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CZECH REPUBLIC

                                                                                    (updated on Dec. 2006)[1]

 

1. ENERGY, ECONOMIC AND ELECTRICITY INFORMATION

1.1.  General Overview

The Czech Republic (CR) is together with Slovakia successor country of former Czechoslovakia, which was divided on January 1, 1993. The Czech Republic is a member of the OECD (since 1995), NATO (since 1999) and the European Union (since May 2004).

The country is situated in the centre of Europe and has a mild climate. The country's topography is quite varied from plains, hills to highlands and mountains, and regions in the range from 200 to 500 m above sea level make up about 74% of the country. It borders with Austria to the south, Germany to the west and northwest, Poland to the northeast and Slovakia to the southeast (see Figure 1). It has almost no gas or oil and very limited hydro resources.

 

figure 1

Fig. 1. Map of the Czech Republic


The CR is a relatively small country of 78 866 square kilometres (land area is 77 276 sq. km) consisting mostly of two historic regions of Bohemia and Moravia with a population of 10.2 million inhabitants at the end of 2005 (see Table 1). Three quarters of the population live in urban areas. The population density is 130 inhabitants per sq. km. The population is slightly declining, the natural change in population in the Czech Republic was -0.6 persons (in 2005) per 1,000 inhabitants.

The development of the Czech economy since the year 1989 is characterized particularly by the process of the economic reform. In the year 1991, the main processes of the reform were started, such as liberalization of prices, de-monopolization of the foreign trade, introduction of the internal convertibility of the Czech crown and the beginning of privatization of small enterprises (e.g. shops, restaurants and workshops). This was completed during 1992 and 1993 and privatization of large enterprises commenced. At present, privatization is continuing.

The years 1990-93 are characterized by a substantial drop of economy caused, partially, by external influences (loss of market in former Soviet block, recession in Western Europe) and internal changes (restructuring of the production and loosening of property rights). The economic growth was restored in the year 1994. In the same year, the exigencies of primary energy sources (PES) consumption needed for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dropped significantly for the first time and continued dropping in subsequent years. The economic growth slowed down in 1997 and was almost zero until 1999 because of still ongoing privatization accompanied by weakness of governing structures and cyclic course of economic activity. At present, the economic growth is increasing (see Table 2).

TABLE 1. POPULATION INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

growth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

rate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990

 

1970

1980

1990

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Population (millions)

9.8

10.3

10.3

10.3

10.2

10.2

10.2

10.2

10.2

-0.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Population density (inhabitants//km2)

124.3

130.4

130.7

130.2

129.6

129.3

129.4

129.4

129.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Predicted population growth rate (%) 2002 to 2010

-1.1

Area (1000 km2)

78.9

Source: Czech Statistical Office


TABLE 2. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average

annual

growth

rate(%)

 

1970

1980

1990

2000

2005

2006

2000

to

2006

GDP (millions of current US$)

 

 

34 880.0

56 720.8

123 980.9

141 801.4

16.5

GDP (millions of constant 2000 US$)

 

 

55 298.5

56 720.8

67 821.6

71 935.3

4

GDP per capita (current US$)

 

 

3 365.8

5 521.2

12 114.5

13 877.0

16.6

Source: World Bank World Development Indicators


Table 3 presents the Czech energy resources and Table 4 energy statistics. Both primary and final energy consumption have decreased in 2004 in comparison to 1990. It is a good signal, which demonstrates the increasing efficiency of the economy. The decrease in the final energy consumption is larger than for the primary energy.

The structure of the consumption has changed even more substantially. (Brown) coal remained the main source of the energy. It still covers almost 50% of the primary energy sources. Regardless of the continuing trend of a decreasing rate, coal will remain significantly important in the future too. In 2004, the structure of primary energy consumption was: 48.1% of coal, 20.8% of crude oil and 18.2% of natural gas. Nuclear energy covers 12.9% including contribution of commercial renewables and hydro which is almost negligible (see Table 4). Coal is partially exported and almost all crude oil and natural gas have to be imported.

Significant changes are taking place in the coal mining industry, mainly the restructuring process connected with the final stage of the privatization process. The main obstacle in closing down of ineffective mines is social (unemployment).

Coal is still the main energy source in final energy consumption. Petroleum products due to road transport increase cover about 21%. The share of natural gas is almost the same, thanks to its use for households and heat production is required mainly by environmental legislation.

The energy sources for electricity production were quite stable for several years since the nuclear power plant (NPP) Dukovany is in full operation and the main hydro potential, which can not be further increased, was utilized. In 2002 and 2003, the ratio of nuclear electricity production increased due to the Temelin NPP which is in full operation. In 2005, the structure of total electricity generation in the Czech Republic was: fossil fuel (mostly coal) power plants provided 66.3% of total electricity generation, the Dukovany and Temelin NPPs 29.9%, hydro power plants 3.7%, wind and other alternative power plants only 0.03% and 0.05%, respectively.

TABLE 3. ESTIMATED ENERGY RESERVES

  Estimated energy reserves in (*) (Solid and Liquid in million tons, Uranium in metric tons, Gas in billion cubic metres, Hydro in TWhr per year)
  Solid (1) Liquid (2) Gas (3) Uranium (4) Hydro (5)
Amount 5,552 12,000 4 830 4,000
 

(*) Sources: 20th WEC Survey of Energy Resources, 2004 and Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand ("Red Book")
(1) Coal including Lignite: proved recoverable reserves, the tonnage within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
(2) Crude oil and natural gas liquids (Oil Shale, Natural Bitumen and Extra-Heavy Oil are not included): proved recoverable reserves, the quantity within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
(3) Natural gas: proved recoverable reserves, the volume within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology
(4) Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) under < USD 130/kgU
(5) Hydropower: technically exploitable capability, the amount of the gross theoretical capability that can be exploited within the limits of current technology

Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Database

  TABLE 4. ENERGY BALANCE

Basic Energy Situation
(Energy values are in Exajoule except where indicated)
Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
Total Energy Requirements 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 1990 to 2000 2000 to 2006
Total .. .. 0.00 1.63 1.84 .. 2.06
Solids .. .. .. 0.81 0.77 .. -0.98
Liquids .. .. .. 0.32 0.39 .. 3.28
Gases .. .. .. 0.35 0.35 .. 0.15
Hydro .. .. .. < 0.01 0.01 .. 5.87
Nuclear .. .. .. 0.15 0.28 .. 11.45
Combustible Renewables &amp; Waste .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Other Renewables and Waste .. .. 0.00 -0.01 0.03 .. ?
 
Final Energy Consumption 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 1990 to 2000 2000 to 2006
Total .. .. 0.00 0.95 0.99 .. 0.64
Solids .. .. 0.00 0.15 0.11 .. -4.59
Liquids .. .. .. 0.21 0.27 .. 3.95
Gases .. .. .. 0.31 0.31 .. 0.22
Electricity .. .. .. 0.18 0.21 .. 2.43
Other .. .. .. 0.11 0.10 .. -2.07
Combustible Renewables &amp; Waste .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Other .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
 
Net Energy Balance (Export-Import) 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 1990               to 2000 2000                 to 2006
Total .. .. 0.000 0.481 0.598 .. 3.70
Solids .. .. .. -0.146 -0.119 .. -3.28
Liquids .. .. .. 0.315 0.398 .. 3.95
Gases .. .. .. 0.348 0.368 .. 0.92
Combustible Renewables &amp; Waste .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Other Renewables and Waste .. .. 0.000 -0.036 -0.048 .. 4.68
Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Databank, 2009

 

1.2.  Energy Policy

(an excerption from an official document State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic, March 2004)

The State Energy Policy of the CR has been prepared by the Ministry of Industry and Trade as a official document with a horizon of the next 30 years and approved by the Czech Government in March 2004. The Energy Policy specifies a more comprehensive set of priorities and long-term goals that the Czech Republic will observe in the energy sector as part of sustainable development. During the selection of the State Energy Policy’s priorities, objectives and set of tools, energy, environmental, economic and social viewpoints were respected. Compliance with the Energy Policy of the State and the fulfilment of its priorities and objectives will be evaluated by the same Ministry at three-year intervals. The Ministry will inform the Government on the results of these evaluations and submit proposals for changes to the State Energy Policy if necessary.

The State Energy Policy’s vision defines the basic priorities creating the framework for the long-term development of the energy sector of the Czech Republic. The basic priorities of the State Energy Policy are:

ˇ  independence

- independence from foreign energy sources;  

- independence from energy sources from risky regions;

- independence from reliability of supplies from foreign sources;

ˇ  safety

- safety of energy sources including nuclear safety;

- reliability of supplies of all kinds of energy;

- reasonable decentralisation of all energy systems;

ˇ  sustainable development

- environmental protection;

- economic and social development.

 The State Energy Policy’s goals are directed at the fulfilment of its vision and they work out the basic priorities into a more specific form. Four main goals have been defined while each contains several partial objectives. The goals are arranged by their importance:

ˇ   maximising energy efficiency

- maximising energy utilisation;

- maximising efficiency in acquiring and converting energy sources;

- maximising savings in heating;

- maximising efficiency of electricity appliances;

- maximising efficiency of distribution systems;

ˇ   ensuring the effective amount and structure of primary energy sources consumption

- promotion of electricity and head produced from renewable energy sources;

- optimising the use of indigenous energy sources;

- optimising nuclear energy use;

ˇ   maximising environmental friendliness

- minimising environmentally harmful emissions;

- minimising greenhouse gases emission;

- minimising the environmental burden on future generations;

- minimising the environmental burdens of previous years;

ˇ   completing the transformation and liberalisation of energy sector

- completing transformation measures;

- minimising the prices of all types of energy;

- optimising backing-up of energy sources.

 

The State Energy Policy measures (SEP)

1.      Maximising energy efficiency

The efficient use of energy sources throughout the cycle - from acquisition, transport, storage and conversion to final use - is a permanent priority for the State Energy Policy, because a high level of energy efficiency is characteristic for efficient and modern economies and is a condition for sustainable development.

Energy efficiency must be improved throughout a wide range of energy uses and energy conversion methods through the activities of enterprises, the public sector and the population as a whole with well targeted state support. Overall, the result of increased energy efficiency, connecting the consumption of energy with its valuation, will be a fall in the energy and electricity intensity of GDP creation.

Increasing energy efficiency is the cheapest, safest and fastest way to achieve all the priorities and goals of the State Energy Policy. It ensures reduced energy intensity, emissions of pollutants and the risks of growth in energy import dependence; it prolongs the life of indigenous resources of non-renewable energy sources, increases the competitiveness of the energy sector and the whole Czech economy and it positively influences all other energy sector parameters. 

1.1. Current situation regarding the pursued goal

With respect to its current GDP level the Czech Republic still consumes more primary energy sources and electricity than objectively necessary (the consumed energy creates little value added). In spite of achieved improvements the energy and electricity intensity of GDP creation in the Czech Republic are nearly double those of EU countries. It is mainly transport, industry and the building industry that show high energy intensity. 

When fulfilling the goals of previous energy policies the Czech Republic introduced, in accordance with EU practices, standard systematic measures supporting the growth of energy efficiency (rectification of energy prices, measures stimulating energy efficiency) and declared a National Programme for Economical Energy Management and Use of Renewable and Secondary Energy Sources.

This is why the current requirement consists of strengthening the efficiency of the existing system, of more thorough and systematic incentives for the growth of energy efficiency and of establishing an energy market.

1.2. Currently valid measures regarding the pursued goal

1.2.1. Act No. 458/2000 Coll. (the Energy Act)

1.2.2. Act No. 406/2000 Coll. on Energy Management

1.2.3. The National Programme for Economical Energy Management and Use of Renewable and Secondary Energy Sources

1.2.4. Evaluation of the fulfilment of State Energy Policy goals

1.2.5. Legislation promoting the production of electricity and heat from renewable    energy sources and the cogeneration of electricity and heat (Decree of the Ministry of Industry and Trade No. 39/2002, Price decisions of the Energy Regulatory Office)

1.3. Target state regarding the pursued goal




 

Long-term targets

 

 

 

1. Acceleration and subsequent stabilisation of the annual rate of fall of the energy intensity of GDP creation by 3.0 – 3.5% (indicative target)

2. Avoiding an increase in the absolute value of consumption of primary energy sources. Economic growth should be mainly supported by increased energy efficiency

3. Acceleration and subsequent stabilisation of the annual rate of fall of the electricity intensity of GDP creation by 1.4 – 2.4% (indicative target)

Targets to be achieved by 2005 (indicative targets)

 

1. Stabilisation of the annual rate of fall of total energy intensity at a minimum of 2.6%

2. Stabilisation of the annual rate of fall of total electricity intensity at a minimum of 2%

1.4. Newly proposed measures regarding the pursued goal

1.4.1. Amendments to Acts No. 458/2000 Coll. and 406/2000 Coll.

1.4.2. The Act on promotion of electricity and heat produced from renewable energy sources

1.4.3. The National Programme for Economical Energy Management and Use of Renewable and Secondary Energy Sources for 2006 - 2009

1.4.4. Promotion the cogeneration of electricity and heat

1.4.5. Investment incentives (in accordance with Act No. 72/2000 Coll. on investment incentives and its amendment No. 453/2001 Coll.)

