1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1 Country overview
1.1.1 Governmental System
Democracy (Constitutional Monarchy). Thailand is a constitutional monarchy with the King as the ruling monarch. King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the ninth king of the House of Chakri, has reigned for more than sixty-three years, making him the longest reigning Thai monarch and the longest reigning current monarch in the world. The King is recognized as the Head of State, the Head of the Armed Forces, the Upholder of the Buddhist religion, and Defender of the Faith. Thailand is the only country in Southeast Asia that has never been colonized by a European power.
1.1.2 Geography and Climate
Geographically, Thailand is situated at Southeast Asia with bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand and the southeast of Myanmar. The geographic coordinate is 15 00 N and 100 00 E. The total area is 514,000 km2 including the land 511,770 km2 and water 2,230 km2. It is bordered by Myanmar 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km. The climate is tropical. The rainy season is during middle May to September and the winter season is dry and cool during November to middle March). The southern part of Thailand is always hot and humid.
Figure 1. Geographical Location of Thailand
Source: UN Statistics Division
Thailand terrain is generally composed of central plain with Khorat Plateau in the east and mountains elsewhere. The lowest elevation is Gulf of Thailand 0 m and the highest elevation is Doi Inthanon 2,576 m. The natural resources include tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite. Agricultural lands and irrigation land is 49,860 km2 which covers 27.54% with the permanent crops 6.93%.
The population of Thailand is 64,631,595, estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.
TABLE 1. POPULATION INFORMATION
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|Year||1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2007||2000 to 2007|
|Population density (inhabitants/km²)||69.32||91.54||109.75||120.62||121.67||129.24||0.89%|
|Urban Population as % of total||16.36||17.63||17.66||NA|
|Area (1000 km²)||514||514||514||514||514||514||-|
1.1.4 Economic Data
TABLE 2. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2007||2000 to 2007|
|GDP (millions of current US$)||4,337||19,376||63,685||143,982||207,455||248,415||9.07|
|GDP (millions of constant 2000 US$)||3,977||17,770||58,571||132,048||190,260||227,825||9.07|
|GDP per capita (PPP* US$/capita)||NA|
|GDP per capita (current US$/capita)||122||413||1,134||2,327||3,324||3,747||7.62|
* PPP: Purchasing Power Parity
1.2 Energy Information
1.2.1 Estimated available energy
TABLE 3. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Estimated available energy sources|
|Total amount in specific units*||6.439||19.556||12.209||NA||7.950||2.065|
|Total amount in Exajoule (EJ)||0.059||0.306||NA|
* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons; Hydro, Renewable: GW
Source: EPPO, EGAT
1.2.2 Energy Statistics
TABLE 4. ENERGY STATISTICS
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2008||2000 to 2008|
|- Solids***||0.26||0.35||0.49||0.89||0.63||0.83||- 6.74|
|- Solids***||0.26||0.35||0.48||0.75||0.45||0.34||- 54.67|
|Net import (Import - Export)|
|- Total||0.21||0.48||0.76||1.39||2.10||0.67||- 51.80|
** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import – Export) of secondary energy.
*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite
Source: EPPO, EGAT, IAEA-EEDB
1.2.3. Energy Policy
Develop energy source in the country for greater self-reliance in order to increase energy stability and to meet sufficient demand by expediting the exploration and development of energy sources at both domestic and international levels through negotiation with neighbouring countries at the government level for joint development; develop energy mix to reduce sourcing risk, price volatility, and reduce production cost; encourage electricity production from renewable energy, particularly from small or very small scale electricity generating projects, as well as study the appropriateness of alternative energy for electricity generation.
Set alternative energy usage as national agenda by encouraging the production and usage of alternative energy, particularly bio-fuel and bio-mass such as gasohol (E10, E20 and E85), bio-diesel, solid waste to enhance energy security, reduce pollution, and for the benefit of the farmers by encouraging the production and usage of renewable energy and at community level under appropriate incentive; encourage the usage of natural gas in the transportation sector by expanding natural gas distribution system nationwide; rigorously and continuously promote research and development of all forms of renewable energy.
Supervise and maintain energy price at appropriate, stable and affordable level by setting appropriate fuel price structure which supports the development of energy crops that reflect true production cost; manage through market mechanism and oil funds to promote effective use of energy and encourage investment competition in energy business to improve service and safety quality.
Encourage energy conservation in household sector, industrial sector, service sector and transportation sector through energy-conscience building campaign and promote effective energy usage with incentives to attract private sector in opting for energy conserving appliances; set incentive measures to reduce electricity usage during peak period; research, develop and set standard for electrical appliances and energy conserving building; encourage the development of mass public transportation and railway system to promote effective energy usage which will reduce the country’s investment in obtaining energy.
