COUNTRY NUCLEAR POWER PROFILES
The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA’s programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States.
In 1998, the first edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles was published focusing on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. The compilation was made based on with contributions of 29 Member States with operating nuclear power plants by the end of 1995 and Italy. It is also incorporated the “Fact Sheets” on international, multilateral and bilateral agreements as collected by EXPO.
In May 1999, an Advisory Group Meeting was organized by the IAEA with the purpose of updating the information in concerning the Country Nuclear Power Profiles of each country to reflect the new approaches and conditions of the national nuclear power programmes. The impact of the open electricity market, privatization and deregulation on the nuclear sector was an important aspect recommended by the experts to be taken in consideration. It was also recommended to periodically review the status and trends of nuclear industries in IAEA Member States and exchange information among experts of the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes, with a view to update the profiles at two year intervals.
The second edition, issued on CD-ROM only, covered the changes in the new environment in the electricity and the nuclear sector, i.e.. the impact of privatization and deregulation on these sectors, be it that the situation differs from country to country. For the preparation of this second edition, the IAEA received contributions from all 30 countries with operating power plants by the end of 2000, as well as Italy, the Islamic Republic of Iran and Kazakhstan. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA.
The third edition, issued as hard copy and CD-ROM, updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2000.In addition to the established 33 nuclear countries, a few countries involved with nuclear power programme planning have submitted country profiles (Turkey and Vietnam) or provided relevant information presented in Annexes (Bangladesh and Indonesia).
It is noted that there also exist other less formal profiles on specific subjects of nuclear power in the Agency, e.g.Safety Profiles (NS Safety Co-ordination), Waste Management Profiles (NEFW), Fuel Cycle Profiles (NEFW).
The IAEA is grateful to M. J.Crijns and R.George for the preparation of this publication. The IAEA officer responsible for the overall co-ordination and preparation was R. Spiegelberg-Planer of the Nuclear Power Engineering Section, Division of Nuclear Power.
In 2000,nuclear power provides about 17% of the world’s electricity, with 438 units operating in 30 countries. As part of its programmes in the field of nuclear power, the IAEA compiles information from its Member States about the operational and institutional framework of their nuclear power programmes, among other aspects. Technical data additionally is maintained and analyzed through the IAEA’s databases covering energy, electricity, and nuclear power status and trends. These include the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and the Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB), which have long assisted Member States by serving as central sources of reliable information in the field.
This publication compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having operating nuclear plants and/or plants under construction as of 1 January 2001and in countries actively engaged in planning such a programme. It presents historical information on energy supply and demand; reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries for the same period; and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Topics such as reactor safety, the nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail. Statistical data about nuclear plant operations, population, energy and electricity use are largely drawn from the PRIS and EEDB sources as of yearend 2000 and from the national contributions. However, the 2000 EEDB data are taken from the World Bank statistics as of 1999 and from national contributions.
The compilation’s main objectives are to consolidate information about the nuclear power infrastructures in participating countries, and to present factors related to the effective planning, decision-making, and implementation of nuclear power programmes that together lead to safe and economic operations. Altogether 30 IAEA Member States having operating nuclear power plants as of 1 January 2001 as well as Italy, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkey and Vietnam contributed information to the document’s major sections. Designated experts from these countries participated in a series of advisory and consultants meetings covering specific subject areas, as well as the structure, scope, and preparation of the publication. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. Each of the 35 profiles in this publication is self-standing and contains information officially provided by the respective national authorities. It is planned to update the publication biannually and to expand its scope of coverage.
To facilitate reviewing information/performing analyses by the reader, five annexes have been added to the profiles: Annex I provides an overview of the global development of advanced nuclear power plants covering all reactor lines, i.e. water-cooled reactors, gas-cooled reactors, and liquid metal cooled reactors. Annex II provides 4 summary tables for the year 2000 with PRIS and EEDB data. It contains the status of nuclear power reactors in Member States, individual reactors connected to the grid and under construction and the main EEDB data (population, economic, energy, electricity and energy related ratio data). Annex III is prepared in HTML format to facilitate easy and direct access to web sites of nuclear related organizations on the CD-ROM edition and is not reproduced for this hard copy edition. However, each country profile contains an Appendix “Directory of the main organizations, institutions and companies involved in nuclear power related activities”, with addresses, telephone and facsimile numbers and web sites. Annexes IV and V contain information from a few countries involved with nuclear power programme planning, i.e. Bangladesh and Indonesia. These countries have submitted relevant information in the framework of the IAEA activity on integrated approach of nuclear power programme planning. In addition, the Secretariat has added the EEDB data and the international agreements.