1.4.6. A long-term outlook for energy sector until 2030

1.4.7. An indicative programme for renewing and replacing outdated electricity generating plants with sources that are more efficient and are more   environmentally friendly

1.4.8. Research and development support programmes, including the National Research Programme

1.4.9. Incorporating environmental rules in the tax system

 2.      Ensuring the effective amount and structure of primary energy sources consumption

The whole EU is solving reliability and long-term safety issues relating to energy supplies as a new priority. The original content of safety and reliability is getting a new dimension in measures aimed at strengthening national energy self-sufficiency, and away from increases in dependence on energy imports from risky territories, which is connected to possible supply failures, transport breakdowns and fluctuations in the prices of energy sources, etc. The priority is expressed in requirements for a reliable and permanently stable energy mix and ways of generating electricity and heat.

This priority is also aimed at increasing the energy system’s robustness and ability to operate in states of emergency (emergency management), in cases of energy supply failures and large-scale disasters (floods, major breakdowns, terrorist attacks, etc.).

2.1. Current state regarding the pursued goal

The Czech Republic has significantly diversified its PES consumption structure. The stability of foreign energy supplies has also been reinforced by increasing the territorial diversification of suppliers of imported liquid and gas fuels.

The overall extent of the Czech Republic’s dependence on energy imports is quite favourable for the time being (approx. 32% of energy consumption), yet its structure is unbalanced. The dependence on imports of oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel is virtually 100%. Energy commodities represent approx. 9% of total Czech imports at the present, with a trade balance deficit in energy commodities of CZK 70-80 billion.

Diversification of the structure of PES consumption will continue to increase, but the dependence on energy imports will grow dynamically in spite of promotion for the utilisation of indigenous and renewable energy sources.

The growth rate of the dependence on energy imports must be reduced by a series of direct and indirect measures, mainly increasing energy efficiency, promoting renewable energy sources and increasing availability and prolonging the life of the indigenous solid fuel resources, mainly brown coal (in the event of the construction of new efficient coal power stations, resources of brown coal must be released in sufficient amounts for at least 40 years of operations).

The Czech Republic, in accordance with Act No. 189/1999 Coll. on emergency oil reserves, creates and maintains strategic supplies of oil to cover needs for up to 90 days. On the basis of EU accession negotiations a transition period has been agreed on and the emergency storage capacities will be replenished by the end of 2005.

Energy sector functioning in states of emergency is addressed by Act No. 458/2000 Coll. (the Energy Act) using the declaration of states of emergency. Emergency management is further addressed by Acts No. 240/2000 Coll. (the Emergency Act) and No. 241/2000 Coll. on emergency measures.

2.2. Currently valid measures regarding the pursued goal

2.2.1. Act No. 458/2000 Coll. (the Energy Act)

2.2.2. Act No. 406/2000 Coll. on energy management

2.2.3. Evaluation of the fulfilment of State Energy Policy goals

2.2.4. Legislation promoting the production of electricity and heat from renewable sources and the cogeneration of electricity and heat (Decree of the Ministry of Industry and Trade No. 539/2002, Price decisions of the Energy    Regulatory Office)

2.2.5. Using the competencies of the Ministry of Industry and Trade in the sphere of import regulation of electricity and gas pursuant to Act No. 458/2000 Coll.

2.2.6. Authorisation for the construction of electricity and heat generating plants in accordance with Act No. 458/2000 Coll.

2.2.7. Act No. 189/1999 Coll. on emergency oil reserves

2.2.8. Act No. 240/2000 Coll. on crisis management

2.2.9. Act No. 241/2000 Coll. on emergency measures

2.3. Target state regarding the pursued goal

Long term targets

 

 

 

1. Achieving the following primary energy consumption structure by 2030:

ˇ                     solid fuel:                    30 - 32 %

ˇ                     gas fuel:                      20 - 22 %

ˇ                     liquid fuel:                  11 - 12 %

ˇ                     nuclear fuel:                20 - 22% 

ˇ                     renewable sources:      15 - 16%

2. Maintaining limits for dependence on energy imports (indicative targets):

ˇ                     in 2010 max.:          45%

ˇ                     in 2020 max.:          50%

ˇ                     in 2030 max.:          60%

3. Creating and maintaining minimum storage capacities of oil and oil products (in accordance with Act No. 189/1999 Coll. on emergency oil reserves and solution to the states of emergency need for oil) and increasing them possibly to the level agreed within the EU

4. Legislative preparation for increasing the minimum storage capacities of oil in the way agreed within the EU

5. Providing for the legislative framework for a new kind of strategic reserve for natural gas and maintaining it as agreed within the EU

6. In connection with the previous targets, creating and maintaining storage capacities of nuclear fuel in a suitable form for loading it into a reactor as a strategic reserve

7. Reinforcing the reliability of the national energy systems

8. Updating general emergency management measures

Targets to be achieved by 2005

 

 

1. Achieving the following structure of primary energy sources by 2005:

ˇ                     solid fuel:                  42 - 44 %

ˇ                     gas fuel:                    20 - 22 %

ˇ                     liquid fuel:                15 - 16 %

ˇ                     nuclear fuel:              16 - 17 %

ˇ                     renewable sources:     5 - 6 %

2. Maintaining a limit of 42% import dependence (indicative target)

3. Replenishment the storage capacities of oil and oil products to cover the needs of 90 days’ consumption

2.4. Newly proposed measures regarding the pursued goal

2.4.1. Amendments of Acts No. 458/2000 Coll. and No. 406/2000 Coll.

2.4.2. A long-term energy outlook up to 2030

2.4.3. An indicative programme for renewing and replacing outdated electricity generating plants with sources that are more efficient and are more environmentally friendly

2.4.4. Reasonable revisions of government decisions relating to regional environmental limits for brown coal mining

2.4.5. The Act on promotion of electricity and heat produced from renewable sources

2.4.6. Promotion of cogeneration of electricity and heat

2.4.7. Promotion of the use of alternative fuels in transport

2.4.8. Investment incentives (in accordance with Act No. 72/2000 and its amendment No. 453/2001 Coll.)

2.4.9. Authorisation procedure for the construction of new generation capacities

2.4.10. Storage capacities of oil and natural gas by December 31, 2005

2.4.11. An amendment to Act No. 189/1999 Coll. on emergency oil reserves or possibly the preparation and adoption of new Acts on emergency reserves of natural gas, black coal and nuclear fuel

2.4.12. Energy management in states of emergency

2.4.13. Research and development support programmes, including the National Research Programme

2.4.14. Measures against the risks of growing dependence on energy imports

2.4.15. Wider incorporation of environmental principles in the tax system

3.      Ensuring maximum environmental friendliness

Protection of the environment is the basic standpoint used for the evaluation of all economic activities in all advanced countries, especially in the EU. The existence of worldwide climate changes cannot be denied and the adopted measures to prevent their worsening, which only have the character of medium-term programmes and obligations for the time being, will be deepened.

The measures aimed at lowering the environmental burden include:

-                      Maintaining specific emission limits for SO2, NOx and VOC, determined for the Czech Republic until 2010 (in accordance with Government Regulation No. 351 of July 3, 2002),

-                      Using renewable energy sources (their promotion is required by Directive No. 2001/77/EC on promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources) and the Czech Republic is also specifying its indicative target in this sphere,

-                      Fulfilling obligations to reduce the production of organic substances that do not degrade easily,

-                      Fulfilling international obligations to lower emissions of greenhouse gases (after ratification of the Kyoto Protocol).

3.1. Current state regarding the pursued goal

Thanks to the widespread and high levels of investment in the operated energy facilities, the burdening of the environment has dropped considerably. At the present time the Czech Republic has no difficulties in maintaining its limits of emission volumes of SO2 and NOx until 2010. What remains a problem is the VOC emission limit and specific emissions of CO2 and NOx, (per inhabitant or per GDP), which are still at a higher level than in EU countries.

3.2. Currently valid measures regarding the pursued goal

3.2.1. Act No. 458/2000 Coll., (the Energy Act)

3.2.2. Act No. 406/2000 Coll. on Energy Management

3.2.3. The National Programme for Economical Energy Management and Use of Renewable and Secondary Energy Sources

3.2.4. Evaluation of the fulfilment of State Energy Policy goals

3.2.5. Legislation of the promotion electricity and heat produced from renewable sources and cogeneration of electricity and heat (Decree of the Ministry of Industry and Trade No. 539/2002, Price decisions of the Energy Regulatory Office)

3.2.6. The Air Protection Act No. 86/2002 Coll.

3.2.7. The Integrated Prevention Act No. 76/2002 Coll.

3.2.8. Government Regulation No. 350/2002 Coll. setting forth the emission limits and conditions and the way of monitoring, evaluating and controlling the air quality

3.2.9. Government Regulation No. 351/2002 setting forth binding emission limits for some air pollutants and the preparation methods of emission audits

3.2.10. Government Regulation No. 352/2002 Coll. setting forth the emission limits and other conditions for operating stationary combustion sources of air pollution and other valid measures.

3.3. Required conditions regarding the pursued goal

Model calculations and energy scenarios prove that the conditions are fully feasible:

a)     The required emission limits of SO2, NOx and VOC in accordance with Government directive No. 351 of July 3, 2002 as well as obligations that will result for the emissions of CO2 in the Czech Republic after ratification of the Kyoto Protocol,

b)     Implementation of the EU Strategy on promotion of the utilisation of renewable energy sources.

In compliance with the general indicative EU targets for 22% of EU electricity consumed to be from renewable energy sources by 2010 and with a view to performed calculations the current share of renewable energy sources in the current consumption of primary energy sources and in electricity generation can be more than doubled in the Czech Republic if the required support is provided.

 

Long-term targets

 

 

1. Complying with binding EU emissions limits in 2010 (SO2 265,000 tonnes, NOx 286,000 tonnes, VOC 220,000 tonnes)

2. Fulfilment of international obligations of the Kyoto Protocol (after its ratification) and of other agreements connected with it

3. Creating conditions for a wider utilisation of renewable energy sources – by determining and observing the national indicative target of the share of electricity generated from renewable sources in gross national electricity consumption (8% in 2010)

4. Creating conditions for a gradual increasing of the share of renewable energy sources in the domestic consumption of primary energy sources to up to 15 - 16% in 2030

5. Creating conditions for wider utilisation of secondary energy sources and increasing the share of alternative fuels in transport

6. Making preparations for and use the greenhouse gas emission trading schemes (in connection with the EU Directive) to ensure the goals of the State Energy Policy)

Targets to be achieved by 2005

 

1. Full transposition of EU environmental regulations into Czech legislation concerning energy sector

2. Providing conditions for the fulfilment of the national target for renewable energy sources – the share of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in gross electricity consumption of 5 – 6% (indicative target)

3.4. Newly proposed measures regarding the pursued goal

3.4.1. Amendments of Acts No. 458/2000 Coll. and No. 406/2000 Coll.

3.4.2. The National Programme for Economical Energy Management and Use of Renewable and Secondary Energy Sources for 2006 – 2009

3.4.3. The Act on promotion of electricity and heat produced from renewable energy sources

3.4.4. Promotion for utilisation of cogeneration of electricity and heat

3.4.5. Higher use of alternative fuels in transport

3.4.6. Investment incentives (in accordance with Act No. 72/2000 and its amendment No. 453/2001 Coll.)

3.4.7. An indicative programme for renewing and replacing outdated electricity generating plants with sources that are more efficient and are more environmentally friendly

3.4.8. Research and development support programmes, including the National Research Programme

3.4.9. Wider incorporation of environmental principles in the tax system

3.4.10. An integrated system for the reduction of pollution of components of the environment.

3.4.11. Greenhouse gas emission allowance trading

4.      Completion of energy sector transformation and liberalisation

The process of transformation of Czech Republic energy sector proceeded throughout the 1990s and was the main priority for all state energy policies so far. The transformation of energy sector has advanced considerably and what is decisive for its further focus is that the adaptation process should be completed in principle by the date of the Czech Republic’s accession to the EU (in May 2004) so that the Czech Republic can be prepared for the competitive environment in the EU. The process must be regulated in such a way as to be acceptable from the point of view of the social impacts on the employees in the energy sector and on the population.