Encourage energy exploration and usage which attach importance to the environment through public participation by setting various standards such as Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) to reduce social and environmental impact and reduce greenhouse gas emission.
1.3 The Electricity System
1.3.1 Electricity policy and decision making process
The followings are related matters on the electricity generation and development as part of the energy policy in the Policy Statement of the Government:
? Develop energy source in the country for greater self-reliance in order to increase energy stability and to meet sufficient demand by expediting the exploration and development of energy sources at both domestic and international levels through negotiation with neighboring countries at the government level for joint development; develop energy mix to reduce sourcing risk, price volatility, and reduce production cost; encourage electricity production from renewable energy, particularly from small or very small scale electricity generating projects, as well as study the appropriateness of alternative energy for electricity generation.
? Set alternative energy usage as national agenda by rigorously and continuously promote research and development of all forms of renewable energy.
? Encourage energy conservation in household sector, industrial sector, service sector and transportation sector through energy conscience building campaign and promote effective energy usage with incentives to attract private sector in opting for energy conserving appliances; set incentive measures to reduce electricity usage during peak period; research, develop and set standard for electrical appliances and energy conserving building which will reduce the country’s investment in obtaining energy.
? Encourage energy exploration and usage which attach importance to the environment through public participation by setting various standards such as Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) to reduce social and environmental impact and reduce greenhouse gas emission.
Electricity Authority of Thailand (EGAT) had formulated a national power development plan for the period of 2007 – 2021, known as PDP 2007, within the framework of the Ministry of Energy’s policies. The PDP 2007 plan and its revisions, which were approved by the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) and the Cabinet, have been used as a guideline for planning the construction of EGAT’s new power plants, power purchase from independent power producers (IPPs), small power producers (SPPs) and neighbouring countries, as well as transmission system development to accommodate those new power capacities. According to the current revision of PDP2007, the net additional capacity during 2008–2021 is 22,652.5 MW (this amount includes the additional capacity from new power plant projects as well as 81.7 MW of RPS and some power purchased from SPPs and VSPPs, subtracting the capacity of retired power plant from the system). When adding the net additional into the current installed capacity as of December 2008, the total installed capacity becomes 51,792 MW in 2021.
1.3.2 Structure of electric power sector
Thailand has adopted the enhanced single buyer model (ESB) in which EGAT is the sole buyer of electricity as shown in Figure 2. In the generation system, EGAT is in charge of a dominant electricity supply which presently owns approximately 49% (as of December 2008) of total power plants capacity in the country and the rests are owned by private power companies in three categories; Independent Power Producers (IPPs), Small Power Producers (SPPs), Very Small Power Producers (VSPPs). In addition to the electricity generation and acquisition, EGAT is also responsible for the country’s transmission system as well as national and regional control centers. There are two distributing utilities in the Thai electricity system, namely the Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) and the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). The MEA is responsible for the distribution, sales and provision of electric energy services in Bangkok Metropolis, Nonthaburi and Samut Prakran provinces and the PEA serves the rest of the area in the country.
Figure 2. Enhanced Single Buyer Model
1.3.3 Main indicators
TABLE 5. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2008||2000 to 2008|
|Capacity of electrical plants (Gwe)|
|- other renewable||0.03||0.04||0.54||0.54||38.45|
|Electricity production (TW.h)|
|- other renewable||0.02||0.02||1.00||1.00||63.07|
|- Total (1)||4,095||14,754||43,190||96,781||134,827||148,266||5.48|
|Total Electricity consumption (GW.h)||4.358||15.237||44.933||87,747||120,637||134,707||53.52|
Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
Source: EGAT, EPPO, IAEA-EEDB
TABLE 6. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||13.1||18.9||30.1||53.3||69.9||74.1|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kW.h/capita)||120.4||329.1||827.5||1,418||1,933||2,125|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||15.6||39.7||50.9||55.6||58.2||60.1|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)|
|Ratio of external dependency (%) (1)||44.5||55.7||46.5||42.9||64||58|
(1) Net import / Total energy consumption.
* Latest available data
Source: IAEA-EEDB, EPPO
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1 Historical development and current organizational structure
According to the Power Development Plan (PDP) 2007 Rev.2, nuclear power plants producing 2,000 MW are to be included to the power system during 2020 – 2021. NEPC appointed the Nuclear Power Infrastructure Preparation Committee (NPIPC) to prepare nuclear power infrastructure establishment plans (NPIEP) and a nuclear utility plan. With advice and guidance from IAEA experts, the plan was established considering all aspects related to the introduction and implementation on nuclear power program.
