holding slovenske elektrarne (HSE). All the above mentioned power plants with the notable exception of NEK, and two smaller thermal power plants, TE-TOL and TET, are owned in majority by the HSE. HSE also has the majority of ownership in the lignite mine in Velenje. NEK, on the other hand, is owned in equal shares by Slovenian and Croatian legal successors of the founders of the power plant. On the Slovenian side, this is the company Gen energija, 100% owned by the state
The transmission network of Slovenia is operated by Elektro Slovenia d.o.o. (ELES), whose main responsibility is to ensure the best possible and transparent use of the existing transmission grid management, operational reliability and security (defined in the Energy Act). The transmission system also makes it possible to buy, sell and transit electricity across borders. There are three voltage levels in the transmission grid – 400 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV, as well as corresponding transformer substations.
Transmission network of Slovenia is presented on the picture below, along with the above mentioned generating capacities.
Responsibility for energy supply for the country lies within Ministry of the Economy, Directorate for Energy. The latter is responsible for the area of energy supplies, mainly electric power and natural gas, ensures the proper functioning of the market, plans reliable and economically viable supply of energy in normal and in extraordinary conditions, and supervises the sustainable development of energy systems. It is responsible for the development of energy legislation and for implementing procedures in the area of energy use and supply. It performs tasks in the area of management and privatization of state assets in companies in the energy sector that are state owned. It also covers energy issues in the international relations of the country and co-ordinates the work of official bodies in the energy sphere.
Among the new generating capacities there are two main plans in the pipeline. A new 600 MW block at the site of TPP Šoštanj and a new NPP at the site of existing Krško NPP (capacity may vary between 1,100 and 1,700 MWe). The country is making essential efforts to meet the Energy package requirements in particular reducing greenhouse gasses emissions and meet the share of renewable sources in the final energy balance.
1.3.3 Main indicators
Total final energy consumption for Slovenia in 2007 was 207,652 PJ out of which the share of industry was 33.6%, transport contributed 37.3% and the others 29.2. Liquid fuels were represented by 48.8%, electricity by 22.9%, natural gas by 14.5%, renewable energy sources by 8.7%, district heat by 3.4% and eventually coal by 1.7%
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND INSTALLED CAPACITIES
Growth Rate (%)
|Electricity Generation||1980||1990||2000||2005||2009||1980 to 2000||2000 to 2009|
|Installed Capacity||1980||1990||2000||2005||2009||1980 to 2000||2000 to 2009|
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
Growth Rate (%)
|1980||1990||2000||2005||2009||1980 to 2000||2000 to 2009|
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||..||..||128.6||154.3||143.0||..||1.18|
|Electricity per capita (KW.h/capita)||..||..||6,852.1||7,554.7||8,039.7||..||1.79|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||..||..||35.0||38.9||35.0||..||0.01|
|Annual capacity factor - Total (%)||..||..||61.0||57.7||61.5||..||0.09|
|Annual capacity factor - Thermal (%)||..||..||51.5||48.6||51.8||..||0.07|
|Annual capacity factor - Hydro (%)||..||..||56.1||40.4||50.3||..||-1.21|
|Annual capacity factor - Nuclear (%)||..||..||82.8||102.4||98.4||..||1.93|
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1 Historical Development and current nuclear power organizational structure1
Slovenia has one nuclear power plant in commercial operation since 1983, the NEK (Nuklearna elektrarna Krško). Construction started in 1975 and it was connected to the grid in 1981, entering commercial operation in 1983. In 2001 its steam generators were replaced and the plant was uprated 6% then and 3% subsequently. Its operational life was designed to be 40 years, but a 20-year extension is being sought. The Krško NPP is a pressurized water reactor plant of 696 MW(e), delivered and constructed by Westinghouse, and is jointly owned with the Republic of Croatia. The operational and safety record of Krško NPP is good and complies with all international standards and highest safety requirements. The safety status of the plant has been supervised by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration as well as by international expert missions organized by IAEA, EU, WANO, etc.