4.1. Current conditions regarding the pursued goal

The Energy Policy (2000) contained and provided for the execution of a series of short-term tasks and requirements aimed at the completion of energy sector economic transformation (a privatisation programme, a gradual programme of electricity and natural gas markets liberalisation, completing the process of rectification and deregulation of electricity, natural gas and heat prices) and other steps aimed at the gradual harmonisation of Czech legislation with EU standards.

Among other things the measures taken have resulted in a considerable fall in employment in the energy sectors. The original figure of approx. 150 thousand employees (in 1990) dropped in 2002 to 61 thousand employees (with the largest drop being in the coal sector, from 106 thousand to approx. 35 thousand, while this decrease was partly caused by the transfer of supporting activities to other sectors. The rectification of energy prices continued throughout the 1990s. Price modifications that increased the energy expenses of households were controlled and spread out. The initial growth in prices was lower than inflation, while a more considerable growth in prices, especially for electricity and natural gas, occurred in 1999 – 2002 in accordance with the intention to finalise the removal of cross subsidies by 2002 (pursuant to Czech Government Decision No. 1250/99). The rate of increase in energy prices was higher for households in the Czech Republic than the growth rate of prices of other kinds of goods and services. An average household’s expenditure for electricity, heat, gas and other fuel in the Czech Republic in 2002 represented 11% of its total expenditure, approx. 3x higher than in more advanced EU countries (France and Germany). The current energy prices can be considered as stabilised, but new reasons for price increases have appeared (environmental taxes, the shift of heat and biofuel from the lower to the higher VAT category and promotion for using renewable energy sources for the generation of electricity and heat).

4.2. Currently valid measures regarding the pursued goal

4.2.1. Act No. 458/2000 Coll. (the Energy Act)

4.2.2. Evaluation of the fulfilment of State Energy Policy goals

4.2.3. Damping programmes for coal, ore and uranium mining

4.3. Required conditions regarding the pursued goal

Long-term targets

 

Continuous adaptation of energy sector system to the model used within the EU

Targets to be achieved by 2005

 

 

1. Creating a new liberalisation strategy for the electricity and natural gas market in accordance with amended EU Directives

2. Evaluating the efficiency of regulation and tuning the regulation framework

3. Specifying social measures in connection with the reduction of employment in the coal and electricity sub-sectors

4. Permanently monitoring the impacts of energy prices on the population and influencing long-term price/tariff relations using sector regulation

4.4. Newly proposed measures regarding the pursued goal

4.4.1. Specification of the strategy for the liberalisation of electricity and natural gas market

4.4.2. Access to the network for cross-border exchange in electricity

4.4.3. Public interest in the energy sector, including long-term planning

4.4.4. Protection of end customers

4.4.5. Energy management in states of emergency

4.4.6. Keeping consumers informed about long-term tendencies in the relative prices of energy commodities

4.4.7. Establishing a supplier of last resort that is obliged to supply electricity or gas for prices determined by the Energy Regulation Office to households and small customers who have not arranged for supplies from another supplier

4.4.8. Dumping programmes for coal, ore and uranium mining

4.4.9. Evaluation, analytic activities

4.4.10. Energy sector statistics

4.4.11. Media and other measures

1.3.  The Electricity System

All major energy companies were converted to share-holding companies and major portion of shares is held by state, a part of the rest was given to municipalities. In last years, many municipalities sold their owner rights mostly to foreign energy companies. Governmental Resolution No. 967/2000 sets the procedure of privatization of the resting state share in electricity sector. In a long-term perspective, the state influence in the energy sector is anticipated, only, in a form of indirect measures (legislation, pricing, tax) and regulating natural monopolies in particular industries.

The Act No. 406/2000 Coll. (Energy Management Act) on Energy Management stipulates the rights and obligations of natural and legal persons in the management of energy, in particular electricity and heat, as well as gas and other fuels. It shall contribute to the economical use of natural resources and protection of the environment, as well as to more efficient use of energy, enhanced competitiveness, more reliable energy supplies, and to the sustainable development of society.

The Act No. 458/2000 Coll. (Energy Act) on Business Conditions and Public Administration in the Energy Sectors establishing a new regulatory regime regulates the business in the electrical power sector. According the Energy Act, the electricity generation, distribution, transmission and electricity trading is subject of licensing. The Energy Act introduces the market environment, opens the electricity and gas markets and defines relevant institutions such as the Energy Regulatory Office (ERO) and the Electricity Market Operator (EMO).

The ERO defined in the Energy Act is a separate state organisation under the responsibility of the Prime Minister and is established as the administrator Office to exercise regulation in the energy sector. Its operating costs are covered by the state budget approved every year by the Parliament. The general mission of the ERO is to support economic competition and protect consumers’ interests in energy sector, aiming to meet all reasonable requirements for energy supply, i.e. electricity, gas and heat supplies. The EMO is a state-owned stock company. The key role of the EMO is to organise the electricity market and flow of information between the market players.

In 2005, approximately 72,7% of the electricity production was concentrated in CEZ, a.s., (Czech Power Company), the joint-stock company: 16 coal power plants, the Dukovany and Temelin NPPs, 7 large and 24 small hydro power plants and three pumped-storage hydro power plants, two wind power plants and one solar power station. The remaining 27% of the electrical power production is provided by plants owned largely by independent producers (e.g. International Power Opatovice a.s., Elektrárna Kolín a.s.) or by auto producers in industry and local heat producers (co-generation) and by regional utilities. CEPS, a.s., a daughter company of CEZ, a.s. owns the backbone high voltage power transmission system (400 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV lines) and dispatching center. It is a licenced Czech transmission system operator. At present, CEPS, a.s. is owned completely by the Czech state (100%).

The electricity distribution is provided by eight electrical power distribution companies (utilities). They have a regional monopoly except for large consumers connected directly to high voltage grid. Utilities can buy electricity from small hydro and wind plants.

Table 5 shows the electricity production and installed capacity and Table 6 the energy related ratios.

TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND INSTALLED CAPACITY

Electricity Situation Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
Electricity Generation 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 1990 to 2000 2000 to 2006
Total .. .. .. 73.47 84.36 .. 2.33
Nuclear .. .. .. 13.59 26.05 .. 11.45
Hydro .. .. .. 2.31 3.26 .. 5.87
Geothermal .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Wind .. .. .. 0.00 0.05 .. ..
Other renewables .. .. .. .. < 0.01 .. ..
Thermal .. .. .. 57.56 55.01 .. -0.75
 
Installed Capacity 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 1990 to 2000 2000 to 2006
Total .. .. .. 15.32 17.51 .. 2.25
Nuclear .. .. .. 1.76 3.76 .. 13.49
Hydro .. .. .. 2.10 2.18 .. 0.61
Geothermal .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Wind .. .. .. < 0.01 0.04 .. 87.89
Other renewables .. .. .. .. < 0.01 .. ..
Thermal .. .. .. 11.46 11.53 .. 0.09

Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Databank, 2009

 

TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS

Derived Indicators Annual Average
Growth Rate (%)
  1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 1990 to 2000 2000 to 2006
Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita) .. .. .. 158.6 178.9 .. 2.03
Electricity per capita (KW.h/capita) .. .. .. 7,151.4 8,200.7 .. 2.31
Nuclear/Total electricity (%) .. .. .. 18.5 30.9 .. 8.91
Annual capacity factor - Total (%) .. .. .. 54.7 55.0 .. 0.08
Annual capacity factor - Thermal (%) .. .. .. 57.3 54.5 .. -0.84
Annual capacity factor - Hydro (%) .. .. .. 12.6 17.1 .. 5.23
Annual capacity factor - Nuclear (%) .. .. .. 88.1 79.1 .. -1.79
Annual capacity factor - Wind (%) .. .. .. 0.0 12.7 .. ..
Annual capacity factor - Geothermal (%) .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Annual capacity factor - Other renewables (%) .. .. .. .. 11.4 .. ..

  Source: IAEA Energy and Economic Databank, 2009

 

2.  NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION

2.1.  Historical Development and current nuclear power organizational structure

2.1.1.  Overview

The nuclear power era in the former CSFR has started off in the 50s because of the lack of oil resources. A heavy water gas-cooled reactor was built and operated in Jaslovské Bohunice (now Slovakia). The further development of nuclear power in the Czech Republic was determined by the influence of former Soviet Union in Eastern Europe.

In the 70s, WWERs 440 of Soviet design were built and the Czech industry was involved in the production of NSSS components and partly in primary circuit - e.g. vessel, control rod drive mechanism. The Czech industry became the supplier of these parts in other Eastern European countries (e.g. 20 reactor vessels were made by Skoda). In the 80s, construction of the WWERs 1000 started. In 1993, a resolution was adopted to change the reactor control system (I&C) to meet the state-of-art criteria of unit control.

2.1.2.  Current Organizational Chart(s)

The organizational chart (structure) of the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB) is presented on the following Figure 2.

Sources: State Office for Nuclear Safety, http://www.sujb.cz

Figure 2. Organizational Structure of the SÚJB.

Figure 3 shows the main governmental bodies involved in energy policy-making. The Ministry of Industry and Trade has the principal responsibility for overall energy policy. It is supported by the Czech Energy Agency (CEA) for energy efficiency and renewable energy, and the State Energy Inspection Board for the supervision of energy facilities in the public sector and state-owned companies. Since January 2001, the ERO has performed the main regulatory functions.

Sources: Ministry of Industry and Trade; OECD/IEA.

Figure 3. Government Structure for Energy Policy

Through the National Property Fund, the Ministry of Finance acts as government shareholder in state-owned energy companies, except Transgas which is owned by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. The Ministry of Finance also manages state aid to the coal sector and the fund created for managing nuclear wastes. The Ministry of the Environment portfolio includes regulation, air pollution and climate change policy. On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment, the State Environmental Fund provides financial support for the installation of equipment to prevent air pollution, for the extension of the natural gas network and for the use of renewable energy.

The Administration of State Material Reserves has responsibility for oil stockholding and emergency preparedness. The Czech Statistical Office produces most energy statistics, and the Ministry of Industry and Trade has a large role in supply statistics.

2.2.  Nuclear Power Plants: Status and Operations

2.2.1.  Status of nuclear power plants

In the Czech Republic, there are four units operating at the Dukovany (EDU-Elektrárna Dukovany) NPP. The units are Russian WWER 440/V213 type PWRs with the total installed power of 1760 MW(e). The construction of the Temelin (ETE-Elektrárna Temelin) NPP including two units with WWER 1000/V320 type with the total installed power of 2000 MW(e) was completed. The Unit 1 and Unit 2 were completed and now they are in full operation.

The production of the nuclear power plants represents currently about 30% (in 2003, 2004 and 2005) of the total electricity production in the Czech Republic. Table 7 shows the current status of the Czech NPPs. More detail information is possible to find in “Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2030”, Reference Data Series No. 1 and “Nuclear Power Reactors in the World”, Reference Data Series No. 2.

The CEZ, a.s. has financed directly the completion of the Temelin NPP, the planned upgrading of Dukovany station and the construction of a spent fuel storage facility. The CEZ, a.s. is using its own resources and credits, without, however, any direct financial participation of the state. The exception is a guarantee of the state for World Bank loan. At present, the proportion of nuclear electricity produced in the Czech Republic is approximately about 30% after the Temelin NPP commenced full operation.

TABLE 8. STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Station Type Net Operator Status Reactor Construction Criticality Grid Commercial Shutdown
    Cpacity (Mwe)     Supplier Date Date Date Date Date
DUKOVANY-1 PWR   412 CEZ Operational SKODA 01-Jan-79 12-Feb-85 24-Feb-85 03-May-85  
DUKOVANY-2 PWR   412 CEZ Operational SKODA 01-Jan-79 23-Jan-86 30-Jan-86 21-Mar-86  
DUKOVANY-3 PWR   427 CEZ Operational SKODA 01-Mar-79 28-Oct-86 14-Nov-86 20-Dec-86  
DUKOVANY-4 PWR   427 CEZ Operational SKODA 01-Mar-79 01-Jun-87 11-Jun-87 19-Jul-87  
TEMELIN-1 PWR   930 CEZ Operational SKODA 01-Feb-87 11-Oct-00 21-Dec-00 10-Jun-02  
TEMELIN-2 PWR   930 CEZ Operational SKODA 01-Feb-87 31-May-02 29-Dec-02 18-Apr-03  

Source: IAEA Power Reactor Information System; CEZ, a.s.


The National Property Fund (NPF), i.e. the state owns 67.6% of the CEZ, a.s. shares (2005), privatized in the year 1992. The fund delegated the shareholding rights to the Ministry of Industry and Trade. The remaining CEZ, a.s. shares are traded on the Stock Exchange. They are owned, at present, by companies and corporations (24.3%) and individuals (4.7%). As of 1st January 2006, in accordance with Section 2 of Act No. 178/2005 Coll. on the Winding Up of the National Property Fund of the Czech Republic and on the Powers of the Ministry of Finance, the assets of the National Property Fund of the Czech Republic, including the CEZ, a. s. shares owned by it, passed to the state; as of the same date, the state’s equity stake is administered by the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic.