Implementation of the first nuclear power requires that Thailand establishes the basic infrastructure as a minimum to deal with all aspects in the project. In the pre-project reactivity phase, the basic infrastructure will be examined to the extent needed in the implementation stage, which includes the preparation of setting up the regulatory body and regulatory framework on nuclear power, the development program on industrial and commercial infrastructure, technology and transfer, human resources, and safety and environmental protection.
According to the present plan, the cabinet will decide in 2011 about the construction of nuclear power based on the results of feasibility study and information on infrastructure readiness, utility readiness, and public acceptance. After the final decision to “GO NUCLEAR”, three years would be needed for the program implementation to prepare all necessary issues and plan a clear roadmap for nuclear power-plant construction. Following the plan, the first nuclear power plant is expected to come online in Thailand in 2020.
2.1.2 Current organizational chart(s)
In January 2008, the Nuclear Power Program Development Office (NPPDO) was established under the Ministry of Energy to coordinate the NPIEP implementation. The organization structure of NPPDO is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Structure of NPPDO
2.2 Nuclear power plants: Overview
2.3 Future development of Nuclear Power
2.3.1 Nuclear power development strategy
The power development program presented in the PDP 2004 was based on the load forecast projected by the Thailand Load Forecast Sub-committee (TLFS) in January 2004. Until April 2006, the TLFS decided to make an update of the load forecast due to the visible deviation of the 2004 load forecast from the actual power demand. Accordingly, EGAT revised the PDP under the trend of the April 2006 demand projection.
Beside, the new government policy required the investments on mega projects under public hearing. Therefore, the load forecast was reassessed in March 2007 to be consistent with the current situation. The TLFS used the GDP which was newly prepared by the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). The GDP was projected by NESDB to capture the base, low and high scenarios.
Based on the 3 scenarios of the GDP, PDP 2007 was formulated. For each case of the demand projection, sensitivity study was considered in the three directions, i.e., 1) free optimization with regards to fuel utilization, 2) coal-fired units limited to 4 units, and 3) LNG import not to exceed 10 million tons annually.
The PDP 2007 was aimed to reflect the most up-to-date situation on the country’s economy, to incorporate the government policy on the power sector as well as to diversify the energy resources for power generation so as to produce the least cost option for the power system of Thailand. Under the new regulation, the PDP 2007 was subject to a number of public hearings organized by the Ministry of Energy at various places and times. The final hearing was held at the Royal Thai Army Club in Bangkok by the Energy Policy Planning Office (EPPO) on April 3, 2007. As a result of public hearings, PDP 2007 satisfied the majority of the stakeholders.
The final draft of the PDP 2007 was submitted to the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) by the Ministry of Energy on April 9, 2007 for approval. The NEPC approved the drafted PDP 2007 with the following remarks:
– NEPC adopted in principle the PDP 2007 based on the base load forecast scenario.
– Furthermore, NEPC adopted the case of coal-fired generation of 4 units as the recommended plan.
– The case of LNG import of 10 million tons per year was adopted as an alternative plan.
The final report consisting of 2 cases of PDP 2007 (recommended plan and alternative plan) as mentioned above was later submitted to the NEPC on June 4, 2007 and was accordingly approved. The PDP 2007 was officially endorsed by the cabinet on June 19, 2007.
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/project name||Type||Capacity (MW)||Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|To be decided||LWR||1,000||2015||2020|
|To be decided||LWR||1,000||2017||2021|
2.3.2 Project management
NPPDO and EGAT are the main organizations responsible for the development of infrastructure and construction of the nuclear power plants
2.3.3 Project funding
2.3.4 Electric grid development
At present the electrical grid is sufficient for nuclear power plants to be constructed and operated in 2020-2021 with capacity of 2,000 MW.
2.3.5 Site Selection
EGAT has started site survey. A consultant company has been engaged for site selection
2.4 Organizations involved in construction of NPPs
EGAT will undertake construction of nuclear power plants. It will be turn-key project based on open bidding.
2.5 Organizations involved in operation of NPPs
2.6 Organizations involved in decommissioning
EGAT, the utility, will be the main organization to conduct the decommissioning of the NPPs. Moreover, OAP as the regulatory body will approve the decommissioning plan and will follow up, regulate and inspect the activities carried out by the EGAT.
2.7 Fuel cycle including waste management
Thailand does not have significant uranium deposits and the strategy about fuel cycle has not yet been decided.
2.8 Research and development
2.8.1 R&D organizations
TINT and universities teaching nuclear science, technology and engineering or physics etc will conduct the R&D related to nuclear power plants in the near future.