An aspect of vital concern related to the future perspectives of nuclear power is the impact of deregulation of electricity market and privatization of electric utilities.The electricity sector has changed rapidly and dramatically during the last decade, marked by the introduction of competition and privatization in the electricity generation sector of many countries, after many years of public service orientation, monopolies domain and regulated markets. Changing technology, public sector financial pressures, and increased competition in other economic sectors can be addressed as the causes of these changes that affect the management of all generators, whether in developed, developing countries, or economies in transition. The details of particular impacts will vary from country to country and the degree of change that is required will differ. However, the basic trend of market changes and the required adjustments by power companies has been remarkably consistent.
In this context nuclear generation must compete for market favour with other fuels and generating technologies: natural gas, coal, hydro and renewables. These are all variously placed with regard to cost and risk (risk here is commercial and financial risk), the two most critical commercial considerations. How these inter-fuel differences can be managed to advantage will affect how various generating technologies are equipped to compete.
How risk and costs are managed in competitive markets will govern which generating technologies will be retained or phased out, dispatched or not, and selected for future projects or not. The crux of the matter for nuclear power is that long term financing for capital- intensive investments requires rewards to investors that are commensurate with long term commercial risk. The key to a nuclear future is whether the nuclear industry can afford the required rewards, or can reduce investors’ commercial and financial risks to affordable levels.
In the past 20 years, new safety goals and requirements have generally been established for nuclear power plants, with little clear consideration of economic costs and benefits, or of alternative and perhaps more cost effective ways of achieving desired safety goals. This approach was encouraged by the fact that most nuclear plants operated in monopoly markets where costs were not necessarily a primary concern. But times and markets have changed, and regulatory approaches must also change, to permit a clear definition of when a plant is safe enough, and some degree of flexibility in achieving these goals. Of course, arguing for some consideration of economic consequences, for financial analysis of proposed safety requirements, and for background analysis of costs and benefits in the safety field does not in any way constitute a judgment about what is appropriate in terms of safety.
There is also a need for the application of financial analysis and liability management for decommissioning and waste disposal, particularly in the face of increasingly stringent regulatory and political requirements. Economic common sense, efficient cost management, a degree of flexibility in meeting standards and an appreciation of the costs of uncertainty and of political and regulatory change must all be cultivated.
Nuclear energy - worldwide - is able and ready to compete with other energy sources in an open, deregulated electricity market. Existing nuclear power plants are extremely well positioned to compete in deregulated markets, on the basis of their largely amortized capital costs and relatively low variable costs. Nuclear power offers considerable environmental advantages compared to alternative mainstream energy sources, and is the only energy source that has already 'internalized' the vast majority of its 'external' costs - those costs, such as environmental impact costs, that are not directly passed on to the consumer. The biggest future challenge for the nuclear industry will be to convince investors of the case for nuclear new-build in a fully deregulated market. Nuclear plants - like hydro-electric plants - have relatively high capital costs, and investors therefore need to be persuaded of the advantages of projects with relatively long pay-back periods. Growing awareness of nuclear's environmental benefits, combined with the need to ensure long-term security of supply, could play a key role here in years to come.
The following structure was developed by participating national experts in 1995 and has been used by the national contributors as a guidance to complete their country nuclear power profile. References, on where to find more detailed information, should be mentioned when necessary. Examples are web sites in the country, source of information, etc. All tables and charts should contain the source of information.
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. General Overview
· Geographic situation, climate, etc. (brief description covering only information which is relevant in connection with energy/nuclear power)1.
· Population (total, density, growth rate)2.
1.2. Economic Indicators 2
· Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (total, per capita, per sector, growth rate).
1.3. Energy Situation 2
· Primary energy resources and reserves (fossil fuels, renewable sources, uranium). For energy units, please refer to the Appendix at the end of this outline.