After modernization and the transition to the 18-month fuel cycle, it can produce over 5.8 TWh in a year without outage, and around 5.4 TWh in a year with the outage, which means that, in accordance with the bilateral treaty on the Krško NPP , between 2.7 and potentially over 2.9 TWh of electricity is available for the Slovenian market annually. In addition to the important share of the electricity produced, the Krško NPP is also characterized by extremely high reliability of production, and by achieving its ambitiously set goals it is classified in the top quarter of the best functioning nuclear power plants in the world. At the same time, it is placed among the ten power plants in the world, which can function for 510 days without shutdown, which has an important effect on ensuring the stability of electric power system and reliable supply to customers.2.1.2. Current Organizational Chart(s)
Under the Contract between the Government of the Republic of Slovenia and the Government of the Republic of Croatia on the regulation of status and other legal relations connected to investment in the Krško NPP, its exploitation and decommissioning, and the Memorandum of Association, both of which entered into force on 11 March 2003. The basic capital of the Krško NPP is divided into two equal shares owned by the partners GEN energija and Hrvatska Elektropriveda. The Krško NPP produces and supplies electricity exclusively in favour of the two partners, who each have the right and obligation to use 50% of its total output.
2.1.2 Current Organizational Chart(s)
The organizational structure of The Krško NPP is shown in Figures 220.127.116.11. and in 18.104.22.168. bellow.
Figure 22.214.171.124. External Organization Structure
Figure 126.96.36.199. Internal Organization Structure of the Krško NPP.
2.2 Nuclear Power Plants: Status and Operations
Slovenia has one nuclear power plant in commercial operation since 1983, the Krško NPP. Construction started in 1975 and it was connected to the grid in 1981, entering commercial operation in 1983.
Apart from power generation, Slovenia has a research reactor TRIGA Mark II, a 250 kW(th), used mainly for R&D and for training activities. TRIGA is part of the Institute Jožef Stefan which is the largest scientific and research institution in the country with over 740 staff, active in nuclear physics, solid state physics, chemistry, reactor physics and engineering, energy and process control. TRIGA Mark II research reactor has been operating since 1966.
One of the tasks of ARAO is to provide public service in radioactive waste management, storing (except for radioactive waste from the Krško NPP and the Zirovski vrh Mine) and disposal (except for the Zirovski vrh Mine) in the Republic of Slovenia. The most important operational task of ARAO is to construct the repository for LILW in Slovenia. Its mission is to develop expert solutions and create conditions for continuous safe management of radioactive waste arising in Slovenia and also taking over and safely managing radioactive waste from small producers. The Central interim storage of radioactive waste in Brinje is under ARAO’s operation. Its main purpose is to storage radioactive wastes produced in industry, research and medicine.
Žirovski vrh mine, Public enterprise for uranium mine closure, was established in 2001 in order to close the uranium mine as well as do remedial works. There are still some post-operational activities, i.e. deposition of mine tailings and hydro-metallurgical tailings as a consequence of uranium mining. During the years 1982 and 1990 620000 tons of ore was mined. A law was issued in 1992 defining termination of uranium mining and on-site and environmental rehabilitation.
The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) acts as safety authority in the field of nuclear and radiation safety except for medical one which is covered by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration (SRPA). The SNSA is a part of the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning. The major nuclear facility supervised by the SNSA is the Krško NPP. Besides the Krško NPP, there are also other nuclear installations, i.e. TRIGA Mark II research reactor, an interim storage of low and medium radioactive waste, the closed uranium mine Žirovski Vrh and all industrial all industrial companies as well as individuals dealing with radioactive sources.
2.2.1. Status of nuclear power plant
TABLE 7. STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
Source: IAEA Power Reactor Information System as of 31 December 2006.
More data can be found on Krško NPP home page (http://www.nek.si/en/).
Figure 2.2.1 : Location of the Nuclear Power Plant Krško.
2.2.2. Performance of NPPs
The Krško NPP is the only facility in Slovenia using nuclear energy for the commercial production of electric energy. After modernization and the transition to the 18-month fuel cycle, it can produce over 5.8 TWh in a year without outage, and around 5.4 TWh in a year with the outage, which means that, in accordance with the bilateral treaty on the Krško NPP, between 2.7 and potentially over 2.9 TWh of electric energy is available for the Slovenian market annually.