The UJV-Rez, a.s. was privatized in the year 1992. At present, about 52.4% of the shares is owned by the CEZ, a.s., (Czech Power Company). The SE, a.s., (Slovac Power Company) holds 27.8%, the Škoda JS, a.s. 17.4% and about 2.4% is owned by the local municipality.

The Škoda - Jaderné strojírenství (JS), a.s. is 100% owned by Power Machines B.V. (Netherland), since 2004.

2.2.2.  Performance of NPPs

Basic data on performance of the Czech NPPs are shown in Table 7 (see net capacity). Nuclear share in both total electricity generation and total installed capacity it is possible to find in Tables 5 and 6.

2.2.3.  Plant upgrading and plant life management

Dukovany NPP

In connection with the accomplishment of 20 years of operation of Unit 1 of the Dukovany NPP, the holder of the permit to operate nuclear facility presented the amended safety-related documentation for assessment. The most important documents included the Pre-operation Safety Report, Limits and Conditions of Safety Operation, Program of Operational Inspections, Monitoring Programs and the proposal for decommissioning technique. Based on such assessment as well as based on results of inspections carried out, the SÚJB issued a permit in the first half of December 2005 for its further operation for a term of ten years, i.e. until the year 2015. If conditions included in the permit are observed, Unit 1 is allowed to be operated in the period provided.

Within the improvement of nuclear safety, the modernization and recovery of control systems and the approval process for the use of improved fuel on Unit 3 continued at the Dukovany NPP. The SÚJB approved the revision of the Comprehensive Program for Physical and Power Start-up of Unit 3 following the control system recovery and the individual commissioning programs. It concerned the programs for evaluation and verification of unit dynamics on the occurrence of events analysed in the Safety Report, including equipment failure, protection interventions and unit regulation or shutdown. Based on the assessment of the required documentation and based on results of inspections carried out, the SÚJB permitted Unit 3 to be put into operation. Implementation of similar modernization continues also on other units of Dukovany NPP according to the schedule approved and controlled by the SÚJB.

The Instrumentation & Control system renewal project was implemented during standard fuel replacement outages. On Unit No. 3, the installation of generating unit information systems, a reactor control system, and an intrareactor monitoring system were completed. Another significant project on Unit No. 3 was the replacement of low-pressure components in the flow-through section of the turbogenerators, including rotors, to increase efficiency and extend useful life. The result is a 3.4% decrease in unit heat consumption, corresponding to a 16 MW increase in the achievable capacity of this unit. At the same time, the useful life of the low-pressure stage was extended so it will last for the entire period the power plant is to remain in operation.

Nuclear power plant life management is an integration process linking ageing management and economic planning with the following goals:

(a)   optimise the operation, maintenance, and service life of the system, structure and components (SSCs),

(b)   maintain an acceptable level of performance and safety, and

(c)   maximize return on investment over the service life of the plant.

The plant life management process coordinates such different management programmes of an NPP as operation, maintenance, equipment qualification, etc.

The role of the UJV Rez within the framework of life management evaluation is to analyse and evaluate current plant life management process of the Dukovany NPP and prepare proposals for its efficiency enhancement, i.e. for the better control of ageing of important SSCs and its economic impacts.

The most important and time consuming part of the described work is evaluation of current state of life management of SSCs, important for the plant life called according to the IAEA methodology Interim Ageing Management Study. It covers:

• collecting information necessary to understand SSCs ageing,

• evaluation of current understanding of SSCs ageing,

• classification of each SSCs for plant life management taking into account safety importance, understanding of ageing and cost of replacement or refurbishment,

• collecting information about ageing monitoring and mitigation,

• evaluation of ageing monitoring and mitigation of the SSCs ageing to maintain required safety, reliability and economic factors.

Temelin NPP

The Temelin NPP safety enhancement started, with the IAEA assistance, during the construction period, when replacement of I&C system and nuclear fuel was initiated. The combination of eastern and western technology was successfully completed and verified by the commissioning process. The IAEA missions have so far confirmed that most of the safety issues have been resolved and works on the few remaining issues are in an advanced stage and are not precluding safe operation of the Temelin NPP.

In 2005, demolition and cleanup work on special-purpose buildings and sites used in the course of the plant’s construction started. This work is to be completed in 2006. A protective layer of paint was applied to the outer cladding of the Unit No. 2 cooling towers. A number of measures were taken on generating equipment to upgrade them and increase the reliability and safety of individual operating components. Further, boiler Nos. 3 and 4 of the gas-fired boiler island were overhauled and upgraded to allow fully automated operation without human intervention. Unit No. 1 underwent a final inspection in late 2005 and the building permit authorities issued a positive use permit decision on 15 December 2005. Final inspection of Unit No. 2 will take place in 2006.

2.2.4. Nuclear Power Development Projections and Plans

The current State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic does not exclude the construction of new nuclear units in addition to the Temelin NPP, if they are needed. Future development of nuclear power and need of new nuclear power sources are considered in State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic in detail.

2.2.5. Decommissioning Information and Plans

According to the Atomic Act (at present, the Act No. 18/1997 Coll. has been amended with Act No. 13/2002 Coll. and Act No. 310/2002 Coll.), the CEZ, a.s. should, under the state control, prepare both financial and technical means for decommissioning of its nuclear facilities and it should provide payments to the Czech National Bank (the State Bank of the Czech Republic) to accumulate means necessary for a preparation and construction of a spent fuel repository.

Czech parliament has enacted a Atomic Act (“Act”), which defines certain obligations for the decontamination and dismantling (“decommissioning”) of a nuclear facilities and the disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel. The Act requires that all nuclear parts of plant and equipment be decommissioned following the end of the plant’s operating life, currently 2027 for the Dukovany NPP and approximately 2042 for the Temelin NPP. An updated 2003 Dukovany estimate and a 2004 Temelin decommissioning cost study estimate that nuclear decommissioning will cost CZK 15.6 billion and CZK 13.7 billion, respectively. The CEZ, a.s. makes contributions to a restricted bank account in the amount of the nuclear provisions recorded under the Act.

The CEZ, a.s. has recognized provisions for its obligations to decommission its nuclear power plants at the end of their operating lives, to store the related spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste initially on an interim basis and provision for its obligation to provide financing for subsequent permanent storage of spent fuel and irradiated parts of reactors.

The provisions recognized represent the best estimate of the expenditures required to settle the present obligation at the current balance sheet date. Such cost estimates, expressed at current price levels at the date of the estimate, are discounted using a long-term real rate of interest of 2.5% per annum to take into account the timing of payments. The initial discounted cost amounts are capitalized as part of property, plant and equipment and are depreciated over the lives of the nuclear plants. Each year, the provisions are increased to reflect the accretion of discount and to accrue an estimate for the effects of inflation, with the charges being recognized as a component of interest expense. The estimate for the effect of inflation is approximately 4.5% and 2.0% in 2005 and 2006 and the following years, respectively.

The decommissioning process is expected to continue for approximately a sixty-year period subsequent to the final operation of the plants. It is currently anticipated that the permanent storage facility will become available in 2065 and the process of final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel will then continue until approximately 2075 when the process should be finished. While the CEZ, a.s. has made its best estimate in establishing its nuclear provisions, because of potential changes in technology as well as safety and environmental requirements, plus the actual time scale to complete decommissioning and fuel storage activities, the ultimate provision requirements could vary significantly from the CEZ, a.s. current estimates.

2.3.  Supply of NPPs

Most of the equipment and all construction parts of both NPPs were produced inside of the country or in Slovakia (second part of former Czechoslovakia). Fuel, I&C system and main circulation pumps are main exceptions. The original design of both NPPs is Russian but during construction of the Temelin NPP it was substantially changed (I&C system, fuel). Also at the Dukovany NPP a substantial improvement has been done. A standard Western practice was used to combine Eastern and Western technologies for the Temelin NPP. The Temelin NPP will achieve a safety level that is comparable to that of operating Western NPPs.

The CEZ, a.s., built up the Temelin NPP in the co-operation with the many Czech and foreign contractors. The main Czech contractors are: Škoda Praha, a.s., Energoprojekt Praha, a.s., Škoda Jaderné strojírenství, a.s., Škoda Energo, a.s., Vítkovice, a.s., První brněnská ABB, a.s., Sigma, a.s., ZVVZ Milevsko, a.s., EZ Praha, a.s., Královopolská strojírna, a.s., Vodní stavby Bohemia, a.s., Modřanská potrubní, a.s., Orgrez SC (OSC), a.s., Regula Praha, a.s. The most important foreign suppliers are: Hungary (GANZ Budapest), Austria (PKE Philips, Nalco Chemical, ELIN), France (Alcatel Cable Lyon, SGN, Fragema), Italy (Ansaldo), Germany (AEG AG, Sempel), Switzerland (ABB, Cerberus, Sulzer), Great Britain (Cadcentre Ltd.), USA (Westinghouse, Data Systems a Solutions, Sorrento Electronics).

The Czech industry is capable to produce almost all of the main components of WWER design, including RPV’s, primary piping, steam generators. pumps, etc.

The first research reactor was delivered to UJV Rez, a.s. from former Soviet Union but after two reconstructions it is almost entirely produced in the Czech Republic (the fuel is again an exception). The two other small research reactors were designed in the country using some parts and experience of Russian technology.

2.4.  Operation of NPPs

The CEZ, a.s., owns and operates both Dukovany and Temelin NPPs and ensures its personnel training. Maintenance services are supplied both by the CEZ, a.s. itself and by many other Czech companies from which the most important are listed in Appendix.

The state supervision and licensing activities are carried out by the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB) based on the Act No. 18/1997 Coll. (Atomic Act) on Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Ionizing Radiation amended with Act No. 13/2002 Coll. and Act No. 310/2002 Coll.

2.5.  Fuel Cycle and Waste Management

Nuclear fuel is supplied to the Dukovany NPP under a long-term contract with Russia-based TVEL OAO, which not only fabricates the fuel itself, but also provides conversion and enrichment services. In 2005, reactors were loaded with fuel of optimized construction containing a burn-up absorber and with a lower degree of enrichment – this next-generation fuel is making it possible for the Dukovany NPP to gradually transition to a five-year fuel cycle, resulting in substantial cost savings.

Nuclear fuel for the Temelin NPP is fabricated and supplied by Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (USA) under an agreement that expires in 2010. To ensure fabrication of fuel after that date, a tender was held in which the bidders were Westinghouse Electric Company LLC and TVEL OAO. A contract is to be signed with the tender winner during 2006. Fuel conversion and enrichment services for the Temelin NPP are sourced in the world market in accordance with the policy of diversification and to assure maximum reliability of supply.

CEZ, a. s. purchases uranium mostly from the domestic supplier Diamo, s.p. but since uranium mining in the Czech Republic is being phased out, these supplies are no longer sufficient to meet the needs of CEZ, a.s. NPPs. For this reason, additional uranium is being sourced in the world market under medium-term contracts. There are no other uranium processing plants in the Czech Republic.

The fuel for the Czech research reactors, including the uranium, comes from the Russian Federation.

The storage of spent fuel is ensured by its originators, i.e. CEZ, a.s. with regard of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants, and UJV-Rez, a.s. with regard of spent fuel from the research reactors. The spent fuel storage capacity in the reactor pools is sufficient for 6 years of operation of each nuclear power plant unit.

At the Dukovany NPP, an interim dry cask-type (CASTOR) spent fuel storage facility with capacity of 600 tonnes of uranium was put in operation, in 1995. When the last CASTOR cask was delivered in early 2006, the existing storage facility has reached its full design capacity of 60 CASTOR casks. In 2005 a new spent fuel storage facility was under construction. The new facility’s capacity of 133 CASTOR casks is amply sufficient to cover the entire period the Dukovany NPP is planned to be in operation. The facility will be opened in 2006.

In 2005, in the case of the Temelin NPP, documentation was drawn up for zoning proceedings and for the facility location permit, as well as the information memorandum for a public tender to find a supplier of casks and an Environmental Impact Assessment of the project in which Austrian and German representatives participated. Both the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic and the European Union issued consenting opinions on the proposed project. The SÚJB, as the administrative authority with jurisdiction over the matter, issued a nuclear facility location permit. At the Skalka site, activities necessary for the possible renewal of preparations for a facility to store spent fuel from the Temelin NPP, as an alternative solution, are ongoing.