· · Primary energy consumption (energy supply/demand balance last year and time series, energy consumption per capita and per sector, import/export balance).
1.4. Energy Policy 1
Brief description of current energy policy in terms of independence of the sector, use of domestic resources, market driven, influence of climate change, impact of Kyoto in the energy policy, etc. Discussion on the country energy resources and its impact in the energy policy.
2. ELECTRICITY SECTOR
2.1. Structure of the Electricity Sector 1
Description of the overall structure of electricity sector (Utilities, Independent Producers, Transmission and Distribution), indicating whether centralized or decentralized, private or public owned.
2.2. Decision Making Process 1
General description of the decision making process in the electricity sector, including planning the electricity system expansion.
2.3.Main Indicators 2
· Total electricity production and consumption and per capita consumption.
· Installed generation capacity, production, load factor by source (fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro, other renewable sources).
· Share of electricity in total energy consumption.
2.4. Impact of Open Electricity Market in the Nuclear Sector 1
General description of open market issues and its influence in the nuclear sector reorganization. Mention de-regulation, competition, privatization mergers and acquisitions affected or may affect the electricity and nuclear sector.
3. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
3.1. Historical Development 1
Brief overview on the main decisions and events related to the implementation and development of the nuclear programme.
· Nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, under construction, closed down.
· Performance of NPPs.
· Nuclear electricity generation, share in total electricity generation.
· Nuclear power development projections and plans.
· Include country’s map with location of nuclear power plant site.
3.3. Current Policy Issues 1
Main issues related to present nuclear power policy, e.g., moratorium, public acceptance, open market, privatization, safety and waste management issues, role of the government in the nuclear R& D, human resources development economic and financing issues, and impact of nuclear power in avoiding CO2 emissions, etc.
3.4. Organizational Chart(s) 1
The chart(s) might cover institutional relationships, e.g., licensing authorization, financial relationships, i.e., share holding, and technical/operational relationship, i.e., supply of equipment, materials or services.
4. NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY 1
Main organizations, institutes and companies involved in nuclear power related activities; the boundaries of 'nuclear power activities' might be adapted to the national situation according to the judgment of the drafter; whenever possible, organizational charts should be provided, a short text describing the various entities is desirable but not essential. Each country should indicate the criteria to choose the main organizations presented in this section. The activities performed by the organizations and institutions should also be mentioned here.
4.1. Supply of NPPs
Including architect engineer, NSS and main component suppliers.
4.2. Operation of NPPs
Indicating owners/operators if relevant, operation and maintenance service suppliers and operator training.
4.3. Fuel Cycle, Spent Fuel and Waste Management Service Supply
Covering all activities from uranium mining to spent fuel management and waste disposal.
4.4. Research and Development Activities
Institutes research centres, etc., independent from the companies listed above, eg., Atomic Energy commissions, National Laboratories. Mention also advanced reactor technologies activities in the country.
4.5. International Co-operation in the Field of Nuclear Power Development and Implementation
Brief description of research and development activities carried out jointly with other countries and/or within the framework of international projects, technical and industrial co-operation, transfer of know-how and technology.
5. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK 1
5.1. Safety Authority and the Licensing Process
Brief description of the role and responsibilities of the safety authority and the overall licensing process for nuclear facilities.
5.2. Main National Laws and Regulations
List of the essential legal texts regulating nuclear power in the country, with reference to the original publications; including a brief summary of the mechanisms in place for financing decommissioning and waste disposal.
5.3. International, Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements
List of international conventions, bilateral agreements, etc. signed/ratified by the country in the field of nuclear power.
Bibliography (suggested reading for more detailed information).
Directory of the main organizations, institutions and companies involved in nuclear power related activities
mentioned in Chapter IV (name, address, i.e. telephone,
telefax, e-mail, web site, main activities, production
of Global Development of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants
PREFIXES AND CONVERSION FACTORS
TABLE 1. PREFIXES
TABLE 2. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR ENERGY
TABLE 3. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR MASS
TABLE 4. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR VOLUME
Disclaimer: The views expressed in the documents available from this web server do not necessarily reflect those of the IAEA, the governments of the nominating Member States or the nominating organizations. Throughout the text names of Member States are retained as they were when the text was compiled. The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the IAEA.