The most important performance indicators
|safety and performance indicators||year 2008||average (1983 to 2008)|
|capacity factor [%]||102.08||83.01|
|Forced outage factor [%]||1.32||1.14|
|Gross realized production [GWh]||6,272.81||4,936.42|
|Fast shutdowns – automatic [Number of shutdowns]||0||2.77|
|Fast shutdowns – manual [Number of shutdowns]||0||0.15|
|Unplanned normal shutdowns [Number of shutdowns]||1||0.92|
|Planned normal shutdowns [Number of shutdowns]||0||0.81|
2.2.3 Plant upgrading and plant life management
Current nuclear power plant’s operational life was originally designed for 40 years, which means that it would be in operation until 2023. However, thanks to very good maintenance and the replacement of major vital components, the Krško NPP is in very good condition. Krško NPP has completed its ageing program in 2008 which is a basis for plant life extension for additional 20 years, i.e. up to 2043.
2.2.4 Nuclear power development: projections and plans
Since the supply of electricity has been under stress in Slovenia in recent years (not taking into account the economic crisis started in 2008), GEN energija, the second pillar of electricity generation in Slovenia, started with feasibility and acceptability studies for new nuclear power plant in Slovenia in 2007. The Krško 2 NPP project is divided into four general phases:
1. the initiation phase includes project organization, studies and preparation of underlying documents needed for the decision-making process, and other activities until a definite decision on building is taken on national and local levels,
2. the preparation phase includes spatial planning, planning of environmental impact assessment (EIA) program, EIA implementation and developing technical specifications for offers, negotiations and signing of the contract for building,
3. the construction phase includes developing project documentation for the building, construction and fitting of equipment as well as obtaining construction and operational licenses and,
4. the operational phase which includes 60 years of commercial operation.
The Krško 2 NPP project is currently in the initiation phase and it is waiting on strategic national decision as a prerequisite for starting the spatial planning process.
Pressurized water reactor technology of 3rd generation is taken into consideration. The electric power shall be in the range of 1,100 MWe and 1,700 MWe for one unit. Two units are also considered but only for reactors with the electric power in the range of 1,100 MWe.
2.2.5 Decommissioning: information and plans
Decommissioning program for Krško NPP and radioactive waste and spent fuel management assures the basis for implementation of the contract between the Government of the Republic of Slovenia and the Government of the Republic of Croatia on regulation of status and other relations relating to investments, exploitation and decommissioning of the joint NPP. It provides also a joint expert and organizational approach to the decommissioning of NPP and LILW and SF management. While the new revision should be elaborated in 2009, in the past year new Terms of references (ToR) have been elaborated for the most urgent and time consuming parts of the project. In preparation of the new ToR, which included all recommendations provided by the IAEA expert mission in 2005, members of APO, ARAO, NPP and SCK.CEN were involved. The new ToR proposes elaboration and calculation of the inventory from decommissioning of NPP - which presents the highest uncertainty in the project - as well as data base preparation. The project also presented the regional IAEA program devoted to decommissioning of nuclear plants, in which additional possibilities for expert missions will be granted.
2.3 Supply of NPPs
There are no suppliers of NPPs in Slovenia. The only plant is the Krsko NPP unit and was imported from the USA.
2.4 Operation of NPPs
The Krško NPP is owned in equal share by the members GEN energija, d. o. o., Krško and Hrvatska elektroprivreda d.d., Zagreb. NEK generates for and supplies electricity exclusively to the members. Krško NPP itself is responsible for safe and stable operation through a permanent commitment to nuclear safety and in line with state-of-the-art standards. Maintenance is covered by Krško NPP staff, while for some major activities and outages also external companies (domestic and foreign) are hired. Everybody who operates nuclear power plant has to pass an extensive training program. Training is consisted of four phases and it takes about two years. The first phase includes theoretical basis, the second one includes systems of Krško NPP, the third one full scope simulator training and the last one qualifying of newcomers for independent work in the control room. After candidate completes all phases, he still has to pass the exam in front of the expert committee of The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration.