High-level waste and spent nuclear fuel classed as waste are unsuitable for disposal in existing repositories. The construction of a deep geological repository is proposed in the “Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management in the Czech Republic”, prepared by RAWRA (the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority) in co-operation with a number of other organizations. The Concept was completed by the Ministry of Industry and Trade for government discussion and approved by government of the Czech Republic in May 2002. Based on a preliminary timetable, approval for the final disposal facility site is expected in 2015, construction start of the repository approximately in 2030. The commissioning of the repository is scheduled for roughly 2065.

The issue of reprocessing spent fuel remains open. The decision whether spent fuel is to be reprocessed is, in principle, left to its owner. At present, the CEZ, a.s. does not consider the reprocessing as economical. Due to the fact that the preparation of a final repository of radioactive waste is the responsibility of the state, the procedure of both the CEZ, a.s. and the state, regarding the reprocessing issue must be co-ordinated in the long-term. A decision to reprocess or directly dispose spent fuel (after its conditioning) as a waste is suspended for the time of its storage in the interim storage facility, envisaged for the time of 40 to 50 years.

In UJV Rez, a.s. a new spent fuel interim storage facility was put into operation in 1996, with sufficient capacity for the entire life of the operating research reactors.

A shallow land repository of radioactive waste is operated by CEZ a.s. within the Dukovany NPP complex. It is designed to accommodate all future low and intermediate radioactive waste from both the Dukovany and Temelin NPPs.

A repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste is located in abandoned mine “Richard” near Litomerice on the north of the Czech Republic and was put in operation in 1964. Another repository “Bratrství” for the similar type of radioactive waste is located near Jáchymov on the west of the Czech Republic and is in operation from 1974. Repository “Hostim” near Beroun was closed in 1997 and now is monitored by RAWRA.

More detail information is possible to find in “Country Nuclear Fuel Cycle Profiles”, Technical Reports Series No. 425.

2.6.  Research and Development

2.6.1.  R&D Organizations and Institutes

The responsibility for the research state policy in the area of nuclear energy is divided between the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic and the State Office for Nuclear Safety.

Most activities in the area of nuclear energy research and development are carried out by UJV Rez, a.s., (the Nuclear Research Institute Rez) founded in 1955 and the Czech Technical University in Prague. The Nuclear Fuel Institute owned by Skoda a.s. performs specialized research of fuel element cladding. Several institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences and other universities such as West Bohemia University in Plzen are marginally included in the nuclear power research.

At present, three research nuclear reactors are operated in the Czech Republic. Two experimental reactors are located in vicinity of Prague at UJV Rez, a.s. – LVR-15 and LR-0 (now in reconstruction) – and one training reactor VR-1 is operated by the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering in Prague.

2.6.2. Development of advanced and new generation nuclear reactor systems

Czech organisations (and especially UJV Rez, a.s.) are already engaged in some topics related to the „Development of Advanced and New Generation Reactor Systems”. Czech research institutions and universities are also involved in the activities covered by the EU Framework Programmes (FP) addressing severe accidents, plant life management and other topics significant for current and advanced reactors (including molten salts reactors).

The majority of 5th FP projects were concluded in 2005, UJV Rez. a.s. participated in 45 of them and 2 of them coordinated. At present, UJV Rez, a.s. participates in 16 projects of the EURATOM 6th Framework Programme. In addition, UJV Rez, a.s. participates in proposals of 15 other projects which are submitted and are in evaluating process.

UJV Rez, a.s. is a member of European networks for High Temperature Reactors (HTR-TN)  and Associations for Nuclear Education (ENEN) and Nuclear Fusion (EFDA). The project „Very High Temperature Reactor“ is one of the contracted projects within the 6th FP – EURATOM. UJV Rez, a.s. also participates in the R&D on fusion reactor in the frame of EFDA project.

The Czech Republic makes every effort to get involved in Generation IV programme being aware of its importance. UJV Rez, a.s. is involved in the international projects and international co-operation, launched new projects of the EU 6th Framework Programme on nuclear safety of NPPs in operation along with projects on development of Generation IV reactors, on nuclear fuel cycle and deep geological repository related issues. In “Molten Salt Reactor” programme (one of Generation IV types) UJV Rez, a.s. stands for EURATOM in the GIF Steering Committee on this reactor development and is responsible for coordination of the 6th Framework Programme project COVERS – WWER Reactor Safety – a joint effort of 26 organisations from the EU member and candidate countries, Ukraine and Russia.

In 2005, UJV Rez, a.s. continued in realisation of the experimental zero-power reactor SR-0 (reconstruction of the existing LR-0 reactor) fuelled and cooled by molten fluorides (transmuting reactor systems with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides). The EROS project (Experimental zeRO power reactor SR-0 with salt fuel) is an important step in the development of a new reactor concept, which should allow to reduce the amount and dangerousness of radioactive waste.

In 2005, active participation of UJV Rez, a.s. in the extra budgetary IAEA’s programme on Safety aspects of long term operation of PWRs (SALTO) and in the programme INPRO for innovative reactors also continued.

2.7.  International Co-operation and Initiatives

The Czech Republic has had very active international co-operation with a number of foreign nuclear – oriented organizations and is a member of a number of international nuclear organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) as well as other bilateral and multilateral organizations such as the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). It takes part in international research activities organized by international organizations like NEA, ISOE, INEX, IRS and programmes of CERN, Dubna, etc.

In the field of international co-operation, the SÚJB focused its activity in the year 2005 on the fulfilment of the commitments resulting for the Czech Republic from the international conventions, on the maintenance and development of relations with the partner organizations and, last but not least, on the coordination of the international technical co-operation both on bilateral and on multilateral level. The SÚJB, within the sphere of its authority, also supported the Czech participation in the activities within the European Union.

One of the long-term priorities of the SÚJB is the co-operation with the neighbouring countries, i.e. Germany (annual meeting on surveillance and legislative framework in Prague in 2005, calculations of possible consequences of potentially simulated serious accident at Temelin NPP for the German territory, expert seminar focused on the monitoring and assessment of operational safety and, specifically, the safety indicators and the assessment of operational experience organized by the German side at Philipsburg NPP in 2005), Austria (maintenance of the expert communication on the minimum level achieved in the course of the implementation of agreements from Melk and Brussels, meeting on modifications to the Intergovernmental Agreement on Exchange of Information in the Nuclear Area, annual meeting of the representatives of the Czech Republic and Austria in 2005), Slovakia (annual meeting in Bratislava in 2005, technical visit of V1 NPP in Bohunice, where the shutdown of the first of two reactors will commence in 2007 after thirty years of operation) and Poland (the intergovernmental "Agreement on Early Notification of Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection" was prepared and signed by the Chairpersons of national regulatory authorities in the course of the General Conference of the IAEA Member States held in Vienna in 2005). Other bilateral co-operation of the SÚJB has been oriented on the EU countries (a Central European meeting of regulators of four countries - the Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary and Slovenia - in Slovakia in 2005) and the states with a significant program of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation such as USA (visit of the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of USA at the SÚJB in Prague, initiative leading towards the creation of the international safety assessment system of new projects of nuclear power plants), Ukraine (co-operation on WWER 1000 project, visit of the Ukrainian regulatory authority Chairperson to Prague in 2005, selected IAEA projects focused on the improvement of Ukrainian reactor safety within the Development Aid Program provided by the Government of the Czech Republic) and Russian Federation.

In 2005, UJV Rez, a.s. joined the programme of the IAEA, USA and Russia – Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) designed to return spent fuel and reduce the fuel enrichment in research reactors of Russian origin. In 2005 UJV Rez, a.s. signed the framework contract with the US DOE/NNSA on preparations for transporting its highly enriched fuel to the Russian Federation.

In 2005, UJV Rez, a.s., together with CEZ, a. s. and SKODA JS, a. s., continued co-operation with World Nuclear Association (WNA) and with Czech Technical University – in World Nuclear University (WNU).

Bilateral relations of UJV Rez, a.s. were based on the bilateral agreements with partner organizations: GRS (Germany), IRSN (France) etc. Co-operation agreement with GRS was signed for further five years in 2005. In 2005 the Director General of the Institute also signed the bilateral agreement with CEA (France) on co-operation in the field of nuclear energy research.

Co-operation of the Institute with U.S. governmental organizations (DOE, NRC) is carried out as a part of agreements closed by these organizations with SÚJB. Besides that, the Institute maintains the international co-operation, within specific areas, with for instance – INEEL, Sandia NL, EPRI (USA), Russian Research Centre Kurchatov GIDROPRESS (Russia), VGB (Germany), JRC Petten (Holland), Empressario Agrupados (Spain), NPPs in Russia and Ukraine.

As in the previous years, the activity of the SÚJB within the international relations focused in the year 2005 on the international organizations, particularly on the IAEA. Other significant partners are the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Committee and the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD). The fulfilment of the commitments resulting for the Czech Republic from particular international conventions is thus another important activity within the multilateral co-operation. The participation of the SÚJB experts in the work of many expert associations such as the Forum of the State Nuclear Safety Authorities of the Countries Operating WWER Type Reactors and the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) comes under the category of the SÚJB multilateral relations.

In 2005, the IAEA experts assessed the way UJV Rez, a.s. near Prague fulfilled recommendations of the inspection team, which carried out the comprehensive assessment of the safety assurance of the LVR-15 research reactor in 2003. The IAEA INSARR (Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors) experts stated in the final report that the recommendations are fulfilled altogether and recommended continuing in modifications to the research reactor controlled area regime and completing of safety assessment of the reactor loops.

The Czech Republic has been recently extending its support, which provides in a variety of ways to the IAEA Technical Co-operation Program. This corresponds both to the advanced technologies in the nuclear area and to the changes in the international position of the Czech Republic.

In addition to the mentioned extensive projects of technical co-operation, the scientific workplaces in the Czech Republic take share in 32 small research projects in the field of nuclear power, ionizing radiation applications and radioactive waste management.

The Czech Republic shares in the IAEA budget by approximately one percentage (it results from the economic maturity index). This contribution is paid from the state budget - the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Chapter. The contribution to the Technical Co-operation Fund, from which the above-mentioned activities are financed, is covered by the budget of the SÚJB. Furthermore, both institutions support the selected projects in the form of extrabudgetary contributions from the relevant chapter of the state budget. These contributions focused both in the fields considered by the Czech Republic as internationally important (e.g. terrorism-fighting) and in the improvement of nuclear safety and radiation protection in less developed states. In 2005, the coordination meeting for the assistance to Armenia (nuclear safety improvement of the Armenian NPP) was held at the IAEA Headquarters, in which the Czech Republic participated as one of the donors together with the main contributors such as the United States of America or the European Union.

In 2005, the contributions of the Czech Republic within the co-operation with IAEA were divided as follows:

In addition to regular contribution to the Technical Co-operation Fund including 5 % of contribution for the National Participation Costs, the SÚJB has proposed special contribution for the implementation of the following IAEA programs in 2006:

ˇ       IAEA Program of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT);

ˇ       IAEA Technical Co-operation Project CZR/0/005;

ˇ       Support Program for IAEA Nuclear Safety Division activities;

ˇ       Support Program for the IAEA Safeguards Activity.

Supplementary contribution (drawn from the Czech Republic Government Development Co-operation Program), approved for 2006, is used for implementation of continuing projects focused on the improvement of nuclear safety of NPPs in Armenia and in Ukraine.

UJV Rez, a.s. gradually becomes organization, which within the IAEA framework provides technical support. In 2005 the support was directed to Armenia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

The Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD) is one the international platforms, which facilitates the exchange of experiences and provides assistance in the field of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

Co-operation of the Czech Republic with the NEA/OECD started in 1992 when the UJV Rez, a.s. first joined in the Halden Reactor Project and developed significantly since 1997 when the Czech Republic was accepted into the OECD/NEA. Since then, Czech specialists take part in the Committee for Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and in all permanent Working Groups and Special Expert Groups in various specialist meetings and also in majority of the Joint Research and Database projects. Through that co-operation, the Czech Republic shares the key know-how with the most developed countries in all important areas of nuclear sector, keep the relevant national infrastructure on sufficient level, stimulate young people for work in the field and make financial expenses more effective.

The SÚJB is engaged in a number of activities carried out by this institution. The SÚJB representatives are the members of the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and three working groups working within this Committee, and the Working Group on Operating Experience (WG/OE), the Working Group on Inspection Practices (WG/IP) and on "human factor" impact assessment. The SÚJB also participates in the work of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) and its working groups.

The main target of the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) has been harmonization of nuclear safety criteria. Both working groups finished their work (WENRA Reactor Harmonization Working Group and Working Group on Waste and Decommissioning). The working groups drew up the "minimum" requirements for nuclear safety on the basis of IAEA standards and individual national standards.

The experts of the SÚJB actively participated in the work of both groups; in the case of spent fuel and radioactive waste the SÚJB expert took the chair over this group. Within the support of WENRA activity, the SÚJB held working meetings of both groups in Prague in the course of 2005.