2.8.2 Development of advanced nuclear technologies
2.8.3 International co-operation and initiatives
Followings are lists of national, regional, interregional activities carried out under the IAEA Technical Cooperation that are effective and active in term of project implementation:
Sustainable Energy and Nuclear Power Planning (THA0009)
Human Resource Development and Nuclear Technology Support (THA0010)
Upgrading/Establishing the Infrastructure Required for the Introduction of Nuclear Power (THA4015)
Human Capacity Development for Technology Dissemination (RAS0050)
Country and Regional Programme Review (RAS0051)
Enhancing Human and Nuclear Technology Capacities (RAS0059)
Strengthening Infrastructure for Radioactive Waste Management (RAS3009)
Strengthening Nuclear Power Infrastructure and Planning (RAS4029)
Legislation for Safe and Peaceful Nuclear Applications (RAS9023)
Development of an Asian Nuclear Safety Network (RAS9028)
Education and Training in Support of Radiation Protection Infrastructure (RAS9050)
Awareness Raising and Training for Nuclear Security (RAS9051)
Strengthening Occupational Radiation Protection (RAS9053)
Strengthening National Regulatory Infrastructures (RAS9054)
Strengthening Capabilities for Protection of the Public and the Environment from Radiation Practices (RAS9056)
Strengthening National and Regional Capabilities for Response to Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (RAS9057)
Supporting Education and Training in Radiation Protection (RAS9058)
2.9 Human resources development
Various organizations involved and concerned in the nuclear power project (EGAT, OAP, TINT, universities, etc.) are recruiting manpower and upgrading their staff competencies through local and overseas training courses.
2.10 Stakeholder Communication
Public Awareness and Understanding is mainly conducted by OAP, TINT, universities for general public, media, teachers, students, etc. However, EGAT set up Public Acceptance plan and strategies and has implemented the activities related to Public Acceptance since 2008.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1 Regulatory framework
3.1.1 Regulatory authority(s)
The 1961 Act has first established a Commission called Thai Atomic Energy Commission for Peace (Thai A.E.C.). The A.E.C. is the regulatory authority of Thailand issuing licences and regulating facilities and activities concerning radiation and nuclear issues. The OAP acts as the secretariat of the OAP and the Secretary-General of OAP is the secretary of the Commission.
3.1.2 Licensing Process
Licensing process of nuclear installations is not specified in the main law, the 1961 Act. However, it was considered that the licensing process shall include all stages of the NPPs lifecycle including site evaluation, design, construction, commissioning, operation, decommissioning and release from regulatory control.
During the licensing process, the regulatory body shall conduct regulatory reviews, assessments, and inspections to be confident that the applicant or licensee is in compliance with licensing and design bases including safety analyses, regulations, safety criteria.
3.1.3 Main national laws and regulations in nuclear power
– Atomic Energy for Peace Act (1961);
– Ministerial Regulations (2007) prescribing the conditions, procedures for licence application and implementation in connection with special nuclear materials, source materials, by-products or atomic energy;
– Ordinance, Guidance and Procedures issued by OAP
1. WIKIPEDIA, the free encyclopedia on the internet “Thailand”, 2009
2. Office of the Atoms for Peace (OAP), “Progress Report 2007”
3. Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP), “Atomic Energy Acts and Ministerial Regulation”, 2007
4. KEINMEESUKE Sirichai, Atomic Energy Act and Ministerial Regulations in Thailand, 2007
5. KEINMEESUKE Sirichai, “Present Status and Future Prospect of Nuclear Power Development in Thailand”, The 42th JAIF Annual Conference, April 2009, Yokohama, Japan
6. Ministry of Energy, “Power Development Plan 2007 (PDP 2007)” approved by the cabinet, 2007
7. Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO),Thailand, EPPO Website, 2009
8. OECD Economic Report
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Thailand is party to and/or has signed:
– Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT) (signed and ratified in 1972)
– Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (signed and ratified in 1974)
– The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (signed in 1987 and ratified in 1989)
– The Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (signed in 1987 and ratified in 1989)
– The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty
– The South East Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone Treaty (signed and ratified in 1995)
– The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (signed in 2005)
To formalize nuclear safety measures, Thailand would join or sign the following conventions in the near future;
– Convention of Nuclear Safety
– Convention of Physical Protection
– The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management
– The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
– Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention
– Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Convention of 31st January 1963 Supplementary to the Paris Convention
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
– Ministry of Energy www.moe.go.th
– Ministry of Science and Technology www.most.go.th
– Ministry of Foreign Affairs www.mofa.go.th
– NPPDO www.moe.go.th
– EGAT www.egat.or.th
– OAP www.oaep.go.th
– Chulalongkorn university www.chula.ac.th
– TINT www.tint.or.th
Name of report coordinator: Institution: Contacts
Mr. Sirichai KEINMEESUKE
Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP)
Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak
Bangkok 10900, Thailand
(*) The statistical tables in this profile have been updated with data as of the July 2011 from IAEA databases, namely the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB), and the World Bank's World Development Indicators (WDI)