2.5. Fuel cycle and waste management
In Slovenia, the high level radioactive waste (HLW) is the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Krško NPP. The greatest amount of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (over 95%) is generated due to the operation of the Krško NPP. The rest is produced in medicine, industry and research activities. A special category of waste are spent sealed radioactive sources, which are in the possession of small holders or are stored in the Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste at Brinje near Ljubljana. The Krško NPP is the main producer of all waste categories in Slovenia. The contribution of other producers is relatively small. The amounts of different waste categories of radioactive waste in Slovenia at the end of 2002 are given in Table 2.5.
Table 2.5 Amounts of radioactive waste in Slovenia by types and producers, at the end of 2008
|Low and intermediate level|
Central Interim Storage Facility
Figure 2.5.1 shows the accumulation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the Krško NPP storage. Periodical volume reductions with compression, super-compaction, incineration, and melting are shown. The lower waste volume accumulation rate after 1995 is a result of a new in-drum drying system (IDDS) for drying of evaporators concentrate and spent ion exchange resins. In 2006 the Krško NPP started continuous compression of radioactive waste with their own super-compactor installed in the storage facility. In 2008, there were 115 standard drums with compressible and other waste. 250 standard drums with compressible and other waste, the total mass and volume of which amounted to 27.7 tons and 52 m3, respectively, were sent to incineration in December 2008 to Studsvik in Sweden. This waste will be treated and, in the form of secondary waste, returned to the Krško NPP in 2009 or 2010.
Figure 2.5.1 Volume of low and intermediate radioactive waste
At the end of 2008 there were 872 fuel elements stored in the spent fuel pool. Figure 2.5.2 shows accumulation of spent fuel at the Krško NPP. There is enough space to store all spent fuel elements even those accumulated due to the plant life extension.
Figure 2.5.2. Number of fuel elements in the spent fuel pool
Slovenia has neither capacity for uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication process nor reprocessing of spent fuel.
2.6 Research and development
2.6.1 R&D organizations and institutes
The Institute ?Jožef Stefan? is the leading Slovenian research organisation. It is responsible for a broad spectrum of basic and applied research in the fields of natural sciences and technology. The staff of around 800 specialize in research in physics, chemistry and biochemistry, electronics and information science, nuclear technology, energy utilization and environmental science.
From the beginning the research activity of the Institute has also been oriented towards research in the field of nuclear physics and the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. At the Reactor Centre in Podgorica four Institute research departments and several centers were established.
The Department of the Low and Medium Energy Physics performs research on atomic and nuclear physics and is also engaged in radiological environmental protection, namely the regulation of nuclear facilities and the control of the level of radioactive substances in food and the environment. It was for this reason that the Ecological Laboratory, with its mobile unit, was established. The main research areas of the Reactor Physics Department are theoretical, experimental and applied reactor physics, plasma physics, nuclear fragmentation, neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, the physics of semiconductor devices and oncology. The Reactor Engineering Division performs nuclear engineering and safety research covering the modeling of basic thermal-hydrodynamical processes, thermal-hydrodynamical safety analyses of the project and severe accidents, structural safety analyses and probabilistic safety analyses. The multidisciplinary research of the Department of Environmental Sciences focuses on the combination of reciprocal physical, chemical and biological processes that influence our environment.
The Institute also operates a Nuclear Training Centre in premises completed in 1988. It provides training for Krško NPP personnel, organizes radiological protection courses and carries out public information activities. The Centre also regularly organizes and hosts training activities and workshops for the IAEA. Their main activity is promotion of knowledge about the use of nuclear energy.
Reactor Infrastructure Centre (RIC) is also part of Institute ?Jožef Stefan? (IJS). Main purpose of the centre is operation of TRIGA Mark II research reactor for the needs of IJS and other research groups. Reactor TRIGA Mark II was built by Institute ?Jožef Stefan? in 1966. The reactor was delivered by GA, the reactor tank and the body were built by Slovenian companies. In 1991, it was reconstructed and equipped for pulse operation. Practically all nuclear professionals in Slovenia started their career or attended practical training courses at TRIGA reactor (including all professors of nuclear engineering and reactor physics at Ljubljana and Maribor University, as well as directors and key personnel of Krško NPP, Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration and Agency for Radioactive Waste). The reactor has accumulated more than 40 years of continuous operation without any failure of major equipment or any event violating safety standards. It is planed that the reactor will operate at least until 2016.