In 2005, the twelfth meeting of the members of the Forum of the State Nuclear Safety Authorities of the Countries Operating WWER Type Reactors (WWER Forum) was held in Finland. During the meeting, the member states exchanged their information on the most important events that occurred at nuclear facilities and operating experiences. In 2005, a new working group dealing with the problems related to probabilistic assessment of digital I&C systems of technological processes held its first meeting in the Czech Republic.

The SÚJB is a founding member of the Network of Regulators of Countries with Small Nuclear Programs (NERS), whose members are also the regulators of Argentine, Belgium, Finland, South Africa, Hungary, Netherlands, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Pakistan. The subjects from a wide range of utilization of nuclear energy, and in particular the NPP safety, are discussed at the annual meetings of the member states.

In 2005, the Third Review Meeting of the Convention of Nuclear Safety was held. The conference delegates assessed the high level of co-operation in emergency preparedness and information sharing between the Czech Republic and Germany and Austria. Also the implementation of regulations and procedures for managing emergency situations at both nuclear power plants was assessed as very good.

In 2005, the SÚJB coordinated preparation of the National Report for the needs of the Second Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Joint Convention held in 2006. The Report approved by the Government was submitted to the Convention Secretariat (IAEA), which made it available to other contracting parties for objections.

The SÚJB is the director and coordinator for the representation of the Czech Republic in the EU Council Working Party on Atomic Question (AQG) and the co-director and co-coordinator for the Working Party on Dual-use goods. In 2005, a total of 17 meetings of the AQG were held. The main documents and discussed subjects were in particular:

In 2005, the SÚJB took part in the system of transfer of data on radiation situation in case of occurrence of radiation accident or nuclear emergency - ECURIE and participated in the CME/CMX 2005 exercise to verify the emergency preparedness.

The Czech Republic has been a member of the 5th Framework Programme of the EU. In 2002, strengthening of a scientific and research co-operation with the EU countries was realized through participation in the EU 5th Framework Programme, covering research and technological development and was significant feature of the international co-operation. The UJV Řež, a.s. took part in 45 projects, especially in “Nuclear Fission” EURATOM key activity, which implementation well progressed in 2002. The UJV Rez, a.s. has been intensively preparing for the EU 6th Framework Programme and submitted proposals for participation in various Integrated Projects (IP) or Network of Excellence (NoE) in nuclear and other areas (aircrafts). The co-operation with the leading European nuclear research centers reached a new, qualitatively and quantitatively higher level recognizing the UJV Rez, a.s. as the competent partner. In 2005 significant strengthening of the scientific and research cooperation with European countries continued through the Czech Republic participation in the EU 6th Framework Programme (FP), covering research and technological development. UJV Rez, a.s. has also participated in the activities of the European Atomic Energy Society, which associates European leading nuclear centres.

Within the EURATOM Sixth Framework Programme, the SÚJB takes part in the EURANOS project designed for development and implementation of the means for the forecast of radionuclide propagation in the air in the case of radiation accident and for creation of recommendations for protective measures. The SÚJB is a member of the Responder Consortium and its representative is the member of the project Steering Committee.

Within the PHARE programme supported by the EU, three following projects were completed in the year 2005, where the Czech Republic has acted as the recipient:

In the course of the year 2005, last four PHARE projects were commenced in the field of nuclear safety where the Czech Republic has been the recipient:

All PHARE projects were completed in the course of the year 2006. The SÚJB takes part in planning of other projects PHARE and TACIS, where the accession countries and the states of the former Soviet Union are the recipients at the meetings held by the PTEG and RAMG Working Groups.

 

 

The Czech Republic succeeded into the Agreement between the government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) concerning a number of agreements indicated below.


AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA

bulletAgreement between the Czech Republic and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

Entry into force:

11 September

bulletAdditional Protocol 1999

Signed:
Entry into force:

28 September
1 July 2002

bullet Improved procedures for designation of safeguards inspectors

 

Accepted

bulletSupplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA

Succeeded:
(Notification of succession was received on 1 July 1998)

1 January 1993

bulletAgreement on privileges and immunities

Succeeded:

27 September 1993

OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL TREATIES etc

bulletNuclear Proliferation Treaty

Succeeded:

1 January 1993

bulletEURATOM

Non-member

 

bulletTreaty for prohibition of nuclear and other mass-destruction weapons located on sea and ocean bottoms and underground

 

 

bulletConvention on physical protection of nuclear material

Entry into force:

1 January 1993

bulletConvention on early notification of a nuclear accident

Entry into force:

1 January 1993

bulletConvention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency

Entry into force:

1 January 1993

bulletVienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

Entry into force:

24 June 1994

bulletJoint protocol

Entry into force:

24 June 1994

bulletProtocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

Signature:

18 June 1998

bulletConvention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

Signature:

18 June 1998

bulletConvention on nuclear safety

Entry into force:

24 October 1996

bulletJoint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management

Entry into force:

18 June 2001

bulletComprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

Entry into force:
Signature:
Ratification:

not yet
12 November 1996
11 September 1997

bulletZANGGER Committee

Member

 

bulletNuclear export guidelines

Adopted by former CSFR

 

bulletAcceptance of NUSS codes

Accepted by former CSFR

 

bulletNuclear Suppliers Group

Member

 

 

BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

 

2.8.  Human Resources Development

In the Czech Republic the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is the central authority in education responsible for overall strategy, educational policy, upper secondary and special schools, distribution of the financial resources from the State budget and introduction of the general scientific research and development policy.

The government of the Czech Republic approved “The National Programme of Development of Education” (Gov. resolution No. 113 of 2001-02-07), published under the title “The White Book”. The programme is a part of the strategy of further social and economic development of the Czech Republic, which highlights the education and human resource development as one of the governmental priorities. The White Book provides basic guidelines for the development of the whole education system in the mid-term time horizon of 2005, with some parts up to the year 2010.

In 2004, the government of the Czech Republic approved “National Research and Development Policy of the Czech Republic for 2004-2008” (Gov. resolution No. 5 of 2004-01-07). The Policy formulates the relation of the Czech Republic to research and development (R&D) in the middle term perspective (2004-2008). The policy implies the principles of the Government towards the area of R&D, from which the state administration starts at implementation of measures concerning this area.

The Czech Republic, a country with developed nuclear energy, dedicates systematic care to educating and training human resources and specialists to ensure provision of reliable operation and manufacturing of various nuclear devices, and carrying out research and developmental activities. The education sector is user of radiation sources including the school research and training reactor VR-1 at the Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering in Prague. Utilization of the existing research reactor facilities for production of radioisotopes, material testing (LVR-15), reactor physics (LR-0, now in reconstruction) and training (VR-1) is considered another mid term country priority. Reliable operation of research reactor facilities, improvement their safety and safety assessment in line with updated technologies is constantly addressed. Of great importance is also constant human resources development and training, in particular in health physics (diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy), radiation physics QA/QC (preparation of guides, protocols and procedures), isotope production and radiation accidents. Most of this programme is financed through national resources. However, the Czech Republic strongly supports a regional co-operation for education and training.

In 2005, the "national" project “Safety, Self-reliance and Sustainability of National Nuclear Institutions” was opened within the IAEA Technical Cooperation Program, which was focused on education and improvement of the age structure of various institutions in the field of non-industrial utilization of nuclear energy in the Czech Republic (in particular hospitals, schools, research, state administration). A number of fellowships were carried out within the project, which involved primarily hospital and university personnel and which could not be carried out without this support. The already commenced project for the support of the completion of new linear accelerator at the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic has been successfully finished.

One of the forms of the support from the Czech Republic side is organization of regional training courses on a regular basis particularly focused on radiation protection and physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. In 2005, more than 50 experts mainly coming from the countries of the former Soviet Union and other developing states participated in the training courses implemented in the Czech Republic under the IAEA auspices. Expert fellowships were awarded to other 11 applicants (month and more) and short scientific visits were awarded to 40 experts (1-2 weeks). The subjects related to nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and emergency planning. On the other hand, more than 53 experts from the Czech Republic actively participated in conferences, seminars and gave lectures at training courses organized by the IAEA. Almost 70 experts were invited to the IAEA technical meetings for preparation of documentation, opinions or preparation of new IAEA standards.

In 2005, similarly as in the preceding years, UJV Rez, a.s. received a number of trainees from developing countries for fellowships, scientific visits and training courses. Participation of the Institute experts in a number of the IAEA Advisory Groups, Technical Committees and Working Groups and also in international conferences and symposia has been an important element of international relations.

3.  NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS

3.1.  Safety Authority and the Licensing Process

The State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB), as Czech Republic’s national regulatory authority in nuclear safety and radiation protection field was established as of 1st January 1993 by the Act No. 21/1992 Coll. It is a follow-up organization of the former Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. The SÚJB is carrying out state supervision and licensing activities. The legal framework of the SÚJB is given by Act No. 18/1997 Coll., on the Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Ionizing Radiation (Atomic Act). The other legal documents specifying powers of the SÚJB are listed in the paragraph Main National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power.

The SÚJB is an independent central body of the state administration with its own budget. It is headed by a Chairman appointed by the Czech Government (as a body) and the Chairman can, on request, be present at the government meeting. Regulatory decisions of the SÚJB (except of fines) cannot be changed by any other governmental body. Deputy Chairmen, Directors of Departments and Heads of Divisions are appointed by the Chairman of the SÚJB.

The Chairman acts at the same time as the Nuclear Safety Inspector General. He appoints the SÚJB nuclear safety and radiation protection inspectors. The inspectors’ authorities, to perform their function, are stipulated in the provisions of Act No. 18/1997 Coll.

The SÚJB has about 200 employees and two institutes are subordinated financially and as a technical support – National Radiation Protection Institute (SÚRO) and National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection (SÚJCHBO). The organizational chart of the SÚJB is presented in Figure 2.

The SÚJB conducts its licensing activities pursuant to Act No. 18/1997 Coll., such as locating and operating nuclear facilities and premises using major sources of ionizing radiation, handling ionizing radiation sources and radioactive waste, shipping nuclear materials and radionuclide radiation sources.

3.2.  Main National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power

The Czech Republic’s legislative framework is based particularly on the Atomic Act. At present, the Czech legislation in the sphere of nuclear energy, nuclear safety and ionizing radiation consists mainly of the following national laws and appropriate decrees of the SÚJB and the Government of the Czech Republic:

4.  CURRENT ISSUES AND DEVELOPMENTS ON NUCLEAR POWER

4.1.  Energy Policy

Both Czech nuclear power plants, i.e. the Dukovany and Temelin NPPs, are built, operated and owned by the CEZ, a.s. The nuclear research reactors at Rez are operated and owned by the Nuclear Research Institute (UJV Rez, a.s.). The university nuclear research reactor VR-1, in Prague, is operated and owned by Czech Technical University (CVUT), Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering.

Investment projects of CEZ, a.s. are based on its business plan and they are financed from CEZ, a.s., own resources.

Nuclear safety and radiation protection in the Czech Republic are supervised by the national regulatory authority - the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB) established on 1st January 1993 as a follow-up organization of the former Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. The responsibilities of the SÚJB concerning nuclear safety, the licensing of nuclear facilities, including fuel and waste treatment facilities, and nuclear safeguards are given by the Act No. 18/1997 Coll.

An environmental impact assessment of a nuclear installation project, as well as, of another civil construction including other significant sources of ionizing radiation, is determined, especially, in the following three laws:

ˇ         The Act No. 50/1976 Coll. (the Civil Construction Act) determines procedures of the Civil Construction Office - an administrative body making decisions in regard to the siting, construction and operation. Licence concerning nuclear installation needs approval of the SÚJB. The Act was amended and changes were included in the Act No. 59/2001 Coll. Now, both of the Acts are replaced with the Act No. 183/2006 Coll. (new Civil Construction Act);

ˇ         The Act No. 244/1992 Coll.  (Environmental Impact Assessment, EIA) determines that, prior to an administrative decision, the environmental control bodies, including the Ministry for the Environment, issue an official attitude to the environmental impact assessment (even if the attitude is not binding for the final decision of an administrative body).  Within the EIA process, a public hearing is required. A formally established group of citizens may become a participant of the procedure according, also, to the above-mentioned Act. The Act was amended with the Act No. 100/2001 Coll. and the changes entered into force in 2002. Now, the Act No. 244/1992 Coll. is cancelled and the Act No. 100/2001 Coll. has been amended with the Act No. 93/2004 Coll.;

ˇ         The Act No. 18/1997 Coll. (at present, the Atomic Act has been amended with Act No. 13/2002 Coll. and Act No. 310/2002 Coll. for the purpose of harmonization with the EU legislation), concerning the state supervision on the nuclear safety, together with associated regulations, determines, apart from others, procedures of the SÚJB when issuing the approval according to the Civil Construction Act. Prior to an issue of the approval, the SÚJB considers safety analysis including a proof that the construction impact on the population and environment will not exceed limits determined by this Office;

The State Energy Policy (see 1.2. Energy Policy) is a basic document indicating the targets in the area of energy management according to the needs of economic and social development, including environmental protection. The long-term strategic targets of energy policy include a gradual reduction of the volumes of energy and raw materials needed by the Czech economy to meet the level of advanced industrial countries. The State Energy Policy’s vision specifies the state’s priorities and determines the objectives that the state wants to achieve in influencing the development of energy sector in the horizon of the next 30 years in the conditions of a market—oriented economy.

The State Energy Policy has been updated based on: analyses of the previous development and the current situation of the Czech Republic; an evaluation of the fulfilment of the targets of the 2000 energy policy; a view to foreign experience; European Union procedures and standards; obligations of the Czech Republic resulting from international treaties in the sphere of energy sector and environmental protection; and after the development and evaluation of a set of energy scenarios of possible future developments until 2030. The Policy specifies a more comprehensive set of priorities and long—term goals that the Czech Republic will observe in the energy sector as part of sustainable development. For their fulfilment suitable and efficient measures will be used.

The fulfilment of priorities and objectives of the State Energy Policy will be evaluated by the Ministry of Industry and Trade at three—year intervals. The Ministry will inform the Government of the results of these evaluations and submit proposals for changes to the State Energy Policy if necessary. The main and basic priorities of the current State Energy Policy in the Czech Republic are:

ˇ         Independence

o        from foreign energy sources;

o        from energy sources from risky regions;

o        from reliability of supplies from foreign sources;

ˇ         Safety

o        of energy sources including nuclear safety;

o        reliability of supplies of all kinds of energy;

o        reasonable decentralisation of all energy systems;

ˇ         Sustainable development

o        environmental protection;

o        economic and social development.

The main goals of the State Energy Policy are:

ˇ         maximising energy efficiency

ˇ         ensuring the effective amount and structure of primary energy sources consumption

ˇ         maximising environmental friendliness

ˇ         completing the transformation and liberalisation of energy sector

From 2002 the largest customers of energy, accounting for roughly two-thirds of total consumption, have a free choice of the electricity supplier and by the end of year 2006, the schedule will eventually cover all energy customers.

The energy policy includes the renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass etc.), however, with limited possibilities: small hydro power stations for local use, wind power stations where wind exceeds 5 m per second on average, limited scale of solar systems, some geothermal using heat pumps. The renewable sources shall contribute to the total consumption of primary energy sources.

The State Programme to Support Energy Savings and Use of Renewable Sources of Energy is a one year programme set up by the Ministry of Industry and Trade which has been announced each year since 1991. It includes energy saving measures in the sphere of production, distribution and consumption of energy, wider use of renewable and secondary sources of energy and development of co-generation of heat and power, counselling, implementation of new low energy consuming technologies, education, public education and promotion leading to more economic use of energy. To carry out the State Programme, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Czech Energy Agency (CEA) in 1995.

The CEA is a publicly funded organisation carrying out the work of the former Energy Agency. The CEA main mission is to encourage and carry out activities aimed at energy savings and mitigate negative environmental impacts caused by the consumption and conversion of all kinds of energy. The CEA is in charge of implementing the above-mentioned State Programme. The CEA implements programmes which:

ˇ         Save energy in industry, agriculture and transport

ˇ         Optimise energy supplies of residential areas

ˇ         Implement co-generation in small and medium-sized heat production sources

ˇ         Reduce energy consumption in public and residential buildings, as well as education and healthcare sector buildings

ˇ         Increase the use of renewable and alternative energy sources

4.2.  Privatisation and deregulation

The 1994 Energy Act, which previously regulated energy sector, was replaced in January 2001 by the new Energy Act – Act No. 458/2000 Coll. Now the Act is amended in the full wording of the Act No. 91/2005 Coll. The construction of new heating plants above 30 MWt capacity has to be approved by the Ministry of Industry and Trade and units below this limit by regional authorities. Criteria for approval in both cases include the use of domestic and local energy sources, energy efficiency and conditions of solvability of the investing company.

According to current legislation, there is no compulsory buy-back tariff between heat generators and heat distributors; prices are fixed by contract. As electricity sales make up an important part of the district heating revenues (up to 80%), liberalisation of the electricity market is likely to lower electricity prices and reduce the revenue of co-generation of heat and power operators. To offset this, the new Energy Act includes an obligation of purchase to transmission and distribution networks for the electricity generated by co-generation of heat and power. However, the buy-back tariff is not set by the new Energy Act so co-generators and buyers (distribution company or national grid) will have to negotiate the prices. Along the same lines, the new Energy Act also contains an obligation of purchase for heat generated from co-generation of heat and power, industrial process, renewable energy and environmentally clean incineration. However, there are exemptions from the obligation where the end-consumer will not accept a higher tariff or for non-compliance with technical parameters.

Development of business environment in the power sector is following. The process of liberalizing the electric power sector began in January 2002 and, as of 1 January 2006, the electricity market is fully open. In 2005, the market was opened to all participants except households.

As required by law, activities that represent a natural monopoly are separate – in CEZ Group, distribution operations have been spun off to a separate company, CEZ Distribuce, a.s., and transmission operations are the domain of an independent, separate, state-controlled company, CEPS, a.s. Electricity producers, including CEZ, a.s., have been subject to full competition ever since the beginning of 2002.

The bulk of electricity trading takes place under bilateral contracts. EMO evaluates, offsets, and settles deviations between actual and contracted - for values of electricity purchase and supply. Since 2002, the Czech Republic’s system of electricity trading has been expanded to include a commodities exchange and, since 2004, there is also the option of utilizing the Intra-day Market and the Balancing Market for regulation work.

The Ministry of Finance regulates the household tariff for each network on a cost-plus fees analysis method. As 50% of households have individual meters and flow regulation, household tariffs for the remaining consumers do not reflect actual consumption of heat but are based on the size of the apartment and/or the number of persons per apartment. This tariff structure appears complicated and inaccurate in evaluating effective heat consumption and providing effective energy-saving incentives. With the Energy Act which came in force in January 2001, the ERO is in charge of pricing and licensing.

4.3.  Role of the government in the nuclear R& D

The Research and Development Council, pursuant to the provisions of Act No. 130/2002 Coll., on State-Funded Research and Development Support and on the Amendment of Some Related Acts, such as the Act on the Support of Research and Development, is a professional and advisory body of the Government of the Czech Republic in the area of research and development (R&D) and fulfils the tasks following from this act, in particular:

As of February 2006 the Act has been amended and changes are included in six other Acts.

The ”National Research and Development Policy of the Czech Republic" was approved by the Government of the Czech Republic in January 2000. This document was formulated by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport and the Research and Development Council of the Czech Republic in co-operation with representatives of the state administrative bodies, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, Council of Czech Universities, Czech Rectors´ Conference, Association of Research Organisations and Confederation of Industry of the Czech Republic. This National Policy should be compatible with the respective policies of developed countries and should include primarily the following:

In January 2004 the Government of the Czech Republic approved new ”National Research and Development Policy of the Czech Republic” for years 2004-2008 in its Resolution No. 5/2004. The proposal of the Policy was formulated by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport and the Research and Development Council of the Czech Republic.

4.4.  Nuclear Energy and Climate Change

Utilization of nuclear energy is playing very significant role in electricity production and reduction of emissions in the Czech Republic. If the total electricity output of the Dukovany and Temelin NPPs was replaced by the same output of traditional coal-fired power plants, then the volume of carbon dioxide emissions would increase by 17% in the Czech Republic. Coal-fired power plants planned to remain in use for a lon-term were desulphurized and denitrified before the end of 1998. The purpose is to change future approaches to the environmental issues to support further minimisation of the impacts of the energy sector on the environment.

The Czech Republic acceded to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) in 1993 on the basis of the Government of the Czech Republic Resolution No. 323/1993. In 1998, the Czech Republic signed the Kyoto Protocol. During the 2008-2012 commitment period, the country is committed to reducing total emissions by 8% compared to the 1990 level. At present, total GHG (greenhouse gases) from fuel combustion are 20% below the 1990 baseline.

In June 2002, the Act No. 86/2002 Coll. (Clean Air Act) came into force and replaced the Act No. 309/1991 Coll. The main reason for restructuring the current air protection legislation in the Czech Republic lies in harmonisation and transposition of the relevant legislation of the European Union in relation to the preparation for accession of the country to the European Union. The Act is comprehensive and includes protection against pollutants, protection of the ozone layer and of the climate system of the earth in the sense of the UN FCCC and of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Air Act also provides legislative basis for the National Programme to Mitigate Changes in the Climate of the Earth, approved by the government of the Czech Republic. The Act sets up reduction targets for substances influencing the climate system and deadlines for achieving them.

In 2005, the new Act No. 472/2005 Coll, a consolidated version of Act No. 86/2002 Coll. (Clean Air Act) was issued – the Clean Air Act stipulates conditions for air protection related to the operation of fossil power plants.

CEZ, a.s. in accordance with the Provision of the Government of the Czech Republic No. 406/2004 Coll. began preparation for technical measures leading to increased plant operational safety, especially by reducing dust levels.

Modifications were made to selected coal power plants to enable them to fire an increased proportion of biomass in mixture with coal in fluidized-bed and fire-grate boilers. A number of technical and biological reclamation projects have been implemented at coal power stations to reclaim energy generation by-product landfills and revitalize the countryside. Starting in 2005, emissions measurement technology is being upgraded in all conventional power plants and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions measurement got underway. This will ensure that pollutants emitted into air will continue to be measured accurately in the future.

As for air protection, CEZ, a.s. has continuously complied with the requirements of the Clean Air Act since it was originally passed in 1991. As of 2002, CEZ, a.s. also complies with requirements given by the process of harmonization with applicable European Union regulations. The amount of emissions from CEZ, a.s. coal power plants and air pollution in their surroundings are continually monitored. Measurements and results of emissions, ground-level concentrations, and the proportion of air pollution attributable to coal power plants are available through CEZ, a.s. websites. In conjunction with a directive of the European Parliament and Council stipulating a scheme for trading in greenhouse gas emission permits, monitoring of emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide) began in the first trading period, i.e. 2005–2007.

4.5.  Safety and waste management issues

In the Czech Republic all uranium-related activities are carried out by the state-owned company Diamo s.p. The uranium produced is used entirely for fuelling operating nuclear units. The Czech Republic has no domestic industry for producing nuclear fuel or providing other fuel-cycle services such as conversion and enrichment, and there are restrictions on uranium imports. The fuel for the Dukovany NPP is imported from Russia where it is manufactured with Czech uranium. CEZ, a.s. has signed a contract with Westinghouse to buy five years’ worth of fuel from its U.S. plants to supply the Temelin NPP.

In conjunction with the reduction of uranium production, a major programme of of Diamo s.p. focuses on the decommissioning and restoration of closed mining and milling sites. It aims to mitigate the heavy damage done to the environment by past uranium production activities. The programme covers some 20 sites and is expected to last until 2040.

The construction of a deep geological repository for high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel is proposed in the “Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management in the Czech Republic”, prepared by RAWRA (the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority) in co-operation with a number of other organizations and the Ministry of Industry and Trade:

4.6.  Other issues

The Government of the Czech Republic considers nuclear power as an important component of the energy balance in the country. It intends to follow the strategic documents of the European Union, the Green Paper – “Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply” and the Accession Partnership Agreement of the European Union. In doing so, the Czech Republic will comply with the relevant international agreements in the nuclear energy field, including the Nuclear Safety Convention. It recognizes the necessity of continuous upgrading and modernization of the nuclear power sector in the country, as well as strengthening the national safety authority.

Nuclear power will remain one of the important main sources of electric energy in the Czech Republic for the foreseeable future. Czech Power Company (CEZ, a.s.) will therefore continue to focus on operational reliability and safety issues of operating units in full compliance with international safety standards and practices. This national programme will be designed, financed and implemented entirely by CEZ, a.s.

Participation of the Czech Republic in the IAEA TC regional programme is very important. High-level of plant performance and nuclear safety, sound management practices and appropriate level of maintenance resources and R&D require continued focus and exchange of experience in order to continuously and sustainably comply with international best practices and standards. To this end, the Czech Republic considers regional activities as highly beneficial and a very high priority and shall continue its active involvement in NPP-related regional activities of Europe Section. Issues of particular interest include:

Mechanisms of the IAEA safety review missions has been used as a tool of independent international verification in this area. In comparison with last 10 years, it is expected that the high frequency of the IAEA missions will be substantially lower.