2.6.2 Development of advanced and new generation nuclear reactor systems
Institute ?Jožef Stefan? has quite long tradition in research programes in the field of fission technology. The main effort is given to the reactor physics and reactor technology. The reactor physics is directed mostly towards development of new methods for research and power reactor calculations. They work on neutron, photon and electron Monte Carlo transport, nuclear data evaluation, advanced nodal methods, pin cell and fuel element homogenization and on methods aimed at precise power distribution reconstruction. They also study advanced fourth generation reactors, advanced neutron sources and data and materials for fusion technology. The reactor technology research activities belong to the wider field of nuclear engineering and safety. This interdisciplinary research integrates thermal-hydrodynamical, structural and probabilistic safety analyses. They are also looking for advanced reactor technology, mainly in developing computer models for different physical phenomena. Both reactor physics and technology divisions are very strong involved into many research projects within European Framework Programes as well as other programes.
Slovenia is also very strong involved in the fusion mainly for the purpose of ITER project. Different research departments are dealing with fusion and all of them are associated in the Slovenian Fusion Association (see http://www.sfa-fuzija.si/index.html). The contributions of the institutions in the Association to the several areas of the fusion programe are based on R&D experiences of the researchers in the fields of nuclear, atomic and plasma physics, ceramic materials development, mechanical engineering and computer aided design. The major equipment available in the institutions includes the following: an ion beam accelerator with materials diagnostic installations, a TRIGA reactor, an advanced dedicated fully-integrated high resolution microscope facility for nanostructural materials, computer systems for simulations, structural mechanical analyses and CAD, etc.
2.7 International co-operation and initiatives
Slovenia was admitted to full membership of the IAEA in 1992. Co-operation with the IAEA covers a wide range of activities, of which the most important are:
Preparation of International Conventions;
IAEA missions to Slovenia;
Technical co-operation including attendance of Slovenian experts on Agency’s sponsored seminars and training courses, scholarship, scientific visits, research contracts;
Slovenia furthermore co-operates with other international organizations, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA – observers) and the European Union. The co-operation is also institutionalized through the membership in associations, such as the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA), the Network for Regulators with Small Nuclear Programs (NERS) and International Nuclear Law Association (INLA).
The co-operation is also going on through multilateral and bilateral international agreements. The NPP Krsko is a member of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO).
2.8 Human Resources Development
Until 2008, Slovenia did not have any special under graduate nuclear program at its universities. There were few subjects related to nuclear at some of the faculties but no program based on which engineers titled as nuclear could come out. Those who were interested attended graduate study at University of Ljubljana (Institute ?Jožef Stefan? and Faculty for Mathematics and Physics) or at University of Maribor (Faculty for Civil Engineering). Both graduate programs are still alive and many of the high educated nuclear experts have been coming out. The nuclear graduate programme of the University of Ljubljana is also a member of the ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Education Network) Association.
In 2007 new Faculty of Energy Technology was established while educational process started in academic year 2008/2009. All together more than 180 students decided to sign on Faculty in the first academic year. The faculty offers both under graduate as well as graduate programs.
Beside academic institutions there are also some other expert institutions who offer their educational services in the field of nuclear technology. The most prominent one is The Nuclear Training Centre (ICJT) that is part of the Institute ?Jožef Stefan?, the leading research institution in Slovenia. Its basic activities are training of Krško Nuclear Power Plant staff, radiation protection training, organization of international seminars and public information about nuclear technology.