The main inspection activities of the SÚJB in 2005 were following:

ˇ         a total of 179 inspections closed up with reports were carried out at Dukovany NPP;

ˇ         a total of 84 inspections closed up with reports were carried out at Temelín NPP, which corresponds to supervising of the half number of units against Dukovany NPP;

The inspections are carried out as planned inspections on the basis of approved half-year plans of inspection activities, further as ad-hoc inspections on the basis of needs and findings incurred during surveillance activity, and as routine inspections carried out by site inspectors.

ˇ         the SÚJB carried out 10 inspections on the LVR-15 reactor, four IAEA inspections of nuclear materials and the IAEA INSARR (Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors) mission was performed aimed at fulfilling of requirements and recommendations of the INSARR mission held in 2003. The SÚJB carried out 4 inspections on the LR-0 reactor, and IAEA together with the SÚJB performed one joint inspection of nuclear materials. There were 5 inspections carried out by the SÚJB on the VR-1 reactor, of which one was performed in the presence of IAEA and EURATOM. Two inspections were carried out by the SÚJB and IAEA before shipment and after arrival of new fuel.

REFERENCES

[1]

IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB)

[2]

IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)

[3]

Czech Statistical Office

[4]

Ministry of Industry and Trade

[5]

OECD/IEA

 

Appendix 1

INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA

bulletNuclear Proliferation Treaty related safeguards agreement INFCIRC Nº 541

Entry into force:

11 September 1997

bulletAdditional Protocol

Entry into force:

1 July 2002

bulletImproved procedures for designation of safeguards inspectors

Accepted

 

bulletSupplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA

Succeeded:
(Notification of succession was received on 1 July 1998)

1 January 1993

bulletAgreement on privileges and immunities

Succeeded:

27 September 1993

OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL TREATIES etc.

bulletNuclear Proliferation Treaty

Succeeded:

1 January 1993

bulletEURATOM

Member

1 May 2004

bulletTreaty for prohibition of nuclear and other mass-destruction weapons located on sea and ocean bottoms and underground

 

 

bulletConvention on physical protection of nuclear material

Entry into force:

1 January 1993

bulletConvention on early notification of a nuclear accident

Entry into force:

1 January 1993

bulletConvention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency

Entry into force:

1 January 1993

bulletVienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

Entry into force:

24 June 1994

bulletJoint protocol

Entry into force:

24 June 1994

bulletProtocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

Signature:

18 June 1998

bulletConvention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

Signature:

18 June 1998

bulletConvention on nuclear safety

Entry into force:

24 October 1996

bulletJoint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management

Entry into force:

18 June 2001

bulletComprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

Entry into force:
Signature:
Ratification:

not yet
12 November 1996
11 September 1997

bulletZANGGER Committee

Member

 

bulletNuclear export guidelines

Adopted by former CSFR

 

bulletAcceptance of NUSS codes

Accepted by former CSFR

 

bulletNuclear Suppliers Group Member  
bullet Memorandum of Co-operation of the Association of the State Nuclear Safety Authorities of the Countries Operating WWER Type Reactors Signature: 21 December 1993
bulletMemorandum of Co-operation of the Forum of the State Nuclear Safety Authorities of the Countries Operating WWER Type Reactors Signature: 28 August 1998

 

BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of Austria on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CSFR and the Government of Germany on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CSFR and the Government of Hungary on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CSFR and the Government of USA on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of the Russian Federation on Co-operation in the Nuclear Energy Field

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of Canada on Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of the Slovak Republic on Co-operation in the State Regulation of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Materials

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of Ukraine on Co-operation in the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Industry

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CR, SR, RF and the Government of Ukraine on Co-operation in the Transport of Nuclear Materials between CR and Russian Federation over the territory of SR and Ukraine

ˇ         The Agreement between the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (France) and the State Office for Nuclear Safety (Czech Republic) for the Exchange of Information and Co-operation in the Regulation of Nuclear Safety

ˇ         The Agreement between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety on Application of Thermohydraulic Codes (CAMP)

ˇ         The Agreement between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety on Co-operation in the Framework of Program of Severe Accident Research

ˇ         Statement of Intent concluded between Minister of Science and Technology of the Republic of Korea on one side and Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade of the CR and the Chairman of the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the CR on the other side

ˇ         The Agreement between the Health & Safety Executive of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety on Exchange of Information

ˇ         The Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of State Supervision of Nuclear Safety and Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy between the Federal Regulatory Authority of the Russian Federation (Gosatomnadzor) and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety

ˇ         The Agreement between the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of the Federal Republic of Germany and the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic on Exchange of Information

ˇ         The Agreement between the CIEMAT (Spain) and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety on Evaluation of Computer Technology Used for Measuring and Control Systems in Nuclear Safety of Nuclear Power Plants for the Purpose of Licensing Process

ˇ         The Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration for the Exchange of Information.

ˇ         The Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the State Commission for Nuclear Supervision of Ukraine on Co-operation in the Area of State Administration and Supervision of Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Uses of Nuclear Energy

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of the SR on early notification of a nuclear accident

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the CR and the Government of Australia on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and Transfer of Nuclear Materials

ˇ         The Programme of Co-operation between the SÚJB CR and UJD SR by 2005

ˇ         The Implementing Agreement on Thermal-Hydraulic Code Applications and Maintenance between the US NRC and the SÚJB

ˇ         The Implementing Agreement between the US NRC and the CR SÚJB Relating to Participation of Severe Accident Research

ˇ         Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Safety between the SÚJB CR and the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Republic of Korea for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

ˇ         The Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Republic of Poland on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and on Exchange of Information on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection

ˇ         The Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic (SÚJB) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States of America (US NRC) for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety Matters

 

Appendix 2

DIRECTORY OF THE MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES

NATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITY

Ministry of Industry and Trade
Energy Division
Na Františku 32
110 15 Praha 1 - Staré Mesto

Tel: (+420) 224 851 111
Fax: (+420) 224 811 089
http://www.mpo.cz

State Office for Nuclear Safety
(Státní úrad pro jadernou bezpecnost - SÚJB)
Senovážné námestí 9
110 00 Praha 1
Czech Republic

Tel: (+420) 221 624 111
Fax: (+420) 221 624 704
http://www.sujb.cz

Ministry of Environment
Vršovická 65
100 10 Praha 10

Tel: (+420) 267 121 111
Fax: (+420) 267 310 308
http://www.env.cz

Czech Society for Radiation Protection
c/o State Office for Nuclear Safety

Tel: (+420) 224 172 738

Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA)
(Správa úložišt radioaktivních odpadu - SÚRAO)
Dláždená 6
110 00 Praha 1

Tel: (+420) 221 421 511
Fax: (+420) 221 421 544
http://www.surao.cz

Energy Regulatory Office (ERO)
Masarykovo nám. 5
586 01 Jihlava

Tel: (+420) 567 580 111
Fax: (+420) 567 580 640
http://www.eru.cz

Czech Energy Agency (CEA)
U Sovových mlýnu 9
118 00 Praha 1

Tel: (+420) 257 099 011
Fax: (+420) 257 530 478
http://www.ceacr.cz

POWER UTILITIES

Power Company ČEZ, a.s.

Duhová 2/1444

140 53  Praha 4

Tel: (+420) 211 041 111

Fax: (+420) 211 042 001

http://www.cez.cz/

ČEZ, a.s., Dukovany Nuclear Power Station

675 50 Dukovany

Tel: (+420) 561 101 111

Fax: (+420) 561 104 980

http://www.cez.cz/

ČEZ, a.s., Temelín Nuclear Power Station

373 05 Temelín

Tel: (+420) 381 101 111

Fax: (+420) 381 102 298

http://www.cez.cz/

ČEPS, a.s.

Elektrárenská 774/2

101 52 Praha 10

Tel. (+420) 211 044 111

Fax: (+420) 211 044 568

http://www.ceps.cz

Electricity Market Operator, a.s. (EMO)

Sokolovská 192/79

186 00 Praha 8 – Karlín

Tel: (+420) 296 579 160

Fax: (+420) 296 579 180

http://www.ote-cr.cz

NUCLEAR RESEARCH INSTITUTES

Nuclear Research Institute Řež plc (ÚJV Řež)

Husinec - Řež 130

250 68 Řež u Prahy

Tel: (+420) 266 172 000

Fax: (+420) 220 940 840

http://www.nri.cz/

National Radiation Protection Institute (SÚRO)

Šrobárova 48

100 00 Praha 10

Tel: (+420) 267 311 239

Fax: (+420) 267 311 410

http://www.suro.cz/

National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical

and Biological Protection (SÚJCHBO)

Příbram – Kamenná

262 31 Milín

Tel: (+420) 318 600 200, 318 621 187

Fax: (+420) 318 626 055

http://www.sujchbo.cz

Research Institute of Fuel and Energy Complex

VUPEK – Economy

Sokolovská 40

186 00 Praha 8 – Karlín

Tel: (+420) 222 312 797

Fax: (+420) 224 814 805

http://www.vupek.cz

Division Energoprojekt Praha

of Nuclear Research Institute Řež plc

Vyskočilova 3

140 21 Praha 4

Tel: (+420) 241 006 780

Fax: (+420) 241 006 789

http://www.egp.cz

UJP Praha, a.s.

Nad Kamínkou 1345

156 10 Praha – Zbraslav

Tel: (+420) 227 180 111, 257 920 273

Fax: (+420)227 180 390, 257 921 760

http://www.ujp.cz

Nuclear Physics Institute

Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

258 68 Řež u Prahy

Tel: (+420) 220 941 147

Fax: (+420) 220 941 130

http://www.ujf.cas.cz/

Institute of Plasma Physics

Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

Za Slovankou 3

182 00 Praha 8

Tel: (+420) 266 052 052, 286 890 450

Fax: (+420) 286 586 389

http://www.ipp.cas.cz/

MANUFACTURERS AND SERVICES

Škoda Praha, a.s.

M. Horákové 109/116

160 41 Praha 6

Tel: (+420) 224 396 111

Fax: (+420) 224 396 447

http://www.skodapraha.cz/

Škoda JS, a.s.

Orlík 266

316 06 Plzeň

Tel: (+420) 378 041 111

Fax: (+420) 377 520 600

http://www.skoda-js.cz

VA TECH EZ, a.s.

(previously EZ Praha, a.s.)

Polygon House

Doudlebská 5

140 00 Praha 4

Tel: (+420) 233 026 345

Fax: (+420) 233 026 342

http://www.ezpraha.cz/

Královopolská, a.s.

(previously Královopolská strojírna, a.s.)

Křižíkova 68

660 90 Brno

Tel: (+420) 532 041 111

Tel: (+420) 532 041 059

http://www.kralovopolska.cz/

Vodní stavby Bohemia, a.s.

(now Hochtief VSB, a.s.)

Primátorská 36/323

180 00 Praha 8 - Libeň

Tel: (+420) 283 841 851

Fax: (+420) 283 840 642

http://www.hochtief-vsb.cz/

Modřanská potrubní, a.s.

Komořanská 326/63

143 14 Praha 12 - Modřany

Tel: (+420) 296 781 111

Fax: (+420) 244 403 118

http://www.modrany.cz/

Diamo s.p.

Máchova 201

471 27 Stráž pod Ralskem

Tel: (+420) 487 851 338

Fax: (+420) 487 851 456

http://www.diamo.cz

OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR)
Národní 3
117 20 Praha 1

Tel: (+420) 221 403 111
Fax: (+420) 224 240 512
http://www.cas.cz

Czech Nuclear Forum
Hoffmanova 3
147 00 Praha 4 - Podolí

http://www.nuclear-forum.cz/

Czech Nuclear Society
(Ceská Nukleární Spolecnost)

http://www.csvts.cz/cns

Czech Society of Nuclear Medicine
(Ceská spolecnost nukleární medicíny)

http://www.csnm.cz

UNIVERSITIES

Czech Technical University in Prague
Headquarters
Zikova 4
166 36 Praha 6 - Dejvice

Tel: (+420) 224 351 111
Fax: 
http://www.cvut.cz/en

Czech Technical University in Prague
Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering
Brehová 7
115 19 Praha 1 -- Staré Mesto

Tel: (+420) 224 351 111
Fax: (+420) 222 320 861
http://www.fjfi.cvut.cz

Charles University
Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Ke Karlovu 3/5
121 16 Praha 2

Tel: (+420) 221 911 111
Fax: (+420) 221 911 292
http://www.mff.cuni.cz

West Bohemia University
Univerzitní 8
306 14 Plzen

Tel: (+420) 377 631 111
Fax: (+420) 377 631 112
http://www.zcu.cz/index-en.html
http://www.fst.zcu.cz
http://www.kke.zcu.cz

 

 


[1]The statistical tables (4,5,6) in this profile have been updated with data as of July 2009 from IAEA databases and Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB, 2009).