Slovenia has one nuclear power plant in commercial operation since 1983, the NPP Krško. The NPP Krško is a pressurized water reactor plant of 676 MW(e), delivered and constructed by Westinghouse, and is jointly owned with the Republic of Croatia. The operational and safety record of Krško NPP is good and complies with all international standards and highest safety requirements. The safety status of the plant has been supervised by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration as well as by international expert missions organized by IAEA, EU, WANO, etc. Apart from power generation, Slovenia has a research reactor TRIGA Mark II used mainly for R&D and for training activities.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1 Safety Authority and the Licensing Process
Safety Authority and the Licensing Process
The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) performs specialized technical and developmental administrative tasks and tasks of inspection supervision related to:
nuclear and radiation safety
radioactive waste management
carrying out practices involving radiation and use of radiation sources, except in medicine or veterinary medicine
protection of people and environment against ionising radiation
physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities
non-proliferation of nuclear materials and safeguards
import, export and transit of nuclear and radioactive materials and radioactive waste
liability for nuclear damage.
The SNSA is a part of the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning . The major nuclear facility supervised by the SNSA is the Krško NPP. Besides the NPP, the TRIGA Mark II research reactor of 250 kW thermal power operates within the Reactor Centre of the Jozef Stefan Institute. There is an interim storage of low and medium radioactive waste at the Reactor Centre site operated by the Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. Also the closed uranium mine Žirovski Vrh is supervised by the SNSA.
Activity of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration
The activities of the SNSA cover five main areas:
nuclear and radioactive materials;
General Affairs; and
Division of Nuclear Safety deals with licences and with analyses, which are used to support the licensing by performing and/or reviewing the safety analysis.
Division of Radiation Safety verifies radiation safety (except in medicine or veterinary medicine) and is responsible for radiation dosimetry control and radiation monitoring.
Division of Nuclear and Radioactive Materials deals with trade, transport and treatment of such materials. It shares responsibility in the field of physical protection of nuclear power plants and nuclear materials with the Ministry of the Interior. It also deals with the treatment, temporary storage and disposal of radioactive waste and participates in the selection of sites for nuclear facilities, especially those destined for radioactive waste. Finally, it is responsible for safeguards and illicit trafficking issues.
Office of General Affairs is involved with licensing procedures and the preparation of legislation on nuclear and radiation safety and on nuclear third party liability.
Office of International Co-operation co-ordinates the co-operation with international organisations (IAEA, OECD/NEA, EU, WENRA, NERS, INLA etc.) and with foreign regulatory authorities for nuclear and radiation safety within bilateral agreements.
Division of Inspection Control supervises licence-holders in fulfilling the safety requirements contained in the laws, regulations and in their licences. Inspections may be done one at a time, or may form part of an overall plan of inspections. To increase their efficiency, inspections may be unannounced. Regular inspections in NPP Krsko are carried out on a weekly basis.
3.2 Main National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power
The Act on Protection against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety was adopted by the Parliament of the Republic of Slovenia in its session on 11 July 2002. The act was published in Off. Gaz. RS, Nr. 67/2002 and entered into force on 1 October 2002. The new act is adjusted to the EU legislation in the field of radiation and nuclear safety and to international agreements succeeded, ratified or signed by the Republic of Slovenia.
The act includes the main principles in the field of nuclear and radiation safety and the provisions on:
practices involving ionising radiation (reporting an intention, a permit to carry out practices involving radiation, a permit to use a radiation source),
protection of people against ionising radiation (principles, justification, dose limits, protection of exposed workers, medical exposure),
radiation and nuclear safety (the classification of facilities, use of land, construction and carrying out of construction and mining activities, trial and actual operation of radiation and nuclear facilities, radioactive contamination, radioactive waste and spent fuel management, import, export and transit of nuclear and radioactive substances and radioactive waste, intervention measures),
issue, renewal, modification, withdrawal or expiry of a licence,
physical protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear substances,
non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and safeguards,
monitoring radioactivity in the environment,
the removal of the consequences of an emergency event,
report on protection against radiation and on nuclear safety, records containing information on radiation sources and practices involving radiation,
financing of protection against ionising radiation and of nuclear safety (costs incurred by the users and public expenses) and compensation for the limited use of land due to a nuclear facility,
inspection, penal provisions and transitional and final provisions.
In its transitional provisions the act provides for the issuing of several regulations of government and competent ministers. Until new regulations are issued the regulations issued on the basis of prior acts (Act on Radiation Protection and the safe Use of Nuclear energy, Off.Gaz. SFRY, Nr. 62/84 and Act on Implementing Protection Against Ionising Radiation and Measures on the Safety of Nuclear Facilities, Off.Gaz. SRS, Nr. 82/80) are still applicable.
Act on Protection against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety was revised in 2003 and 2004, while the third revision is expected to be adopted at the end of 2009.
Based on the 2002 Act six new Governmental decrees and nineteen Ministerial regulations have been adopted till the end of May 2009.
It is to be mentioned that Slovenia is a party to all relevant international treaties/conventions in the area of nuclear and radiation safety (see Appendix 1).
 Strategy of Efficient Energy Use and Supply of Slovenia, Ministry for Economic Activities, Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, (May 1994).
 Operation of Nuclear Facilities in Slovenia, Annual Report 1993, Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration, Ljubljana, (1994).
 Energy Act, Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Energy, Ljubljana (1999).
 Energy Data Profile by World Energy Council, Slovenian National Committee, Ljubljana, (April 1993).
 Data & Statistics, the World Bank, www.worldbank.org/data.
 IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB).
 IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
APPENDIX 1 INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
The Republic of Slovenia is part of the following treaties:
|AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA|
|• Amendments of Article VI & XIV.A of the IAEA Statute||Ratified:||3 April 2000|
|• NPT related agreement|
|Entry into force:||1 August 1997|
|• Additional Protocol||Entry into force:||22 August 2000|
|• Improved procedures for designation of safeguards inspectors||Accepted|
|• Supplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA||Signed||10 May 2006|
|• Agreement on privileges and immunities||Succession:||21 September 1992|
|OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL TREATIES.|
|• NPT||Succession:||7 April 1992|
|• Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil||Succession:||7 April 1992|
|• Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water||Succession:||7 April 1992|
|• Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||Succession:||25 June 1991|
|• Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||Succession:||25 June 1991|
|• Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||Succession:||25 June 1991|
|• Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy||Accession:||16 October 2001|
|• Brussels Supplementary Convention to the Paris Convention||Entry into force:||5 June 2003|
|• Joint protocol||Entry into force:||27 April 1995|
|• Protocol to amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||Not signed|
|• Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage||Not signed|
|• Convention on Nuclear Safety||Entry into force:||18 February 1997|
|• Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||Entry into force:||18 June 2001|
|• ZANGGER Committee||Member|
|• Nuclear Suppliers Group||Member|
|• Nuclear Export Guidelines||Adopted|
|• Acceptance of NUSS Codes||Accepted|
|• Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty||Ratified:||31 August 1999|
APPENDIX 2 DIRECTORY OF THE MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|NATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITY|
|Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration|
Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Energy
Železna cesta 16, P.O.BOX 5759
SI- 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
|Tel: +386-1-472 1100|
Fax: +386-1-472 1199
|Agency for Radioactive Waste Management||http://intranet.sigov.si/arao|
|NUCLEAR RESEARCH INSTITUTES|
|Jozef Stefan Institute|
61000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
|Tel: +386 1 2159 199|
Fax: +386 1 2161 029
|Reactor Centre Podgorica||http://www-rcp.ijs.si/index-e.html|
|ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE|
|Milan Vidmar Institute for Power Economy and Electrical Industry|
Hajdrihova 2 61000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
|Tel: +386 1 474 3000|
Fax: +386 1 474 3341
|OTHER NUCLEAR ORGANIZATIONS|
68270 Krsko, Slovenia
|Tel: +386 7 4208 410|
Fax: +386 7 4921 528
|Slovenian Electric Utilities - ELES|
61000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
|Tel: +386 1 474 3000|
Fax: +386 1 474 2502
|Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre|
|Nuclear Society of Slovenia (NSS)||http://www.drustvo-js.si/index_eng.htm|
|University of Ljubljana||http://www.uni-lj.si|
|University of Maribor||http://www.uni-mb.si|
|IJS Science Information Centre||http://libra.ijs.si|
|Ljubljana Technology Park||http://www.tp-lj.si/documents/default.htm|
|Academic and Research Net Work of Slovenia||http://www.arnes.si/english|
(*) The statistical tables in this profile have been updated with data as of the July 2012 from IAEA databases, namely the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB), and the World Bank's World Development Indicators (WDI)